|Project Name||Phase transition and pollution of ecosystem caused by the rapid expansion of cultivation for new energy plants in ｔropical Asia
|Project Leader||SATO, Tadashi
○Research Subject and Objectives
Theobjective of this project is to propose a new sustainable farming system, basedon investigating the wisdom inherited in traditional farming systems, which cansecure a reliable yield irrespective of a low environmental load. We shallinvestigate how biodiversity and sociocultural circumstances have enabledsustainable agriculture in traditional farming. In addition, we would like topropose a “Sustainability of food production and lifestyle” as a socioculturalbasis supporting sustainable traditional farming systems.
Modernfarming system in tropical Asia after the “GreenRevolution”, in exchange for enhanced productivity obtained by heavy use ofchemical fertilizers and agrichemicals, has caused serious global environmentalproblems such as pollution in lakes and rivers. Introduction of new cultivarsfor industrial materials such as cassava, oil perm, and gum tree has creatednew jobs and new foundations for rural economies. However, their introductionhas promoted large-scale monocultures, which have caused forest destruction andwhich have greatly decreased biodiversity through reclamation. Moreover, thereis concern that the expansion of these cultivated areas deprives people anddomestic animals of food crops. Consequently, introduction of modern cultivarsand new crops has promoted global environmental problems in rural villages oftropical Asia.
Globalenvironmental problems initiated by modernization of agriculture cannot beresolved merely by the reduced use of chemical fertilizers and agrichemicals.An important difficulty is how people shall farm and eat properly in theircommunities. Fortunately, regions where people practice traditional farmingremain in tropical Asia. They might provideclues to resolution of global environmental issues. Therefore, this project topropose a sustainable modern farming system, with consultation of the wisdom oftraditional farming systems, must be an urgent one for RIHN.
Theresearch regions are mountain-ringed areas where traditional farming isunderway and plain areas where modern farming has been introduced in Laos and Indonesia. We plan to investigatethe biodiversity and genetic diversity of crops and the sociocultural systemsrelated to food production and lifestyle in these two regions. Aspects offarming systems such as irrigation, weeding, fertilization, and yield criteriawill be researched through a literature survey and interviews of farm workers.Biodiversity and genetic diversity of crops, weeds, and insects will beinvestigated through field observations. Furthermore, molecular analyses can beused to characterize microbial community structure, diversity, and activity infarms. Regarding formalities and traditions related to food production and lifestyle,sociocultural systems will be investigated through literature surveys andinterviews of farm workers. Results in each region, collected through theinvestigations described above, will reveal differences between traditionalfarming regions and modern farming regions. We will verify organic links amongfarming systems, diversity, and the sociocultural base.
Theproject team consists of professional researchers of the following fields:agronomy, genetic diversity and biodiversity, pathology, microbial ecology,religions and cultures, and ethnic communities.
○Progress and Results in 2009
The study regions of traditional farmingare rain-fed paddy fields in mountain areas located in northern territories of Laosand in southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. A preliminary studyrevealed that the average rice yield in mountainous areas of the northern territory of Laosis about one-half of that in Japan.The variety of rice cultivars in those traditional farming regions was found tobe much wider than that in modern farming regions. Farmers in traditionalfarming regions apparently rotate cultivars of rice with 2–3 year frequency.They share the practice of exchanging cultivars of rice among families,settlements, and villages. Although weeds are removed using chemical herbicidesin modern farming, farmers in the traditional farming used asteranceae andleguminous plants as fertilizer by furrowing. These regions conserve richbiodiversity, genetic diversity, traditional practices, and common practices offarming.
Studyregions of modern farming are irrigated paddy fields in the middle plains of Laos and in southern Sulawesi, Indonesia.A preliminary investigation of irrigated paddy fields in Vientiane revealed that modern cultivars ofrice are affected by rice blast. Furthermore, we confirmed that chemicalfertilizers and agricultural chemicals were used at gum tree plantations andcornfields in northern Laos,and at oil perm and cacao plantations in southern Sulawesi of Indonesia.
Therefore,we reconfirmed the wisdom of traditional farming systems, which securedreliable harvests irrespective of their low environmental loads. Thisreconfirmation suggests that organic links between farming systems,biodiversity and genetic diversity in fields, and sociocultural systems areinherited in communities conserving traditional agriculture.
Theproject team comprises professional researchers from fields of natural andsocial sciences. We selected Laosand southern Sulawesi, Indonesia as study regions of bothtraditional and modern farming. A preliminary investigation obtained theinteresting results described above. Based on these achievements, we shallfocus on our objectives. Agreements on cooperative research have been concludedbetween RIHN, National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute, Laos,and Hasanuden University of Indonesia. These agreements enable us toinvestigate plants that are controlled by international law. We haveestablished a framework for cooperative research with these two institutionsthrough successful workshops, conferences, and meetings. Arrangements ofcooperative research programs on cultivation methods to control diseases andpests using genetic diversity are being made with researchers at Yunnan Agricultural University, China. Additionally, we haveestablished methods to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms living togetherin rhizosphere and plant bodies applying molecular biology. Therefore, we areconvinced that all the arrangements for this project have been prepared topromote the full research project in RIHN.
( Graduate School of Life Science, Tohoku University,Associate Professor,Generalization of project )
( RIHN,Professor,Biological study )
( Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences,Project Leader,Biological study )
( Graduate School of Arts and Letters, Tohoku University,Associate Professor,Sociocultural study )
( Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University,Professor,Agricultural study )
( Kagoshima Prefectural Museum of Culture Reimeikan,Chief Curator,Sociocultural study )
( aculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University,Associate Professor,Agricultural study )
( Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University,Associate Professor,Biological study )
( RIHN,Professor,Biological study )
( Faculty of Agriculture Hasanuddin University, Indonesia,Associate Professor,Research cooperation )
( Rice and Cash Crop Research Center, LaoPDR,Deputy Director,Research cooperation )
Inour members meeting held July 2009, we discussed topics expected to produceclear distinction among the roles of members: our background, progress of ourresearch, framework and mode of this research. Then, in our members meetingheld October 2009, we confirmed on the framework, methods, objective andachievements of this research.
Whatwe have learned through the lectures, workshops and meetings at NationalAgriculture and Forestry Research Institute, Laos, Hasanuden University ofIndonesia and Yunnan Agricultural University, China has convinced us thatpeople strongly wish to halt or reduce use of chemical fertilizers andagrochemicals to at least partially alleviate environmental issues. At aninternational symposium on wild rice, we reported on environmentalmicroorganisms gaining the interest of participants. This demonstrates theimportance, urgency, and high rating of this project.
Wehave established a new group structure analysis of molecular biology formicroorganism parasitism in plants. The existence of genetic diversity ininoculation of environmental microorganism has been estimated from ourresearch. Regarding traditional farming in Asia,we published a monograph “Sustainability of Asian Traditional Farming systems.”Furthermore, we discovered a marker to identify cultivated rice and wild riceby analysis of base sequence of chloroplast DNA of rice genus. Additionally, wedeveloped a simple method of identifying genome of a rice genus throughanalyses of variable regions in the PolA1gene.
Thetargets of a feasibility study, reinforcement of the research framework,selection of local regions to be investigated, well-defined collaborationsystem, and establishing new methods of research have all been attained. Wediscussed and determined our planned final achievements at a meeting held inOctober 2009. We contemplated inviting specialists in nutrition, tastesensations, and food culture as members of this project. However, we have notfinished those arrangements as of the time of this submission. Therefore, thismatter will be settled in a supporting research framework during preparationsfor the feasibility study.
Althoughwe have received funding for analysis of biodiversity and for surveys of geneticdiversity, we have not received funding for research such as that describedabove concept.
・Sato T 2010 Sustainability of traditional agriculture in Asia. Y-I Sato (ed.) Farming History in Eurasia 1. . Rinsen Books, Kyoto.
・Daisuke Fujita, Leodegario A. Ebron, Nobuya Kobayashi, Yoshimichi Fukuta 2009 DNA markers analysis of blast resistance gene Pib and Pia in IRRI-Bred Rice varieties comparing with gene estimation by a differential system.. Advance in genetics and Control of Rice Blast Disease. Springer, pp.315-324.
・Yoshimichi Fukuta, Donghe Xu, Mary Jeanie Yanoria, Aris Hairmansis, Nagao Hayashi, Nobuya Kobayashi 2009 Genetic characterization of universal differential variety sets developed under the IRRI-Japan Collaborative research Project.. Advance in genetics and Control of Rice Blast Disease. Springer, pp.325-335.
・Sachiko Namai Kazunobu Toriyama, Yoshimichi Fukuta 2009 Genetic variation in dry matter production and physiological nitrogen use effeciency in rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties.. Breeding Science 59 :269-276.
・Takahashi, H., B. Rai, K. Kato and I. Nakamura 2009 Divergent evolution of wild and cultivated subspecies of Triticum timopheevii as revealed by the study of PolA1 gene.. Genet. Res. Crop Evol. 57 :101-109.
・Nakamura, I., B.Rai, H. Takahashi, K. Kato, Y-I. Sato 2009 Aegilops section Sitopsis species contains the introgressive PolA1 gene with a closer relationship to that of Hordeum than Triticum-Aegilops species. . Breed. Sci. 59 :602-610.
・Yamauchi, T., Y. Jozuka-Hisamori, S. Fukuda-Tanaka, R. Terada, I. Nakamura and S. Iida. 2009 Homologous recombination-mediated knock-in targeting of the MET1a gene for a maintenance DNA methyltransferase reproducibly reveals dosage-dependent spatiotemporal gene expression in rice. . Plant J. 60 :386-396.
・Thirukkumaran, G., R.S. Khan, D.P. Chin, I. Nakamura, M. Mii. 2009 Isopentenyl transferase gene expression offers the positive sellection of marker-free transgenic plant of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana,. Plant Cell. Tiss. Organ Cult. 97 :237-242.
・Tsuchiya, T., N. Kameya, I. Nakamura 2009 Straight Walk: A modified method of ligation-mediated genome walking for plant species with large genomes.. Anal. Biochem. 288 :158-160.
・Akasaka，M., J. Ushiki, H. Iwata, R. Ishikawa and T. Ishii 2009 Genetic relationships and diversity of weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) and cultivated rice varieties in Okayama Prefecture, Japan.. Breeding Science 59 :401-409.
・Imai, K., M. MURAI, Ｙ. Hao , Y. CHIBA, A. CHIBA and R. ISHIKAWA 2009 Mapping of rice Ur1 (Undulated rachis-1) gene with effect on increasing spikelet number per panicle and sink size, and development of selection markers for the breeding by the use of Ur1 . Hereditas 146 :1-9.
・Kawasaki, A.,K. Imai, J. Ushiki, T. Ishii, and R. Ishikawa 2009 Molecular constitution of weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) found in Okayama prefecture, Japan.. Breeding Science 59 :229-236.
・Takehisa H., Yasuda M., Fukuta Y., Kobayashi N., Hayashi N., Nakashita H., Abe T., Sato T. 2009 Genetic analysis for resistance gene in an Indica-type rice (Oryza sativa L.), Kasalath, using DNA markers.. Breeding Science 59 :253-260.
・Takahashi, H., Sato T., Sato Y-I., Nakamura I. 2009 Genome-type-specific variation of the 19th intron sequence within the RNA polymerase I largest subunit gene in the genus Oryza.. Plant Syst. Evol. 282 :21-29.
・Koide Y., Kobayashi N., Xu D., Fukuta Y. 2009 Resistance genes and selection DNA markers for blast disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.). . JARQ 43 :255-280.
・FUKUTA Yoshimichi 2010 Diversity of resources of blast resistant rice in the world. Agriculture and Horticulture 85 :20-26.
・Yoshimichi Fukuta, Donghe Xu, Mary Jeanie Yanoria, Aris Hairmansis, Nagao Hayashi, Nobuya Kobayashi. 2009 Genetic characterization of universal differential variety sets developed under the IRRI-Japan Collaborative research Project. Advance in genetics and Control of Rice Blast Disease. Springer, pp.325-3355.
・Daisuke Fujita, Leodegario A. Ebron, Nobuya Kobayashi, Yoshimichi Fukuta. 2009 DNA markers analysis of blast resistance gene Pib and Pia in IRRI-Bred Rice varieties comparing with gene estimation by a differential system.. Advance in genetics and Control of Rice Blast Disease,. Springer, pp.315-324.
・Takehisa H. Hayashi Y. Abe T. Sato T. 2009 Breeding of salinity tolerant rice by using heavy-ion beam mutation technology.. Radiation & Industries 121 :22-26. (in Japanese)
・Ishikawa R. Honda T. Hao Y. Tanaka K. Ichitani K. Nakamura I. Sato T. Sato Y-I. Genetic differentiation between Oceania and Asia rufipodon in Oryza genus. 117th Meeting of Japanese Society of Breeding, Mar 26,2010-Mar 27,2010, Kyoto. (in Japanese)
・Yoshimichi Fukuta, Nobuya Kobayashi, Tkahito Noda, Nagao Hayashi, Casiana M. Vera Cruz. Blast Research Network for Stable Rice Production. 6th International Rice Genetic Symposium, Nov 15,2009-Nov 19,2009, Manilla.
・Hao Y. Ishii T. Ishikawa R. Comparison of the cytoplasmic variety in AA genome species wild rice.. 116th Meeting of Japanese Society of Breeding, Sep 25,2009-Sep 26,2009, Sapporo. (in Japanese)
・Ishikawa R. Impression of an origin of indica varieties with Rc haplotypes.. 116th Meeting of Japanese Society of Breeding, Sep 25,2009-Sep 26,2009, Sapporo. (in Japanese)
・Honda T. Hao Y. Nakamura I. Sato T. Sato Y-I. Ishikawa R. Comparison of genetic diversity with core collection though Asia and Cambodia nationwide collection by using chloroplast genome. . 116th Meeting of Japanese Society of Breeding,, Sep 25,2009-Sep 26,2009, Sapporo. (in Japanese)
・Rinaldi Sjahril, Muh. Riadi, Muh. Danial Rahim, Hiroko Takahashi, Tadashi Sato, and Ikuo Nakamura Oryza officinalis accessions found in South Sulawesi of Indonesia. International Symposium on Wild Rice 2009, Nov 22,2009-Nov 24,2009, Bangkok.
・Hiroko Takahashi, Yo-ichiro Sato, and Ikuo Nakamura Evolutionary analysis of two plastid DNA sequences in Oryza AA genome species. International Symposium on Wild Rice 2009, Nov 22,2009-Nov 24,9992, Bangkok.
・So Makabe, Hiroko Takahashi, Masahiro Akimoto, Hathairat Urairong, Ryuji Ishikawa, Tadashi Sato, Yo-ichiro Sato, and Ikuo Nakamura BKK strain: natural triploid wild rice found in Bangkok. International Symposium on Wild Rice 2009, Nov 22,2009-Nov 24,2009, Bangkok.
・Hanzawa E., Nagai S., Sasaki K., Miyao A., Hirochika H., Obara M., Higashitani A., Maekawa M., Sato T. A soil surface rooting mutant is deficient in gravitropism of primary roots in rice.. 6th International Rice Genetics Symposium, Nov 15,2009-Nov 19,2009, Manilla.
・Kuriyama S., Sato T. Contribution of Na+ Excretion via hydathode on Salinity Tolerance in Rice. 6th International Rice Genetics Symposium, Nov 15,2009-Nov 19,2009, Manilla.
・Lee H-S, Sasaki K, Higashitani A, Sato T. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling mesocotyl elongation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). 6th International Rice Genetics Symposium, Nov 15,2009-Nov 19,2009, m.
・Hayashi Y. Takehisa H. Kazama Y. Oobe S. Tokairin H. Sato T. Abe T. Genetic Analysis Rice mutant with heavy-Ion beam technology. 116th Meeting of Japanese Society of Breeding, Sep 25,2009-Sep 26,2009, Sapporo. (in Japanese)
・Lee H-S, Sasaki K, Higashitani A, Sato T. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling mesocotyl elongation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). 116th Meeting of Japanese Society of Breeding, Sep 25,2009-Sep 26,2009, Kyoto.
【Invited Lecture / Honoronary Lecture / Panelist】
・Kimura Toshiaki Religion, social and agriculture change in Tropical Asia. NAFRI Workshop, Nov 26,2009, Vientiane.
・Ikuo Nakamura Practical classification of organisms based on molecular data. NAFRI Workshop, Nov 26,2009, Vientiane.
・Sato, T. Genetic pollution of farming ecosystem caused by the rapid expansion of cultivation for new energy crops in the Tropical Asia. NAFRI Workshop, Nov 26,2009, Vientiane.
・Ikuo Nakamura Nuclear copies of plastid DNA in japonica genome records dynamic speciation of Asian AA genome species. International Symposium on Wild Rice 2009, Nov 22,2009-Nov 24,2009, Bangkok.
・Sato T. The long journey on humans and wild rice. International Symposium on Wild Rice 2009, Nov 22,2009-Nov 24,2009, Bangkok.
・Ryuji Ishikawa Evaluation and Utilization of Core collection and “de novo” collection. International Symposium on Wild Rice 2009, Nov 22,2009-Nov 24,2009, Bangkok.
・Sato T. Mapping and characterization of quantitative trait loci related growth of rice in saline paddy field. Lecture of Yunnan Agriculture University, Sep 18,2009, Konmei China.