Full Research

StageFR
Project No.14200071
Project NameDesertification and Livelihood in Semi-Arid Afro-Eurasia
Abbreviated TitleDesertification in Afro-Eurasia
Project LeaderTANAKA Ueru
Research AxisProgram 3: Designing Lifeworlds of Sustainability and Wellbeing / Resources
URLhttp://www.kazehitotsuchi.com/
Key WordsAfro-Eurasia, Desertification, Poverty, Vulnerable people, Livelihood, Human-environment interrelations, Practical techniques for desertification control, Socio-ecological adaptability, Development assistance

 

○Research Subject and Objectives

Research objectives 

The objectives of this research are set as follows: 1) to deepen understanding of the cultural, social and ecological characteristics of targeted areas in Semi-Arid Afro-Eurasia as a premise to study on desertification; 2) to design and verify some practical techniques/approaches effective for desertification control,ecosystems conservation/restoration and improvement of livelihood in the context of rural development support, with paying special attention to vulnerable people and areas left behind in the trend of economic development and globalization; 3) to disseminate the knowledge, experiences and techniques/approaches for desertification control and rural development to local people, local government and aid-organizations.

 

Background 

Desertification is one of the globally concerned problems/issues with complex phenomena related to land degradation and poverty in sub-humid, semiarid and arid areas of Afro-Eurasia. In ratifying the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in 1994, the international community, including Japan,signed its commitment to solve the problems. More than twenty years has past,so far, there have been many efforts made by international organization, local government and NGO. The problems, however, still remain unsolved and become more serious year by year (UNDP, 2003; Easterly, 2006; Tollefson and Gilbert,2012).

Difficulties:Why desertification control have not been successfully achieved and even became worse? It may be explained from the complexity in its causes, social and ecological condition, and diverse livelihoods of local people closely linking with poverty (Mainguet, 1994). As defined in UNCCD (1994), the causes of desertification are both climatic factors and human activities (Geist, 2005;Zdruli et al., 2010). Apart from the climatic factors, such as short and uneven distribution of rainfall, excess and fluctuating rain, and wind (Geist, 2005;Boken et al. 2005), primary causes of desertification are the daily activities to support people’s livelihood and basic needs for survival, such as cropping,animal husbandry and gathering of fuel woods (Geist, 2005, O’Brien et al.,2010; Jana and Majumder, 2010). Difficulty of desertification control, it is to be carried out while maintaining the causes, i.e. daily livelihood activities.

Focus:Pillar actions of the implementation for desertification control in the documents of UNCCD (1994) are summarized into ‘policy making’, ‘financial support’, ‘scientific and technical knowledge’, ‘capacity building (for officials)’, ‘education and training (for local people)’ and ‘extension of technology’. Among them, the most critical action should be ‘scientific and technical knowledge’, since it is directly reflected to the contents of‘capacity building’, ‘education and training’ and ‘extension of technology’. Unfortunately, inadequate understanding and confusion about the concept of desertification (Kadomura et al., 1993) and techniques for desertification control is still remained among researchers. The framework of actions and implementation measures were already established at international and government level. Those at regions and community level are, however, still weak, especially in semi-arid Africa. The project, therefore, puts major focus on the research to create realistic and practical ‘scientific and technical knowledge’ leading the actions at community level.

 

Perception and contribution to global environmental problems

Desertification is one of the problems at global concern and, at the same time, the phenomena of desertification are the combinations of accumulated causes and consequences at local and human-scale under complex socio-ecological environments. This means that solutions should be designed by the combination of the actions at local and human-scale.

○Progress and Results in 2019

【General aspects of the project activities】

Project sites

Semi-Arid Afro-Eurasia contains front-lines of desertification in the world (Middletonand Thomas, 1997). This project set the study areas in the Sahel of West Africa(mainly Burkina Faso, Niger and Senegal), Southern Africa (Namibia and Zambia),East Africa (Tanzania), Northeast Africa (Sudan), North Africa (Algeria), South Asia (India) and East Asia (Mongolia and China) where socio-ecological conditions and land resources are deteriorated due to demographic pressure and inappropriate use.

 

Specific activities at each area

1. West Africa and Northeast Africa(so-called 'Sahel zone' of Africa)

  1-a. Extension of some verified techniques of desertification control (Andropogon grass-band system, fallow-band system, extension method incorporated with social-network survey) collaborating with local NGO (Niger)

  1-b. Monitoring of soil fertility maintenance and degradation process under different cultivation practices in semi-arid condition (Niger)

  1-c. Cross-border migration, social and ecological adaptation and process of community formation (Niger, Burkina Faso and Togo)

  1-d. Mechanisms and process of innovation by local people (Burkina Faso)

  1-e. Influences of “Islam” in daily livelihood of urban and rural communities (Burkina Faso)

  1-f. Background and conditions around street children as a vulnerable existence (Burkina Faso)

  1-g. Advisory for aid organizations to make implementation project(Burkina Faso, Senegal)

  1-h. Preliminary survey to identify possible area(s)/site(s) for the transfer of some verified techniques (Senegal, Sudan)

2. Southern Africa

  2-a. Impact of transformation in local animal husbandry on peoples' livelihoods, communities, vegetation and land resources (Namibia)

  2-b. Monitoring of soil fertility maintenance and degradation process under different cultivation practices in semi-arid condition (Namibia)

  2-c. Changes of local livelihood activities and land use systems after compulsory trans-migration (Zambia)

  2-d. Local rules in utilizing land resources and ecosystems (Zambia)

3. South Asia

  3-a. Data-base of indigenous tools, its manufacturing processes, and literature of traditional farming systems to seeking appropriate techniques useful for rural development assistance in semi-arid Asia and Africa (India)

  3-b. Co-existence of local livelihoods between the pastoralists and cultivators in highly populated area, Rajasthan  and Tamil Nadu (India)

  3-c. Seasonal movement of pastoralists and its contribution of soil fertility maintenance (India)

  3-d. Preliminary survey to seek possibility technology transfer between India and Africa (India, Senegal)

4. East Asia

  4-a. Requisites of resilience mechanisms in the pastoralists’ livelihood to reduce vulnerability against natural disaster (Mongolia)

  4-b. Indigenous knowledge/techniques of land resource management by pastoralists (Mongolia)

  4-c. Preparation of a field experiment for re-appraisal of dry farming techniques described in antique books (China)

5. Inter regional sites

  We make comparative studies on 1) Adaptation strategies in agro-pastoral systems between high/low population areas, tropical/temperate climate regions, and cultivation/pastoral system” and 2) Possibility of technology transfer, e.g. land use systems,restoration of degraded land, farming tools and soil management practices in Africa and Asia.

 

Project activities and the framework of UNCCD

UNCCD has already set the framework for action to address desertification. We focus on ‘scientific knowledge’ and ‘techniques’ which may be associated with some shortcomings in the framework. Many techniques employed to control desertification to date, however scientifically sound and rational they may be,unfortunately are often not matched to the needs and situations of local people if, for example, they are too expensive or require too much time or labor. Some techniques are highly dependent on materials and machinery that may not be locally available. Our project modifies such shortcomings and adds more knowledge and techniques through the activities in Semi-arid Africa and Asia. In West Africa the major focus of project work is on collaborating with local people in the innovation of practical desertification control techniques and extension methods, especially related to the livelihoods of vulnerable people. In Southern Africa, basic studies are being developed to describe agro-ecosystems,local livelihood systems, and adaptation strategies under demographic pressure and environmental fluctuation. In South Asia, we have inventoried local knowledge (e.g. indigenous knowledge, techniques and tools), in order to identify pastoral peoples’ adaptation strategies in high population areas experiencing fluctuating social and agro-climatic conditions. In East Asia, we re-appraise indigenous knowledge in the traditional upland farming systems. Comparative studies within Africa and between Africa and Asia are also underway in order to evaluate the possibility of horizontal technology transfer.

 

【Progress】

1. To deepen the understanding of targeted areas in semi-arid Afro-Eurasia

Researches in Africa: Basic information related to social, cultural and ecological characteristics of the targeted areas are were collected. The causes and background of desertification were also identified. We paid special focus on resilience or adaptation strategies of local people against extreme weather(e.g. drought and flooding) and social changes (e.g. influx of refugees and intervention through rural development activities by local government and aid-organizations). We documented the livelihood systems, social relations and coping behaviours during the year of crisis in pastoralists' community in Burkina Faso(Katakura Motoko Award, Association of Arid Land Studies, Y. Ishimoto, 2014), in agro-pastoralists community in Niger (Young Scientist Award, Society of Agricultural Systems, Y. Sasaki, 2013; Best Presentation Award, Society of Agricultural Systems, Y. Komura et al., 2012), and in Namibia (Best Poster Award, Association for Arid Land Studies, K. Teshirogi, 2012).  Soil fertility mechanism and its management practices were identified in sandy soils under semi-arid condition in the Sahel(Best Poster Award, 20th World Congress of Soil Science, H. Shinjoet al., 2014).  Situation of education and social support for children, including street children, in urban area of Burkina Faso were reported and pointed out that the realities were far different from our general understanding (Superior Presentation Award, African Educational Research Forum, T. Shimizu, 2013). The fact that a time-lag occured in behaviours and decision-making of local people when received external technique, identified in the case of Burkina Faso, was useful information to design rural development approach (Best presentation Award, Society of Agricultural Systems, Y. Machi et al., 2014).  We identified some requisites of resilience against extreme weather (flooding) in rural communities of semi-arid Zambia(Poster award, World Water Week 2012, Umetsu et al., 2012). Use of mobile-phones was helpful to the recovery of household economy after flooding(Best Poster Award, Association for Arid Land Studies, Y. Ishimoto et al.,2013).

Researches in Asia: Indigenous knowledge and techniques, which give insights to identify the requisites of social and ecological adaptation of livelihood systems in semi-arid condition, were collected in India. The situation of traditional animal-driven water well, which is almost disappearing, was recorded (Best Poster Award, Association for Arid Land Studies, H. Endo et al,2014).  The background of agrarian changes and livelihood diversification in Tamil Nadu state was explained by recent demographic movement due to overseas and inter-regional transmigration (Best Poster Award, EMASS-2014, M. Jegadeesan et al., 2014). Factors to decide resilience in pastoralists' livelihood found after natural disaster in cool arid environment were identified in the field research in Mongolia (Best Poster Award, Society for International Development Studies, H. Nakamura, 2014).

2. To design and verify some practical techniques/approaches

Basically using local resources and indigenous knowledge, we innovated practical techniques concurrently enabling livelihood improvement and desertification control. Some of them include a bold idea of introducing Indian traditional knowledge to semi-arid Africa, which can be a model example ofso-called ‘south-to-south technology transfer’ on innovation.  As an attempt of ‘co-designing’ and‘co-working’, we involved local people to the process of innovation, demonstration,monitoring and dissemination, and confirmed its validity. Due to the novelty and achievement, the studies were highly evaluated and given many academic awards, e.g. 2012 SSPN Award, K. Ikazaki et al., 2012; Best Poster Award,Society of International Development, U. Tanaka and K. Ikazaki, 2013; Best Poster Award, Society for International Development Studies, Y. Sasaki, 2013; Best Presentation Award, 20th World Congress of Soil Science, K. Ikazaki et al., 2014;Young Scientist Award, Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, K. Ikazaki,2014; Achievement Award for Young Scientists, Foundation of Agricultural Science of Japan, K. Ikazaki, 2014; /Environment Ministers’ Award by Hitachi Foundation, Tanaka et al,, 2014; Nikkei Award for Global Environmental Techniques, Tanakaet al., 2015.

Innovated practical techniques: Soil erosion by wind (wind erosion) is one of the causes of desertification/land degradation in semi-arid Africa. In Niger, we made an apparatus to measure wind erosion, revealed its processes,and innovated a prototype technique ‘fallow-band system’ to control wind erosion and concurrently to improve crop yield.  Soil erosion by water (water erosion) is also serious and damage land resources. We devised a practical technique, called‘contour-line of Andropogon’, which concurrently enables reduction of soil erosion by water, encouragement of water-harvesting to soil, and increase of household income. The technique is basically a revival one based on some indigenous practices in Burkina Faso, such as Zai (planting pit) and Kukokse (line of grass). Combination of traditional tools from India and cow pea cultivation in pastoral area is useful to conserve soil moisture, convert degraded grassland into productive land, generate household income and, thus, stabilize the livelihood of pastoralists. We modified the method of tree planting under semi-arid environment. Tree planting was one of the standard measures against desertification so far, however, not necessarily effective. Using an indigenous technique ‘Zai’, the survival rate of planted tree seedlings were drastically improved. Not only innovating practical techniques, we devised an improved agricultural extension method incorporating some steps of ‘social network survey’ and demonstrated its applicability in Niger. 

3. To disseminate the knowledge, experiences and techniques/approaches

The technique ‘fallow-band system’ was implemented in Niger through JICA Grassroots Project in 2010 through 2013 (http://www.jica.go.jp/partner/kusanone/partner/niger_01.html). Using our research results, Ministry of Environment of Japan published a technical brochure ‘Lifestyle and Measures against Desertification’ in 2013 (http://www.env.go.jp/en/nature/desert/download/against%20desertification_eng.pdf). One of our technique (fallow-band system) was introduced in the high school textbook published by Geography Teachers' Association of Victoria (GTAV), Australia,in 2016.  We made many presentations in Africa, India, Europe, China and Japan.

○Project Members

TANAKA Ueru ( RIHN,Associate Professor,Project management, Agricultural Studies )

ISHIMOTO Yudai ( RIHN,Assistant Professor,Tottori UNiversity, Anthropology )

SHINJO Hitoshi ( Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Soil Science )

IKAZAKI Kenta ( Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science,Researcher,Soil Science )

KOBAYASHI Hirohide ( Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Architecture )

NAKAMURA Hiroshi ( Global Environmental Forum,Researcher,Social Economics )

MIURA Rei-ichi ( Ryukoku University,Associate Professor,Tropical Ecosystems )

UCHIDA Satoshi ( Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science,Proncipal Researcher,Remote Sensing )

ISHIKAWA Hirohiko ( Kyoto University,Professor,Climatorogy )

SAKURAI Takeshi ( Tokyo University,Professor,Rural Economics )

MIYAZAKI Hidetoshi ( RIHN,Researcher,Sub-leader, Boundary Agriculture )

SASAKI Yuko ( RIHN,Researcher,Rural Sociology )

SHIMIZU Takao ( RIHN,Researcher,Anthropology )

TESHIROGI Koki ( RIHN,Researcher,Geography )

ENDO Hitoshi ( RIHN,Researcher,Archeology )

MIZUNO Kazuharu ( Kyoto University,Professor,Geography )

OHYAMA Shuichi ( Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Area Studies )

SETO Shinichi ( Global Environmental Forum,Researcher,Rudal Development )

MIZOGUCHI Daisuke ( Waseda University,Researcher,Anthropology )

ITO Miku ( Nanzan University,Researcher,Anthropology )

Nakao Seiji ( Nanzan University,Researcher,Anthropoloty )

KIRIKOSHI Hitomi ( Kyoto University,Researcher,Geography )

DEORA, K. P. Singh ( Institute of Rajasthan Studies (India),Senior Researcher,Archeology )

SEKIYA Yuichi ( Tokyo University,Associate Professor,Anthropology )

HIRATA Masahiro ( Obihiro Chikusan University,Associate Professor,Area Studies )

OHJI Toshiaki ( Honarery Professor,Geography )

ARAKI Ryoichi ( Wakayama UNiversity,Associate Professor,Plant Nutrition )

SUGIHARA Soh ( Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology,Assocaite Professor,Soil Environment )

DANGI Vivek ( All India Jat Heroes Memorial College (India),Senior Lecture,History )

ISOKAWA Aki ( RIHN,Research Assistant,Project Management (Editing) )

KIHIRA Tomoe ( RIHN,Research Assistant,Project Management (General) )

○Future Themes

Since our project is entering its final year, we are accelerating the dissemination of our research results through publications, and international and domestic workshops. For social implementation, we are providing some of the practical techniques developed in the project to the ‘Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative’, an international desertification project initiated by the African Union and other entities. We are also preparing proposals which should be helpful in linking our academic results to specific future social implementations.

Books

【Authored/Co-authored】

ISHIYAMA, Shun 2016,03 Environmental Anthropology of Sahelian Landlocked Country, Chad : Poverty, Conflict and Desertification. Field Note Series, Desertification and Livelihood in Semi-Arid Afro-Eurasia Project, 5. Field Note Series, Desertification and Livelihood in Semi-Arid Afro-Eurasia Project, RIHN, Kita-ku, Kyoto, 103pp. (in Japanese)

Ibrahim Kalil Mangane・NAKAO Seji 2016,03 A propos des 50 ans qui vont de la Fondation de la Section Voltaïque de l'Union Culturelle Musulmane à la Communauté Musulmane, Burkina Faso (Bobo-Dioulasso, 1962-2012). Field Note Series, Desertification and Livelihood in Semi-Arid Afro-Eurasia Project, 4. Field Note Series, Desertification and Livelihood in Semi-Arid Afro-Eurasia Project, RIHN, Kita-ku, Kyoto, 184pp.

Oyama, S. 2013 Land rehabilitation technology created in droughts and famine in Sahel zone of West Africa: Resource efficiency of urban trash in Hausa farming society. . Nature and Society Research Series, Geography on Livelihood., vol. 4. Kaisei-sha, Otsu City (in Japanese) T. Yokoyama ed.

【Chapters/Sections】

Ando, K. and Shinjo, H. 2017,05 Slash-and-burn agriculture in Zambia. In Soils, Ecosystem Processes, and Agricultural Development. Funakawa, S. (ed.) Springer Japan, Japan, pp.253-274. DOI:10.1007/978-4-431-56484-3

Ikazaki, K. 2017,05 Control of wind erosion, loss of soils and organic matter using the “Fallow Band System” in semi-arid sandy soils of the Sahel. Soils, Ecosystem Processes, and Agricultural Development -Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa-. Springer, pp.309-321.

Shinjo, H. 2017,05 Interactions between agricultural and pastoral activities in the Sahel with emphasis on management of livestock excreta: A case study in southwestern Niger. In Soils, Ecosystem Processes, and Agricultural Development. Funakawa, S. (ed.) Soils, Ecosystem Processes, and Agricultural Development. Springer Japan, Japan, pp.293-305. DOI:10.1007/978-4-431-56484-3

Ikazaki, Kenta 2017,03 Control of Wind Erosion, Loss of Soils, and Organic Matter Using the “Fallow Band System” in Semiarid Sandy Soils of the Sahel. FUNAKAWA, Shinya (ed.) Soils, Ecosystem Processes, and Agricultural Development -Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa-. Springer, Berlin, Germany. (in press)

ISHIYAMA, Shun 2016,03 Energy Issues from a rural Perspective. Human resources and Engineering in the Post-oil Era, A Search for Viable Future Societies in Japan and Oil-rich Countries of the Middle East. NAWATA. Hiroshi . Shokadoh Book Sellers, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, pp.89-99.

Oyama, S. 2016,03 Guardian or misfeasor? Chief’s roles in land administration under the new 1995 Land Act in Zambia. Moyo S. and Mine Y. (ed.) What Colonialism Ignored: ‘African Potentials’ for Resolving Conflicts in Southern Africa. LANGAA Publishers, Bamenda, Cameroon, pp.103-128.

Takeshi Sakurai 2016,03 On the Determinants of High Productivity Rice Farming in Irrigated Areas in Senegal: The Efficiency of Large compared with Small-Scale Irrigation Schemes. Keijiro Otsuka and Donald F. Larson (ed.) Pursuit of an African Green Revolution: Views from Rice and Maize Farmers’ Fields. Springer Japan, Tokyo, Japan, pp.119-143.

MIYAZAKI H., ISHIMOTO Y., YAMASHITA M., TANAKA U. and UMETSU C 2016 Coping Behaviors with Extremely Heavy Rainfall in Southern Zambia- Comparison between 2007/08 and 2009/10. VASANTHA KUMAR J., RATHAKRISHNAN T., PHILIP H., MURUGAN P.P. and JAGADEESAN M. (ed.) Extension Management Strategies For Sustainable Agriculture Opportunities & Challenges. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi, India, pp.413-427.

JEGADEESAN M. and MIYAZAKI H 2016 Deterioration of Tank Irrigation System in Tamil Nadu, India: Socio Economic Factors and Necessary Remedies. VASANTHA KUMAR J., RATHAKRISHNAN T., PHILIP H., MURUGAN P.P. and JAGADEESAN M. (ed.) Extension Management Strategies For Sustainable Agriculture Opportunities & Challenges. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi, India, pp.255-281.

Chieko UMETSU, Thamana Lekprichakul, Takeshi SAKURAI, Taro YAMAUCHI, Yudai ISHIMOTO, Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI 2014,08 Dynamics of Social-Ecological Systems: The Case of Farmers' Food Security in The Semi-Arid Tropics. Shoko Sakai and Chieko Umetsu (ed.) Social-Ecological Systems in Transition. Springer.

Takao SHIMIZU 2014,03 Traditional Education and Society in Niger: Islamic Education on Zarma Society. The Diversity of Education in Africa: Local Perspectives. , pp.52-62. (in Japanese) In printing

Editing

【Editing / Co-editing】

Jun Ikeno, Gen Ueda, Ueru Tanaka (ed.) 2018,03 Resources Vitalizing Local Societies in Tanzania (African Study Monographs. Supplementary Issue, 55). The Research Committee for African Area Studies, Kyoto University, 162pp.

Papers

【Original Articles】

Seki, Mayuko; Sugihara, Soh; Miyazaki, Hidetoshi; Araki, Ryoichi; Jegadeesan, Muniandi; Ishiyama, Shun; Tanaka, Ueru; Tanaka, Haruo 2019,07 Effect of Traditional Cultivation Management on CO2 Flux in the Dry Tropical Cropland of South India. AGRONOMY-BASEL 9(7):347. DOI:10.3390/agronomy9070347 (reviewed).

Masukujane, M., Coetzee, T., Ngwanathebe, R., Ishimoto, Y., Akashi, K 2018,12 Diversity and seasonal variation of insect pests of Jatropha in Gaborone, Botswana. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 38(4):294-298. (reviewed).

JEGADEESAN M. and MIYAZAKI H. 2018,11 Transformation of Traditional Fermented Foods of South India. International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences 5(3):145-149. (reviewed).

Ishimoto, Y., Yabuta, S., Kokog, S., Motsepe, M., Toinaga, J., Teramoto, S., Konaka, T., Mmopelwa, G., Kawamitsu, Y., Akashi, K., Ueno, M. 2018,03 Environmental evaluation with greenhouse gas emissions and absorption based on life cycle assessment for a Jatropha cultivation system in frost- and drought-prone regions of Botswana. Biomass and Bioenergy 110:33-40. (reviewed).

SHEIKH, M. A., ALI, A. H., KHAMIS, A. A., RASHIDI, R. J., ALI, H. R. IKENO, J., TANAKA, U. 2018,03 Quality of Groundwater from Open-Wells in Rural and Peri-Urban Areas of Unguja Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania. African study monographs. Supplementary issue 55:119-142. (reviewed). (The Research Committee for African Area Studies, Kyoto University)

Hirohide KOBAYASHI, Takao SHIMIZU, Miku ITO, Seiji NAKAO 2017,09 Transforming the Kasena houses and indigenous building technology in Burkina Faso. Vernacular and Earthen Architecture. CRC Press, pp.147-152. (reviewed). (Honorable Award for the best senior research paper and presentation)

Takao SHIIZU, Seiji NAKAO, Hirohide KOBAYASHI, Miku ITO 2017,09 Transformation in the Kasena’s large earthen compound houses in Burkina Faso. Vernacular and Earthen Architecture. CRC Press, pp.343-350. (reviewed).

Ishimoto, Y., Kgokong, S., Yabuta, S., Tominaga, J., Coetzee, T., Konaka, T., Mazereku, C., Kawamitsu, Y., Akashi, K. 2017,07 Flowering pattern of biodiesel plant Jatropha in frost- and drought-prone regions of Botswana. International Journal of Green Energy 14(11):908-915. (reviewed).

Ho Trung Thong, Le Nu Anh Thu, Dinh Van Tuyen and Tanaka Ueru 2017,05 Evaluation on nutrient values of brewery dried yeast and its effects on the growth performance and feed conversion ratio of colored chicken breed of starter and grower periods. Journal of Animal Husbandry Sciences and Technics 219:17-23. (reviewed).

TESHIROGI, Koki, YAMASHINA, Chisato, FUJIOKA, Yuichiro 2017,03 Variations in Mopane Vegetation and its Use by Local People: Comparison of Four Sites in Northern Namibia. African Study Monographs 38(1):5-25. DOI:http://repository.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dspace/handle/2433/218898 (reviewed).

Bakary Sanou, Kimseyinga Savadogo, and Takeshi Sakurai 2017,03 Determinants of Adoption and Continuous Use of Improved Maize Seeds in Burkina Faso. Japanese Journal of Agricultural Economics 19. (reviewed). (Forthcoming)

Hiroshi Nakamura, Rinchindorj Dorjjadamba, Delgerjargal Sodnomdarjaa 2017,01 The Impact of a Disaster on Asset Dynamics in the Gobi Region of Mongolia: An Analysis of Livestock Changes. The Journal of Development Studies . (reviewed). (in printing)

Ho Trung Thong, Nguyen Van Chao and Tanaka Ueru 2016,01 Effects of supplimentations of biocharcoal and wood vinegar in the diets on emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from pig manure. of Animal Husbandry Sciences and Technics 203(2/2016):66-72. (Other) (reviewed). (in Vietnamese with English abstract)

Minh, V. T., Mizuno, K., Funakawa, S., Shinjo, H., Tanaka, U., and An., L. V. 2015,12 Introduction of vanilla in mountainous villages of central Vietnam. Tropical Agriculture and Development 59(4):199-206. (reviewed).

Shamik CHAKRABORTY, YASUDA Hiroshi, Abhik CHAKRABORTY, NABETA Hajime, KAWAI Takayuki, ISHIYAMA Shun 2015,09 The Nile and Recent Changes in Its Basin Environment. Journal of Resources 6(5):345-352. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Minh, V. T., Mizuno, K., Funakawa, S., Shinjo, H., Tanaka, U., and An., L. V. 2015,09 Home garden practices and crop contribution to livelihood in mountainous villages of central Vietnam. Tropical Agriculture and Development 59(3):118-126. (reviewed).

Kanno, H., T. Sakurai, H. Shinjo, H. Miyazaki, Y. Ishimoto, T. Saeki, and C. Umetsu 2015,01 Analysis of Meteorological Measurements made over Three Rainy Seasons and Rainfall Simulations in Sinazongwe District, Southern Province, Zambia. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 49(1):59-71. (reviewed).

Koki Teshirogi 2014,08 Recent Changes in Communal Livestock Farming in Northwestern Namibia with Special Reference to the Rapid Spread of Livestock Auctions and Mobile Phones. MILA the Special Issue:27-36.

Ando K., Shinjo H., Kuramitsu H., Miura R., Sokotela S., Funakawa S. 2014,06 Effects of cropping and short-natural fallow rotation on soil organic carbon in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ 196:34-41. (reviewed).

Ando, K., Shinjo, H., Noro, Y., Takenaka, S., Miura R., Sokotela, S.B., Funakawa, S 2014,06 Short-term effects of fire intensity on soil organic matter and nutrient release after slash-and-burn in Eastern Province, Zambia. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 60:173-182. DOI:10.1080/00380768.2014.88348 (reviewed).

Sugihara, S., Funakawa, S., Ikazaki, K., Shinjo, H., and Kosaki, T. 2014,03 Rewetting of Dry Soil did not Stimulate the Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Croplands with Plant Residue Removed in the Sahel, West Africa. Tropical Agriculture and Development 58:8-17. (reviewed).

Sakurai, Takeshi and Ryo Inoue 2014,01 Development of the Rural Economy of Burkina Faso in 30 Years: Have They Escaped from the Poverty? . Economic Review 65(1):23-41. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Ishimoto, Y., Miyazaki, H., Seto, S., Tanaka, U. 2013,12 Safety Net of Agro-pastoralists in the Sahel: Survival Devices Embedded in Food Consumption System. Sand Dune Reasearch 60(2):73-78. (in Japanese)

Mizuno, K. 2013,11 The change of natural environments and vegetation in Namib Desert. Special Issue "Dryland ecosystem and its problems" Nature and conservation of Namib Desert, Africa. . Journal of the Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology 39(2):290-292. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

NAKAMURA, Hiroshi 2013,11 Natural Disaster on 2009-2010 and Herders' Behavior in Dundgobi Pref., Mongolia. Papers on environmental information science 27:237-242. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Ishimoto, Y., Miyazaki, H., Seto, S., Umetsu, C., Tanaka, U. 2013,09 Resilience of Agro-pastoralists Livelihood System in the Sahel : A Case of Introduction of Migration in I-village, Northeastern Burkina Faso. Journal of Arid Land Studies 23(2):73-77. (reviewed).

Sakurai, Takeshi 2013,08 Africa’s Economic Growth and Its Food Production. Josuikai Newsletter(993):36-38. (in Japanese)

Ishimoto, Y., Miyazaki, H, Umetsu, C. 2013,07 Social Safety Net Using Mobile Phones : A Case Study of Southern Province, Zambia. Journal of agricultural development studies 24(1):26-35. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Takao SHIMIZU 2013,03 Children domesticate NGOs: strategies for survival on urban Africa. SEEDer No.8:23-29. (in Japanese)

Ishimoto, Y., Miyazaki, H., Seto, S. 2013,03 Food Security of Agro-pastoralists in the Sahel. Seeder 8:8-15. (in Japanese)

Oyama, S. 2013 "Frog in the boiled water":Water and life in the Sahel region of West Africa. . Ethnology Ouarterly (Kikan Minzokugaku) 145:52-59. (in Japanese)

Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI, Yudai ISHIMOTO, Ueru TANAKA, Chieko UMETSU 2013,08 THE ROLE OF THE SWEET POTATO IN THE CROP DIVERSIFICATION OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN SOUTHERN PROVINCE, ZAMBIA. African Study Monographs 34(2):119-137. (reviewed).

Oyama, S. 2012 Land rehabilitation methods based on the refuse input: local practices of Hausa farmers and application of indigenous knowledge in the Sahelian Niger. . Pedologist 55(3):466-489. (reviewed). Special Issue

【Review Articles】

SHIMIZU Takao 2015,10 What we have to do with the ’Knowledge’ in Africa. Global Net (299):12-13. (in Japanese) Global Envirnment Forum

Kenta Ikazaki 2015,06 Desertification and a New Countermeasure in the Sahel, West Africa. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 61:372-383. (reviewed).

SHIMIZU Takao 2015,04 Considerring “Child Studies in Africa” from study of street children. Child Science (11):56. Japanese Society of Child Science

Ueru TANAKA, Kenta IKAZAKI, Hitoshi SHINJO, Satoshi TOBITA 2014,12 Practical technique for desertification control concurrently to reduce wind erosion and improve crop performance. Environmental Research Quarterly 176:5-14. (in Japanese) ('Award of Minister of Environment' and 'Environmental Award, The Hitachi Environment Foundation')

Yuji TAKENOSHITA, Nobutaka KAMEI, Kae AMO, Takao SHIMIZU 2013,12 Forum for "Studies on African Childhood": School Education and Traditional Education in Francophone Africa. Jpurnal of African Studies(83):37-51. (in Japanese)

Research Presentations

【Oral Presentation】

Ishimoto, Y., Miyazaki, H., Tsunekawa, A. Land Policy beyond Tragedy of the Commons in Semi-Arid Africa Affected by Desertification. 鳥取大学乾燥地研究センター平成30年度共同研究発表会, 2018.12.01-2018.12.02, 鳥取大学乾燥地研究センター、鳥取市.

Jegadeesan Muniandi, Hidetoshi Miyazaki and Kalaiselvan. A. Nutritive Sensitive Agriculture – Is it way to address nutritional insecurity: Evidence from Village study in Tamil Nadu. National Seminar on "Promoting Pulses for Food, Nutrition and Health Security - The Way Forward" (NSPPF 2018), 2018.09.27-2018.09.28, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai, India.

Murayama, K., M. Koiso and H. Endo Carnelian Beads of South Asia and Bava Gor from Abyssinia. International Conference Africa-Asia 'A New Axis of Knowledge' Second Edition, 2018.09.21, University of Dar es Salaam Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Shinjo, H., Ando, K., Nakashima, K., Umetsu, C., Tanaka, U., Sokotela, S., Malima, B. How can we mitigate impact of climatic variability on crop production in the semiarid tropics of Africa?. 21st World Congress of Soil Science, 2018.08.12-2018.08.17, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Takao SHIMIZU, Ueru TANAKA The Process for Co-Created Technology for Combat Desertification Collavoration of Afriacan Farmers and Japanese Scientist. 30th Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics, Perspectives from Asia and Africa Part2 (B-12). Session: Global Reordering and New Model of Development, 2018.06.24, Doshisha Univ., Kyoto.

SEKI M., SUGIHARA S., MIYAZAKI H., ARAKI R, JEGADEESAN M., ISHIYAMA S., TANAKA U. and TANAKA H. Impact of traditional farming on soil CO2 flux and C budget in the dry tropical cropland of southern India. EGU 2018, 2018.04.08-2018.04.13, Vienna, Austria.

JEGADEESAN M.and MIYAZAKI H. Construction of Livelihood through Migration: The Case of Tamil Migrant in UAE. International Conference on Invigorating Transformation of Farm Extension towards Sustainable Development: Futuristic Challenges & Prospects (INTFES 2018), 2018.03.09-2018.03.10, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India. (Best Paper Award)

Takao SHIIZU, Seiji NAKAO, Hirohide KOBAYASHI, Miku ITO Transformation in the Kasena’s large earthen compound houses in Burkina Faso. SOStierra2017 International Conference on Vernacular Earthen Architecture, Construction and Sustainability, 2017.09.14, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain,.

Hirohide KOBAYASHI, Takao SHIMIZU, Miku ITO, Seiji NAKAO Transforming the Kasena houses and indigenous building technology in Burkina Faso. SOStierra2017 International Conference on Vernacular Earthen Architecture, Construction and Sustainability, 2017.09.14, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain. (Honorable Award for the best senior research paper and presentation)

Ueru TANAKA Practical agro-ecosystems management with fragile environments in semi-arid Africa under desertification. Japanese - Swiss Ecohealth Colloquium, 2017.01.11-2017.01.12, Basel, Switzerland.

MIYAZAKI H., K. P. SINGH, UCHIYAMA Y., ENDO H., ISHIMOTO Y. and TANAKA U Pastoralism in Northwestern -Focus on Relationship between Pastoralist and Agriculturist. France-Japan Joint Symposium “Landscape in the Anthropocene", 2016.12.05-2016.12.08, Fondation France-Japon de l’EHESS, Paris, France..

Ueru TANAKA Practical soil management techniques for ecosystems conservation and livelihood improvement under fragile environment in semi-arid Tropic. France- Japan Joint Symposium “Landscape in the Anthropocene”, 2016.12.05-2016.12.08, Fondation France-Japon de l’EHESS, Paris, France..

Oyama, S. Mitigation of Land Scarcity and Resource Conflict between Farmers and Herders in the Sahel region of West Africa. “Land, the State and Decolonising the Agrarian Structure in Africa: A colloquium in Honour of Professor Sam Moyo”, 2016.11.28, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Ueru TANAKA Possibility and significance of the transfer of indigenous farming techniques from India to Africa. International Seminar on “Traditional Knowledge and Heritage of South Asia”, 2016.11.15-2016.11.16, All India Jat Heroes’ Memorial College, Rohtak, Haryana, India.

MIYAZAKI H., K. P. SINGH, UCHIYAMA Y., ENDO H., ISHIMOTO Y. and TANAKA U Livelihoods of Pastoral community in North West India. International Seminar on “Traditional Knowledge and Heritage of South Asia", 2016.11.15-2016.11.16, Haryana, India.

Ueru TANAKA and Takao SHIMIZU Practical Techniques for Desertification Control and Livelihood Improvement in the Sahel, West Africa. 12th International Conference on Development of Drylands “Sustainable Development of Drylands in the Post 2015 World”, 2016.08.21-2016.08.24, Alexandria, Egypt.

Oyama, S. Countering popular beliefs by applying urban waste and livestock-induced land rehabilitation in Sahel region of West Africa. 15th Congress of International Society of Ethnobiology (ISE2016), , 2016.08.05, Makerere University. Kampala Uganda.

Akinori Kitsuki and Takeshi Sakurai Seasonal Hunger: Heterogenous Impacts of Seasonal Price Changes and Credit Constraints on Seasonal Consumption Patterns in Rural Zambia. Agricultural and Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 2016.07.31-2016.08.02, Boston, MA, USA.

Ueru TANAKA and Takao SHIMIZU Idea box of practical techniques contributing to “Great Green Wall Initiatives (GGWWI)” for desertification control and livelihood improvement in semi-arid Africa. Japan-BecA-ILRI Hub seminar, 2016.06.16, Nairobi, Kenya.

UMETSU C., SAKURAI T., YAMAUCHI T., MIYAZAKI H. and MWALE M Climate Change, Agricultural Production and Nutrition: Towards Integrated Policy Design for Food Security. Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2016, session "Implementing Geoscience Research for the Earth's Future, 2016.05.22-2016.05.26, Makuhari, Chiba, Japan.

Bakary Sanou, ,Kimseyinga Savadogo, and Takeshi Sakurai Determinants of Adoption and Continuous Use of Improved Maize Seeds in Burkina Faso. Agricultural Economics Society of Japan Annual Meeting 2016, 2016.03.29-2016.03.30, Akita Prefectural University, Akita, Japan.

Takeshi Sakurai, Gen Yokoyama, and Fred Nimoh Agricultural Mechanization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is it for Area Expansion or Labor Saving in the Case of Ghana?. Agricultural Economics Society of Japan Annual Meeting 2016, 2016.03.29-2016.03.30, Akita Prefectural University, Akita, Japan.

SHIMIZU Takao Lesmobilité saisonelle d’enfant de la rue à Ouagadougou, Le resultat de recherche statistique. nternational Workshop ‘Des vies d’enfant en Afrique’, 2016.03.15, Saint-Louis, Sénégal.

JEGADEESAN M. and MIYAZAKI H Agrarian Structure and Re-construction of Livelihood through Migration in Tamil Nadu: Comparison of Cauveri Delta, South, and West of the state. TNAU-INDAS International Conference “Toward Sustainable Development of India and South Asia: Population, Resources, and Environment”, 2016.03.01-2016.03.02, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

MIYAZAKI H, ISHIMOTO Y., TANAKA U. and UMETSU C. Enhanced Food Security through Familiar Crops: A Case of Sweet Potato and Millet in Southern Zambia. The 5th Lusaka Resilience Workshop, "Climate Change, Agricultural Production and Nutrition: Towards Integrated Policy Design for Food Security",, 2016.02.08, Lusaka, Zambia.

Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI, Yudai ISHIMOTO, Ueru TANAKA, Chieko UMETSU Enhanced Food Security through Familiar Crops: A Case of Sweet Potato and Millet in Southern Zambia. The 5th Lusaka Resilience Workshop, "Climate Change, Agricultural Production and Nutrition: Towards Integrated Policy Design for Food Security", 2016.02.08, Kusaka, Zambia.

Chieko UMETSU, Takeshi SAKURAI, Taro YAMAUCHI, Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI, Moses MUWALE Building Resilience of Rural Areas in Semi-arid Tropics Against Climatic Variability. The 5th Lusaka Resilience Workshop, "Climate Change, Agricultural Production and Nutrition: Towards Integrated Policy Design for Food Security", 2016.02.08, Lusaka, Zambia.  .

SHIMIZU Takao ‘Local knowledge’ and ‘Appropriate technology’ on the battle against water erosion in West Africa”. Adaptation to Social-Ecological Change in Semi-Arid Regions of Africa and Asia, 2016.01.15, Hokkaido. (in Japanese) Rakuno Gakuen University Intra-University Research Project, Desertification and Livelihood in Semi-Arid Afro-Eurasia of RIHN and Commission of Arid Land Nature and Culture Studies, Hokkaido

SHIMIZU Takao Why does his knee had to be broken? -the case of state redress lawsuit court by Nigerian Immigrant- . International Workshop, Beyond the "North-South": New terreitorialities between Africa and Asia, 2015.12.02-2015.12.03, EHESS, France, Paris..

SHIMIZU Takao Tradition and transformation of the house and family: From the case of Kassena, Burkina Faso. the 233rd conference of Chubu-Jinruigaku Danwakai, Maruhachi-Jinruigaku Kenkyukai and RIHN, 2015.11.28, Nagoya, Aichi .

SHIMIZU Takao Local knowledge and livelihood concerning to water erosion in West Africa semi-arid area. Commission of Arid Land Nature and Culture Studies (CALNACS), The Japanese Association for Arid Land Studies (JAALS), 2015.11.15, Tokyo Metropolitan University Akihabara Satellite Campus, Tokyo.

Kenta Ikazaki Practical technique for desertification control affordable by local people. Joint Seminar on "What we learnt from the interrelations between livelihood and ecological environment in arid and semi-arid Africa", 2015.10.16, IMAF, Paris (France).

SHIMIZU Takao Why his knee was broken?- Exposing the discrimination against an African resident in Japan. Asian Studies in Africa: Challenges and Prospects of a New Axis of Intellectual Interaction., 2015.09.24-2015.09.26, Ghana University, Accra, Ghana..

Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI, KP Singh, Yuta UCHIYAMA, Hitoshi ENDO, Yudai ISHIMOTO, Ueru TANAKA Livelihoods change of pastoral community in arid land of Northwest India. IUAES2015, 2015.07.15-2015.07.17, Bangkok, Thailand.

SHIMIZU Takao Children ‘non-schooling’ in Islam area of West Africa: religious practices and criteria of West African Islam. International development seminar series , 2015.07.08, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka.

MUNIANDI JEGADEESAN, Hidetoshi Miyazaki and Ueru Tanaka Agrarian change and livelihood dynamics among small farmers in Tamil Nadu. International seminar organised by "Contemporary Indian Area Studies, 2015.07.05, ASAFAS, Kyoto university, Kyoto, Japan.

SHIMIZU Takao Seasonal mobility of street children in Burkina Faso: comparative study of two statistic research. The 52nd Japanese Society of African Studied, 2015.05.23-2015.05.24, “Floide” Center of tourism of Inuyama Inuyama, Aichi.

MuniandiJegadeesan、Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI Constructing livelihood through migration: Indian Diaspora in United Arab Emirates. The Japanese Assosiation for Arid Land Studies, 2015.05.23-2015.05.24, Akita, Japan.

SHIMIZU Takao Perspective of study of “Franco-Arab” in Islam area of West Africa. 15th Africa Educational Research Forum, 2015.04.10, Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima, Hiroshima.

Muniandi Jegadeesan and Hidetoshi Miyazaki Knitted together: Life of Migrants in Tiruppur Garment Cluster. International Research Workshop on Transformation of Traditional Wisdom and Agrarian Diversification, 2015.04.04, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai, INDIA.

Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI, KP Singh, H. ENDO, Y. ISHIMOTO and U. TANAKA Relationships between pastoralist and small- scale farmer. -Case study of Rajasthan, India-. International Research Workshop on Transformation of Traditional Wisdom and Agrarian Diversification, 2015.04.04, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai, INDIA.

Ueru TANAKA A practical technique to control wind erosion and to improve crop performance - Possibility of technology transfer from Niger to Senegal -. ISM-RIHN Joint Seminar: Community development assistance based on local resources and social networks in the Sahel, 2015.02.04, ISM, Dakar (Senegal).

Takao SHIMIZU, Ueru TANAKA and Hiroshi NAKAMURA The technology co-designed with 'Studying Farmers (Tokuno-ka 篤農家) in Burkina Faso and Niger. Joint seminar on 'Community development assistance based on local resources and social networks in the Sahel', 2015.02.04, ISM, Dakar, Sénégal..

MUNIANDI JEGADEESAN, Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI and Ueru TANAKA Agrarian Change and Livelihood Diversification in Tamil Nadu. A National Seminar on Extension Management Strategies for Sustainable Agriculture –Challenges and Opportunities (EMASSA-2014), 2014.12.12-2014.12.13, Home Science College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, MADURAI INDIA. Best Paper Award

Takao SHIMIZU Becoming Muslim in a modern educational system in Burkina Faso: A challenge of Coranic school and 'Franco-Arab. Yaoudé Forum, Conflict Resolution and Coexistence through Reassessment and Utilization of “African Potentials (Itaru OHTA), 2014.12.04-2014.12.06, Yaoundé, Cameroun.

Takao SHIMIZU Result of statistic research of Street-Children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. 14th Africa Educational Research Forum, 2014.10.24-2014.10.25, RINH, Kyoto, Japan. (in Japanese)

Ueru TANAKA, Kenta IKAZAKI, Takao SHIMIZU, Yuko SASAKI, Hitoshi SHINJO, Satoshi TOBITA Designing of practical techniques for desertification control collaborating with local people in the Sahel, West Africa. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference (IDRC) 2014, 2014.08.28, Davos, Swiss.

MUNIANDI JEGADEESAN, Hidetoshi Miyazaki and Tanaka Ueru Agrarian Change and livelihood dynamics of Rural Tamil Nadu. International Seminar organised by Aoyama Gaukin university, 2014.06.27, Tokyo, Japan.

Ikazaki, K., Shinjo, H., Tanaka, U., Tobita, S., Funakawa, S., Kosaki, T. “Fallow Band System”, a do-nothing practice for controlling desertification and improving crop production in the Sahel, West Africa. 20th World Congress of Soil Science, 2014.06.08-2014.06.13, Jeju, Korea. (Best Presentation Award)

MUNIANDI JEGADEESAN, Hidetoshi Miyazaki and Ueru Tanaka Agrarian change and livelihood dynamics of small scale farmer in South Tamil Nadu, India. The Japanese Assosiation for Arid Land Studies, 2014.05.31-2014.06.01, Kanagawa, Japan.

Yudai ISHIMOT, Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI, Ueru TANAKA Using Land Resource by Small Scale Farmers in Rural Southern Province, Zambia: Understanding the Grazing Route to Acquire Fodder Continuously. 51th Academic meeting for Japan Association for African Studies, 2014.05.23-2014.05.25, Kyoto (Kyoto University). (in Japanese)

Takao SHIMIZU Is the problem of "street-children" is a "social problem" or a phenomenon on the urban space? Looking through anthropologist on NGOs (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso).. International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (IUEAS) 2014 with JASCA, 2014.05.15-2014.05.18, Makuhari, Chiba, Japan.

Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI, KP Singh, H. ENDO and U. TANAKA Relationships between pastoral community and agriculturists in Rajasthan, India. IUAES 2014, 2014.05.15-2014.05.18, Chiba Makuhari, Japan.

Miyazaki Hidetoshi, Ishimoto Yudai, Yamashita Megumi, Tanaka Ueru, Umetsu Chieko How small scale farmers cope with two different timings of heavy rainfall events in Southern Zambia. Resilience 2014, 2014.05.04-2014.05.08, Montpellier, France.

Umetsu Chieko, Lekprichakul Thamana, Sakurai Takeshi, Yamauchi Taro, Ishimoto Yudai, Miyazaki Hidetoshi Resilience of social-ecological systems for food security: Bridging climate and disaster resilience. Resilience 2014, 2014.05.04-2014.05.08, Montpellier, France.

Yudai Ishimoto, Hidetoshi Miyazaki, Ueru Tanaka, Chieko Umetsu Social Capital and Small-Scale Farmers in Zambia: An Analysis of Mobile Phone Usage. Resilience 2014, 2014.05.03-2014.05.08, Montpellier, France. (reviewed)

Takao SHIMIZU Intermediate report for statistic research for Street-Children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso . 13th Africa Educational Research Forum , 2014.04.11-2014.04.12, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. (in Japanese)

NAKAMURA, Hiroshi Natural Disaster on 2009-2010 and Herders' Behavior in Dundgobi Pref., Mongolia. The 27th Academic Conference of Papers on Environmental Information Science, 2013.12.06, Nihon University (Chiyoda City). (in Japanese)

NAKAMURA, Hiroshi Analysis of Developing Herder's Resilience to Natural Disaster in Mongolia. The 24th Conference of The Japan Society for International Development, 2013.11.30-2013.12.01, Osaka University (Suita City). (in Japanese)

Takao SHIMIZU Quranic School as Traditional Ecucation on Inland West Africa 2: Case Study on Fakara region. 12th Africa Educational Research Forum , 2013.10.25-October 2013, Waseda University, Tokyo. (in Japanese)

Ando, K., Shinjo, H., Kuramitsu, H, Miura, R., Funakawa, S Effect of burning on soil organic matter and vegetation in cropland and fallow land in Eastern Province of Zambia. Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plan Nutrition, 2013.09.11-2013.09.13, Nagoya University (Nagoya City). (in Japanese)

Takao SHIMIZU “Street Children”, Taribé and NGOs in Ouagadougou. le workshop académique "Education et travail des enfants dans les sociétés en modernisation : nouvelles perspectives africaines et asiatiques.", 2013.08.29, ISM, Dakar, Sénégal.

Hirohiko ISHIKAWA, Weiqiang MA Comparison of GSMaP Mvk Data With Surface Data at Semi-Arid Regions in Africa. The 10th Annual Meeting of Asia Oceania Geosciences Society, 2013.06.24-2013.06.28, AOGS, Brisbane, Australia.

Ikazaki, K., Shinjo, H., Tanaka, U., Tobita, S., Funakawa, S., Kosaki, T. "Fallow Band System", a do-nothing practice for controlling wind erosion and improving soil fertility in the Sahel, West Africa. Conference on Desertification and Land Degradation, 2013.06.17-2013.06.18, Ghent, Belgium.

NAKAMURA, Hiroshi Herder's transition of Economic Class and Labor after Natural Disaster. The 14th Spring Conference of The Japan Society for International Development, 2013.06.08, Utsunomiya University (Utsunomiya City). (in Japanese)

Sugihara, S., Funakawa, S., Shinjo, H., Kadono, A., Takata, Y., Sawada, K., Ikazaki, K., Fujii, K., Kosaki, T. In situ short-term dynamics of CO2 flux and microbial biomass after simulated rainfall in dry croplands under the different climate and soil texture. IUSS 2013 Global Soil Carbon Workshop, 2013.06.03-2013.06.06, Wisconsin, USA.

Yuji TAKENOSHITA, Nobutaka KAMEI, Kae AMO, Takao SHIMIZU, Nobuhide SAWAMURA Forum for "Studies on African Childhood": School Education and Traditional Education in Francophone Africa. 50th Japan Association for African Studies, 2013.05.25-2013.05.26, The Tokyo University, Tokyo. (in Japanese)

Sakurai, Takeshi and Ryo Inoue Economic Development and Desertification in the West Africa Semi-Arid Tropics: The Case of Burkina Faso in 30 Years. Third Workshop of Desertification Project, 2013.05.11-2013.05.12, Research Institute of Humanity and Nature, Kyoto. (in Japanese)

MIURA R. On the origin of the Japanese aphorism "The good farmer weeds the field without seeing weeds". The 52th Annual Meeting of the Weed Science Society of Japan, 2013.04.13-2013.04.14, Kyoto Uni., JAPAN. (in Japanese)

Takao SHIMIZU Quranic School as Traditional Ecucation on Inland West Africa 1: Case Study on Fakara region. 11th Africa Educational Research Forum, 2013.04.12-2013.04.13, Kyoto Wemen's University, Kyoto. (in Japanese)

Ando, K., Shinjo, H., Kuramitsu, H, Miura, R., Funakawa, S Agroecological studies on slash-and-burn agriculture in a woodland in Eastern Province of Zambia 4. Effects of history of cultivation on recovery of soil organic matter and vegetation during fallow. Japanese Society for Tropical Agriculture, 2013.03.30-2013.03.31, Ibaraki University (Ami, Ibaraki Prefecture). (in Japanese)

Ando, K., Shinjo, H., Kuramitsu, H, Miura, R., Funakawa, S Agroecological studies on slash-and-burn agriculture in a woodland in Eastern Province of Zambia 3. Effects of burning and cultivation on soil fertility. Japanese Society for Tropical Agriculture, 2012.10.06-2012.10.07, Nagoya University (Nagoya City). (in Japanese)

Ando, K., Shinjo, H., Kuramitsu, H, Miura, R., Funakawa, S Effects of cropping and fallow rotation on soil organic matter in semiarid Africa. Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plan Nutrition, 2012.09.04-2012.09.07, Tottori University (Tottori City). (in Japanese)

Mizuno, K Environmental change and vegetation succession along an ephemeral river, the Kuiseb River in the Namib Desert. 32nd International Geographical Congress, 2012.08.27, Cologne, Germany.

Hirohiko ISHIKAWA On the use of satellite derived precipitation data in semi-arid environment in Asia and Africa. International Symosium on Sustainability/Survivability Science for a Resilient Society Adaptable to extreme Weather Conditions, 2012.08.03-2012.08.04, Kyoto University, Kyoto.

H. Nakamura, T. Shimizu, S. Seto, U. Tanaka, H. Shinjyo Trial activities of mitigating water erosion for improvement livelihood by indigenous knowledge. the 13th Spring Conference of The Japan Society for International Development,, 2012.06.02-2012.06.03, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa. (in Japanese)

NAKAMURA, Hiroshi, T. Shimizu, S. Seto, U. Tanaka, H. Shinjyo Trial activities of mitigating water erosion for improvement livelihood by indigenous knowledge. The 13th Spring Conference of The Japan Society for International Development, 2012.06.02-2012.06.03. (in Japanese)

K.P. Singh, H. Miyazaki, H. Endo, J.S. Kharakwal, Ueru Tanaka SAVE THE INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE TECHNIQUES (Special Reference to Rajasthan). National Seminar on Traditional Storage Technology and Agricultural System, 2013.10.27-2013.10.28, Udaipur, India..

Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI, KP Singh, H. ENDO, U. TANAKA Soil Fertility Management for Smallholder Farmer in Semi Arid Tropics: In case of South Rajasthan.. National Seminar on Traditional Storage Technology and Agricultural System, 2013.10.27-2013.10.28, Udaipur, India.

Oyama, S. Why does population explosion occur in the country? : People's thought for the success in Niger. . Niger Day. NGO Common Niger , 2013.09.15, Moriya Citizens Activity Support Center. (in Japanese)

Yudai Ishimoto, Hidetoshi Miyazaki, Ueru Tanaka, Chieko Umetsu Discussion on the Informal Safety Net by Mobile Phone in Southern Zambia.. The 4th Lusaka Resilience Workshop, "Towards Comprehensive Food Security: Bridging Climate Resilience and Disaster Resilience, 2013.08.29, Lusaka, ZAMBIA.

Oyama, S. Conflict in Africa and "African potential" for achieving coexistence based on indigenous knowledge and institutions.. Geographical Union (IGU2013) Regional Conference Joint Session , 2013.08.05, Kyoto International Conference Center, Kyoto.

Koki TESHIROGI Natural environments and livestock farming in arid land, Namibia.. RIHN-HUAF Collaboration Seminar on "African Development Assistance with Asia, 2013.03.06, Hue, Vietnam.

Takao SHIMIZU Protecting environment and human life in Sahel : A case study of “Planting Andropogon”on Fakara, Republic of Niger.. RIHN-HUAF Collaboration Seminar on "African Development Assistance with Asia", 2013.03.06, CARD, Hue Univ. of Agri. and Forestry, Hue, Vietnam.

H. Miyazaki, Y. Ishimoto, M. Yamashita, U. Tanaka, C. Umetsu Coping behaviors with extremely heavy rainfalls in Southern Zambia - Comparison between 2007/08 and 2009/10 -. RIHN-HUAF Collaboration Seminar on "African Development Assistance with Asia,, 2013.03.06, CARD, Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue, Vietnam..

Yuko SASAKI Technology dissemination and social networks at rural areas in the Sahel, West Africa. . RIHN-HUAF Collaboration Seminar on "African Development Assistance with Asia", 2013.03.06, CARD, Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue, Vietnam.

Takao SHIMIZU 〝Taribé and “Street Children” in Ouagadougou: how students of Qur’anic school became “Street Children”?. . International Union for Ethnological and Anthropological Sciences “Children and youth in the changing world”, 2012.10.26-2012.10.30, Bhubaneswar, India..

Shinjo, H., Anod, K., Noro, Y., Kuramitsu, H., Takenaka, S., Miura, R., Tanaka, Y., Shibata, S., Miyazaki, H., and Sokotela, S. Agro-ecological study on slash-and-burn agriculture in a woodland in Eastern Province, Zambia. 1. Effects of burning and inter-annual climatic variation on maize production.. The 112th conference of Japanese Society of Tropical Agriaculture., 2012.10.06-2012.10.07, Nagoya University, Nagoya.

Oyama,S. Building up the organic matter circulation between metropolis and rural area in Sahel of West Africa. . Annual Meeting 2012 for Society of Environmental Science, 2012.09.13, Yokohama National University, Yokohama. (in Japanese)

Shinjo, H., Noro, Y., Miyazaki, H., and Sokotela, S. Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and its controlling factors in a woodland in Eastern Province, Zambia.. Annual Meeting of Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 2012, 2012.09.04-2012.09.06, Tottori University, Tottori.

Ueru,TANAKA, Yuko SASAKI, Takao SHIMIZU, Kenta IKAZAKI Practical techniques and extension method for desertification control in the Sahel, West Africa.. International Symposium on Sustainability/Survivability Science for Resilient Society Adaptable to Extreme Weather Condition, 2012.08.03-2012.08.04, Obaku Plaza, Uji, Kyoto.

Oyama, S. Tackling the problems of Desertification in Sahel region of West Africa: Indigenous knowledge based Land Rehabilitation. . Open Seminar of Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University in Tokyo Office. Global Environmental Issues and Local people., 2012.06.02, Kyoto University Tokyo Shinagawa Office, Shinagawa ward, Tokyo. (in Japanese)

Oyama, S. "Harukuki (movement)" concept of Hausa society and population increase in Niger. . 49th Academic meeting for Japanese Society of African Studies. , 2012.05.27, National Museum of Ethnology, Suita.. (in Japanese)

Oyama, S. Land rehabilitation methods based on the refuse input: local practices of Hausa farmers in the Sahel, West Africa. . Session of Natural resource use and management. Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2012, 2012.05.23, Makuhari, Chiba. (in Japanese)

Oyama, S. Encountering the people utilizing trash for land rehabilitation. . Open Seminar of Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University, 2012.04.14, "Frontiers for African Area Studies" Kyoto. (in Japanese)

【Poster Presentation】

・Komatsu Shota, Satoru Muranaka, Hsiaoping Chien, and Takeshi Sakurai Insecurity and Commodity Market Disintegration: The Case of Nigeria. Agricultural Economics Society of Japan Annual Meeting 2016, 2016.03.29-2016.03.30, Akita Prefectural University, Akita, Japan.

Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI, Yudai ISHIMOTO, Shinichi SETO and Ueru TANAKA Toward effective soil fertility management in the West African Sahel. DesertlandII The 2015 Conference on Desertification and Land Degradation, 2015.06.16-2016.06.17, Ghent, Belgium.

ISHIYAMA, Shun Southward Migration of Kanemubu People in Lake Chad Area. 26th conference of the Japanese Association for Arid Land Studies, 2015.05.23-2015.05.24, Akita City, Akita Prefecture. (in Japanese)

ISHIYAMA, Shun, ISHIMOTO, Y., INAI H., KADOMURA H., SAKAI, M., JEGADEESAN, M Livelihood Strategies under the Extreme Weather in African-Asian Drylands, Toward Inter Reagional Comparison. 26th Conference of the Japanese Association of Arid land Studies, 2015.05.23-2015.05.24, Akita City, Akita Prefecture. (in Japanese)

SASAKI,Yuko, TANAKA, Ueru, IKAZAKI, Kenta, SHINJO, Hitoshi, TOBITA, Satoshi Improved Extension Method of Practical Technique to Cope with Desertification in Niger, West Africa. 3rd UNCCD Science Conferece, 2015.03.09-2015.03.12, Cancun, Mexico.  http://3sc.unccd.int/

MUNIANDI JEGADEESAN, Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI and Ueru TANAKA Agrarian Change and Livelihood Diversification in Tamil Nadu. A National Seminar on Extension Management Strategies for Sustainable Agriculture –Challenges and Opportunities (EMASSA-2014), 2014.12.12-2014.12.13, Home Science College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai, India. (Best Poster Award)

Ando, K., Shinjo, H., Kuramitsu, H., Miura, H., Funakawa, S. Effects of cropping and short natural fallow rotation on carbon balance in the semiarid tropics of Africa. 20th World Congress of Soil Science, 2014.06.08-2014.06.13, Jeju, Korea.

Shinjo, H., Ikazaki, K., Imanaka, S., Tanaka, U., Hayashi, K., Tobita, S. and Kosaki, T. Sustainable and efficient land management practices in the Sahel. 20th World Congress of Soil Science, 2014.06.08-2014.06.13, Jeju Korea. (Best Poster Award)  

Taguchi, K., Shinjo, H., and Ikazaki, K. Effects of soil texture on millet growth in the Sahel of West Africa.. The annual meeting of Japanese Society of Pedology 2014, 2014.05.21, Shimane University, Matsue.

Yuko SASAKI The Extension Method of Practical Technique to Control Wind Erosion at Rural Areas in NIger, West Africa.. GCOE-ARS Final Symposium 2013, 2013.12.01-2013.12.03, Uji Campus, Kyoto University.

Ueru TANAKA, K. IKAZAKI, Y. SASAKI, H. SHINJO and S. TOBITA A technique practical for local people to improve crop performance with erosion control in the Sahel, West Africa. GCOE-ARS Final Symposium 2013, 2013.12.01-2013.12.03, Uji Campus, Kyoto University, Kyoto.

Ueru TANAKA, K. IKAZAKI, Y. SASAKI, H. SHINJO and S. TOBITA A technique practical and affordable for local people to improve crop performance with erosion control in the Sahel, West Africa. Conference on Desertification and Land Degradation, 2013.07.17-2013.07.18, University of Ghent, Belgium.

T. Shimizu, U. Tanaka, Y. Sasaki, K. Ikazaki, H. Shinjo and H. Nakamura Co-design of practical technique using local materials and knowledge to control water erosion with improvement of household income in Niger, West Africa. Conference on Desertification and Land Degradation, 2013.06.17-2013.06.18, Ghent, Belgium.

Yuko SASAKI, Ueru TANAKA, Kenta IKAZAKI, Hitoshi SHINJO, Satoshi TOBITA  Lessons learnt from the extenstion of practical technique to control wind erosion with improvement of crop performance in Niger, West Africa.. Conference on Desertification and Land Degradation , 2013.06.17-2013.06.18, Ghent, Belgium.

Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI, Y. ISHIMOTO, U. TANAKA, C. UMETSU Transformation of the ownership of indigenous trees as common resources - a case study in the semiarid tropics of Zambia -. IASC2013 (International Association for the Study of the Commons 2013), 2013.06.03-2013.06.07, Kitafuji, Japan.

Ueru Tanaka, K. Ikazaki, Y. Sasaki, H. Shinjo, S. Tobita Practical technique and extension method for improvement of crop performance with wind erosion control.. UNCCD 2nd Scientific Coference, 2013.04.09-2013.04.12, Bonn, Germany.

Umetsu, Chieko, Yudai Ishimoto, Hiromitsu Kanno, Thamana Lekprichakul, Hidetoshi MIyazaki, Takeshi Sakurai, Hitoshi Shinjo, Taro Yamauchi Building farmers’ resilience to food insecurity in Southern Zambia under rainfall variability. World Water Week 2012, 2012.08.23-2012.08.31, Stockholm . Best Poster Award

【Invited Lecture / Honorary Lecture / Panelist】

Hidetoshi MIYAZAKI Resilience Behavior of Rural Households towards Natural Disaster. Interactive session, 2014.09.10, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tamil Nadu, India.  .

Sakurai, Takeshi and Ryo Inoue Demand for Mineral Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and Poverty Reduction among Rural Households: The Case of Gold Rush in Burkina Faso. 2014 Annual Conference of the Agricultural Economics Society of Japan, 2014.03.29-2014.03.30, Kobe University, Kobe. (in Japanese)

Ueru Tanaka Practical technique to improve crop performance and wind erosion control in the Sahel, West Africa. Special Seminar in Ankara , 2013.07.29, Ministry of Water and Forest, Ankara, Turkey.

Shinjo, H. How do we deal with soils in semiarid tropics of Africa?. The 197th seminar of African area studies organized by The Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University, 2013.07.18, Kyoto University, Kyoto.

Ishimoto, Y. Safety Net of Agro-pastoralists in the Sahel. Symposium in the 59th Academic meeting for Japanese Society of Sand Dune Research, 2013.07.04-2013.07.05, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo). (in Japanese)

Sakurai, Takeshi and Ryo Inoue Development of the Rural Economy of Burkina Faso in 30 Years: Have They Escaped from the Poverty?. IER Seminar, Institute of Economic Research, 2013.07.03, Hitotsubashi University, Kunitachi. (in Japanese)

Ueru Tanaka, Yuko Sasaki, Takao Shimizu and Kenta Ikazaki Design and verification of practical techniques concurrently enhancing farmland productivity and desertification control in the Sahel, West Africa. TICAD V Official Side Event, 2013.06.02, Yokohama.

Ueru Tanaka Local knowledge and soil-friendly tool in Sahelian traditional agriculture. International Forum on GIAHS, 2013.05.29, Nanao, Ishikawa Pref..

Sakurai, Takeshi Africa’s Economic Growth and Its Food Production. Hitotsubashi University Open Course, 2013.05.16, Josuikaikan Hall, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. (in Japanese)

Mizuno, K. The change of natural environments and vegetation in Namib Desert. . Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology, Research group of arid revegetation, Symposium "Nature and conservation of Namib Desert, Africa", 2013.02.09, Tokyo City University (Yokohama, Kanagawa). (in Japanese)

Sakurai, Takeshi Extreme Weather and the Food Security of the World” Climate Lectures on “Weather and Our Life: The Impact of Extreme Weather and Climate Change on Agriculture. Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013.01.18, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. (in Japanese)