Completed Research

StageCR
Project No.C-03
Project NameRecent Rapid Change of Water Circulation in the Yellow River and Its Effects on Environment
Project LeaderFUKUSHIMA, Yoshihiro
Research AxisCirculation
URLhttp://www.chikyu.ac.jp/yris/

 

○Research Subject and Objectives

Objectives of our research project were to identify below questions.

◆ Why were river water of the Yellow River disappeared in the downstream channel almost during 226days in 1997?

◆ What did the effects on environment of the Yellow River basin and Bohai Sea been occurred by a dry-up of the river water?

◆ Which general problems and local issues have been suggested by the results of the project research?

◆ We would like to propose some materials that a wise use keeping long-term period for natural resources like river water in semi-arid area is

○Progress and Results in 2017

 First of all, we newly found why such a severe dry-up had occurred during 30 years from 1970 to 1997 downstream in the Yellow River. It was because of the decrease of river discharge almost 15 billion m3 from Loess Plateau area occupying 41% of the whole Yellow River basin. The real reason was due to the success of reforestation works on Loess Plateau area by having been carried out conservation works of water and soil since 1950.

The Yellow River Commission has understood agricultural, industrial and cities’ water demands. I, however, felt that the Yellow River Commission, Chinese scientists and engineers never have become aware of such a large amount of the decrease on river water except of intake irrigation agricultural fields. Our conclusion is that the situation has brought water shortage in the Yellow River.

Concerning the effects against atmosphere by human activities for agriculture on Loess Plateau, we have still not conclusive results because of topographic effect and fluctuation of magnitude in Asian Monsoon. But, we have to continue analysis after the ending of our project because we have got so many observed data in Loess Plateau.

By the shortage of the Yellow River has induced Bohai Sea to change environment, also. Inflow of phosphorus decreased remarkably to Bohai Sea and the amount of exchanging water of both sea and fresh water between Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea.

○Project Members

IMURA Hidefumi ( Graduate school of Environmental studies ,Nagoya University,Professor,Analysis of water demand on socio-economical view point )

ONISHI Akio ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Research Fellow,Analysis of water demand on socio-economical view point )

SHIRAKAWA Hiroaki ( Graduate school of Environmental studies ,Nagoya University,Associate Professor,Analysis of water demand on socio-economical view point )

HIGASHI Osamu ( Graduate school of Environmental studies ,Nagoya University,Assistant Professor,Analysis of water demand on socio-economical view point )

SHI Feng ( Graduate school of Environmental studies ,Nagoya University,graduate student,Analysis of water demand on socio-economical view point )

HAN Ji ( Graduate school of Environmental studies ,Nagoya University,graduate student,Analysis of water demand on socio-economical view point )

WATANABE Tsugihiro ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Professor,Investigation of actual large irrigation agriculture holds in the Yellow River Basin )

HOSHIKAWA Keisuke ( Centre for Integrated area studies, Kyoto University,Assistant Professor,Investigation of actual large irrigation agriculture holds in the Yellow River Basin. )

KUME Takashi ( Tottori University,Research Fellow,Investigation of actual large irrigation agriculture holds in the Yellow River Basin )

HIYAMA Tetsuya ( HyARC, Nagoya University,Associate Professor,Analysis of observation on energy and water vapour between land surface and atmospheric boundary layer in Loess Plateau )

HIGUCHI Atsushi ( Centre for Environmental Remote Sensing Research, Chiba University,Associate Professor,Analysis of observation on energy and water vapour between land surface and atmospheric boundary layer in Loess Plateau )

TAKAHASHI Atsuhiro ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Research Fellow,Analysis of observation on energy and water vapour between land surface and atmospheric boundary layer in Loess Plateau )

SHINODA Taro ( HyARC, Nagoya University,Assistant Professor,Analysis of observation on energy and water vapour between land surface and atmospheric boundary layer in Loess Plateau )

FUJINAMI Hatsuki ( HyARC, Nagoya University,Assistant Professor,Analysis of observation on energy and water vapour between land surface and atmospheric boundary layer in Loess Plateau )

NISHIKAWA Masanori ( HyARC, Nagoya University,graduate student,Analysis of observation on energy and water vapour between land surface and atmospheric boundary layer in Loess Plateau )

SHAO Mingan ( Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS,Director,Analysis of observation on energy and water vapour between land surface and atmospheric boundary layer in Loess Plateau )

LIU Wenzhao ( Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS,Professor,Analysis of observation on energy and water vapour between land surface and atmospheric boundary layer in Loess Plateau )

TANIGUCHI Makoto ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Associate Professor,Investigation of performance for groundwater and surface water including water amount and chemical materials in delta area to Bohai Sea )

ONODERA Shinichi, ( Graduate school of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University,Associate Professor,Investigation of performance for groundwater and surface water including water amount and chemical materials in delta area to Bohai Sea )

MIYAOKA Kunihide ( Faculty of Education, Mie University,Associate Professor,Investigation of performance for groundwater and surface water including water amount and chemical materials in delta area to Bohai Sea )

TOKUNAGA Tomochika ( Graduate school of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo,Associate Professor,Investigation of performance for groundwater and surface water including water amount and chemical materials in delta area to Bohai Sea )

ISHITOBI Tomotoshi ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Research Fellow,Investigation of performance for groundwater and surface water including water amount and chemical materials in delta area to Bohai Sea )

CHEN Jianyao ( School of Geographical Science & Planning, Zhongshan University,Professor,Investigation of performance for groundwater and surface water including water amount and chemical materials in delta area to Bohai Sea )

BURNETT William ( Florida State University,Professor,Investigation of performance for groundwater and surface water including water amount and chemical materials in delta area to Bohai Sea )

LIU Guanqun ( Ocean University of China,Professor,Investigation of performance for groundwater and surface water including water amount and chemical materials in delta area to Bohai Sea, )

MI Tiezhu ( Ocean University of China,Associate Professor,Investigation of performance for groundwater and surface water including water amount and chemical materials in delta area to Bohai Sea )

YANAGI Tetsuo ( RIAM, Kyushu University,Professor,Investigation of Changes of Oceanography and basic bio-production in Bohai Sea )

GUO Xinyu ( Centre for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University,Associate Professor,Investigation of Changes of Oceanography and basic bio-production in Bohai Sea )

HAYASHI Mitsuru ( Research Centre for Inland Sea, Kobe University,Associate Professor,Investigation of Changes of Oceanography and basic bio-production in Bohai Sea )

YAMAGUCHI Hitomi ( Centre for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University,Research Fellow,Investigation of Changes of Oceanography and basic bio-production in Bohai Sea )

GAO Huiwang ( Ocean University of China,Professor,Investigation of Changes of Oceanography and basic bio-production in Bohai Sea )

KINOSHITA Tetsuya ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Professor,Historical analysis during 2000 years for changes of river channel and flood control downstream )

SATO Yoshinobu ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Research Fellow,Analysis of water budget changes in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model, )

MA Xieyao ( Frontier Research System for Global Change,Research scientist,Analysis of water budget changes in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model )

OHTA Takeshi, ( Graduate school of Bio agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University,Professor,Analysis of water budget changes in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model )

MATSUOKA Masayuki ( Graduate School of Agriculture, Kochi University,Lecturer,Analysis of water budget changes in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model )

XU Jianqing ( Frontier Research System for Global Change,Research scientist,Analysis of water budget changes in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model )

LIU Changming ( Institute of Geographical Sciences and natural Resources Research,CAS,Professor,Analysis of water budget changes in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model )

XIA Jun ( Institute of Geographical Sciences and natural Resources Research,CAS,Professor,Analysis of water budget changes in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model )

LIU Jinshi ( Institute of Tibetan Plateau, CAS,Professor,Analysis of water budget changes in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model )

XIE Pingping ( NOAA/CPC,USA,Researcher,Analysis of water budget changes in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model )

SHEN Bing ( Xi’an University of Technology,Professor,Analysis of water budget changes in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model )

ZHENG Hongxing ( Institute of Geographical Sciences and natural Resources Research,CAS,Associate Professor,Analysis of water budget changes in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model )

KRECEK Josef ( Department of Hydrology, Czech Technical University,Associate Professor,Analysis of water budget changes in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model )

HALDIN Sven ( Dept of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University,Professor,Analysis of water budget changes in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model )

FUKUSHIMA Yoshihiro ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Professor,Synthetic suggestion for managing the Yellow River and irrigated agriculture in arid region )

○Future Themes

Methods on implementation

 The Yellow River basin has 750×103 km2 in basin area, and the length of a main channel is 5,500km.

Its basin area is second following to Chang Jiang River in China and it exceed twice of Japanese whole land area. By the objectives, we composed of the following seven sub-study themes;

1. Analysis of water demand on socio-economical view point

2. Investigation of actual large irrigation agriculture hold in the Yellow River Basin

3. Analysis of observation on energy and water vapour between land surface and atmospheric boundary layer in Loess Plateau

4. Investigation of performance for groundwater and surface water including water amount and chemical materials in delta area to Bohai Sea

5. Changes of Oceanography and basic bio-production in Bohai Sea

Historical analysis during 2000 years for changes of river channel and flood control downstream in c), we have composed of seven sub-study teams except of sub-study theme No.8 because this team took a synthetic role trough the whole project. The sub-study teams No.3 to No. 5 teams are to clarify from field observation and investigations using by high prices equipments such as a Wind Profiler Radar and a resisitivity instrument with tomography. Sub-study team 1, 2 and 7 are to clarify real status and its yearly changes relevant to social-economic demand of water, irrigated agricultural and meteorological, hydrological and water intake amount on the Yellow River during recent 40~50 years by the generally open data and investigated data. But sub-study team No. 6 is to clarify what a basic idea for protecting flood disasters in each dynasty over 2000 years was.

6. Fortunately, we have shared the same study room. Therefore, there were so many discussions among researchers in different research fields. I as a project leader was very lucky because every questionable problem were almost resolved by our sincere talks. Whether this is true or not will be judged by distinguished evaluators.

7. Analysis of water budget changes of six sections in the Yellow River basin using by improved hydrological model which is possible to separate natural phenomena and human activities as parameters

8. Synthetic suggestion for managing the Yellow River and irrigated agriculture in arid region.

Results obtained by the project is as follows:

First of all, we newly found why such a severe dry-up had occurred during 30 years from 1970 to 1997 downstream in the Yellow River. It was because of the decrease of river discharge almost 15 billion m3 from Loess Plateau area occupying 41% of the whole Yellow River basin. The real reason was due to the success of reforestation works on Loess Plateau area by having been carried out conservation works of water and soil since 1950.

The Yellow River Commission has understood agricultural, industrial and cities’ water demands. I, however, felt that the Yellow River Commission, Chinese scientists and engineers never have become aware of such a large amount of the decrease on river water except of intake irrigation agricultural fields. Our conclusion is that the situation has brought water shortage in the Yellow River.

Concerning the effects against atmosphere by human activities for agriculture on Loess Plateau, we have still not conclusive results because of topographic effect and fluctuation of magnitude in Asian Monsoon. But, we have to continue analysis after the ending of our project because we have got so many observed data in Loess Plateau.

By the shortage of the Yellow River has induced Bohai Sea to change environment, also. Inflow of phosphorus decreased remarkably to Bohai Sea and the amount of exchanging water of both sea and fresh water between Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea.

Future issues considered are as follows:

The raising period of human population might have to increase irrigated agricultural fields to rather dry area in climate condition in order to get more food crop. Nevertheless, an effort of the efficiency of water use seems too late to improve in agricultural field with rather small amount of precipitation. And salt accumulation is apt to cause even the Yellow River Basin. The water supply from Chang Jiang River to Beijing, Tianjin and North China Plain are to realize soon.

But it may have so many problems because water pollution of the Yellow River water is not solved now. Therefore, Diversion of water may have cause expansion of water pollution to Bohai Sea.

Books

【Authored/Co-authored】

Fukushima, Y. & M.Taniguchi 2008 Environmental issues related to water resources in the Yellow River basin. Gakuhousha, Tokyo, 1-259 (in Japanese) YRiS project

Fukushima, Y. 2007 Dry-up of the Yellow River. RIHN publication series. Showado Press, Kyoto, 1-187 (in Japanese) Y.Fukushima as a leader of YRiS project

Editing

【Editing / Co-editing】

TAKEUCHI, Kuniyoshi and Yoshihiro FUKUSHIMA (ed.) 2007 Mekong and the Yellow Rivers. , 1-267 (in Japanese) Report on Changes of water resources by natural and human activities under Asian Monsoon, Research Revolution 2002, MEXT

(ed.) Proceedings of International Workshop on The Yellow River Studies-Kick off meeting. , 1-67 Jun. 27-29, 2003

(ed.) Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Yellow River Studies. , 1-172 Nov. 8-10, 2004

(ed.) Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop on Yellow River Studies. , 1-121 Feb. 14-15, 2007

Open of the YRiS (Yellow River Studies) activities by web-site and publishing of News Letters: No. 1-No.7, during from Sept.1, 2003 until May 1, 2007. (http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/yris/newsletters.html)

YRiS project office (ed.) Proceedings of Yellow River domestic Study. , 1-85 (in Japanese) Oct. 2003

YRiS project office (ed.) Proceedings of Yellow River domestic Study. , 1-134 (in Japanese) Dec. 2005

YRiS project office (ed.) Proceedings of Yellow River domestic Study. , 1-124 (in Japanese) Nov. 2006

Papers

【Original Articles】

FUKUSHIMA, Yoshihiro 2004 Runoff formation system in forest. Jpn. Soc. Water Environment Vol.27 (9):575-578. (in Japanese)

WATANABE, Tsugihiro and Keisuke HOSHIKAWA 2006 Water use in irrigated agricultural field with large scale in the Yellow River basin. Jpn. Desert Research 16(2):97-101.

FUKUSHIMA, Yoshihiro 2006 Long-term changes of water level in Isik-Kul Lake, Central Asia. Jpn. Water Use Science Vol.286:74-91. (in Japanese)

ONISHI, Akio, H. IMURA, H. SHIRAKAWA and S. KANG 2006 Time and special structure of water demand in the Yellow River basin. Jpn Environmental System Study Vol34:611-622. (in Japanese)

Xie, Pingping, A. Yatagai, M. Chen, T. Hayasaka, Y. Fukushima, C. Liu and S. Yang 2007,06 A Gauge-Based Analysis of Daily Precipitation over East Asia. Journal of Hydrometeorology, American Meteorological Society:607-626.

Matsuoka, Masayuki, T. Hayasaka, Y. Fukushima and Y. Honda 2007,01 Land cover in East Asia classified using Terra MODIS and DMSP OLS products. International Journal of Remote Sensing Vol.28(Nos. 1-2):221-248.

Cui, Guoqing and T Yanagi 2007 Dispersion of suspended sediment originated from the Yellow River in the Bohai Sea. Coastal Marine Science 31(1):9-18.

Sato Yoshinobu, X. Ma, M. Matsuoka and Y. Fukushima 2007 Impacts of human activity on long-term water balance in the middle-reaches of the Yellow River basin. International Association of Hydrological Science 315:85-91.

Chen, Jianyao, M. Taniguchi, G. Liu, K. Miyaoka, S. Onodera T. Tokunaga and Y. Fukushima 2007 Nitrate pollution of groundwater in the Yellow River delta. Hydrological Journal, Springer-Verlag. DOI 10.1007/s10040-007-007-0196-7