Full Research

Project No.C-08
Project NameMegacities and the Global Environment
Project LeaderMURAMATSU, Shin
Research AxisCirculation
Key WordsMegacity, developing country, built environment, natural environment, social environment, city sustainable index, scenarios


○Research Subject and Objectives

a) Research objectives and background

   Since the end of the 20th century we have seen a rapid increase in the size of urban populations in developing countries as these countries simultaneously experience high rates of economic growth. These two phenomena have unleashed a multitude of problems in these countries, such as waste and garbage issues, air pollution, traffic congestion, food shortages, and/or rampant consumerism. These problems afflicting the enormous cities in these countries have started to spill over and impact on the developed world and the planet as a whole. We do not necessarily have a detailed understanding, however, of how this emergence of supersized cities in developing countries, along with what is happening inside them, relates to global environmental problems; of which particular global environmental problems to which they relate; the damage being caused by those global environmental problems as a result; or what measures to take to deal with those problems. Many research institutions are currently taking tentative steps to conduct research into supersized cities in relation to global environmental problems. Much of this research, however, is focused on macro, indirect observations using remote sensing and similar methods, or alternatively is oriented to stereotypical solutions of the “low-carbon city” sort, which place disproportionate importance on the use of science and technology.
   This was the background to start of this project towards the end of the last century, which had as its objectives the development and presentation to communities of reconciliatory proposals that enhance the futurability of both the global environment and the enormous megacities within some developing countries by promoting improvements to the local environments of the residents of those cities while helping to achieve solutions for global environmental problems. 


b) Research methods and organization

   In order to escape from the constrictive approach of looking for more of the existing sort of partial ‘optimal’ solutions for megacities, for this project we set two principal directions for our research. The first was to set a whole region (in this case, Jakarta) as our case study. The second was to start by building an awareness of the object of our research (the megacity), and then proceed to engaging in interventions in local communities using the findings from that process of building awareness – in sum an approach of engaging in “theoretical” science, followed by “practical” science, followed by interventions.
   The first direction of our research was comprised of three aspects: 1) conducting specific research on a megacity itself (by conducting field work in Jakarta as our megacity case study); 2) understanding megacities in relation to the global environment (determining their CSI grouping); and 3) analyzing how the case study connected to issues at the global level (the All World Cities Whole History Group).

   The second research direction involved: 1) analyzing the megacity from different angles (by a Natural Environment Group, Built Environment Group, Economy Group, and History Group); 2) integrating the findings of that analysis (by an Integration Group and a Scenario Group); and 3) developing and verifying methods for interventions in communities (by an Integration Group and a Scenario Group).
   Nine years (IS-FS1-FS2-PR-F1-F2-F3-F4-F5) were spent on this project. These nine years were divided into four phases, and using the track and field sport of the triple-jump as an analogy, these phases could be described respectively as a running approach phase (IS-FS1-FS2), followed by a hop (PR-F1), step (F2, F3, F4), and jump (F3, F4, F5) phase. In the running approach phase we undertook a broad discussion of the relationship between cities and the global environment; during the hop phase we focused on the problems of megacities; in the step phase we went on an exploration to achieve integration; and in the final jump phase we integrated the different findings in pursuit of the originality of this project.

○Progress and Results in 2019

 Already four years have passed since FR1 of this project. Here we detail the results we have achieved to date through research in this project and areas where we have yet to achieve results based on the four questions we stated at the beginning (in RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND).


0)  Research Premises

   To establish coherence throughout the project, we reviewed the (1) definition of a city as a premise for this research, and determined it to be an area having a population density of 2,000 or more per square kilometer. Because this definition of a city was based on a current population standard, however, we had to give further thought about the extent to which it could be historically

retrospective. As a unit for urban analyses, we also developed (2) residentialenvironment types that classified urban built-up areas of 250m x 250m according to population density, building height, and planned/unplanned. This made it possible to analyze cities in greater detail than existing land usemaps. Moreover, because the existing definition of a megacity as a city with apopulation of 10 million and over was not clear, we undertook the task of redefining what a (3) megacity signified. On the basis of this new definition, we found that in cities with populations of four million and over in comparison with cities with populations of less than four million, the diversity of residential environment types found in those cities varied. Inaddition to recognizing the 18 existing cities with populations of 10 millionor more as megacities, we also found that 35 cities with populations of four million or more and not more than 10 million are similar in character to megacities.


1)     What kinds of impacts do cities have on the globalenvironment?

   We began our research with the value judgment that whatever was beneficial for both cities and the global environment was desirable. Therefore, to consider beneficial measures, instead of simply considering research that shed light on global limitations attributable to cities, we established (1) a CSI (city sustainable index) for assessing the efficiency of cities by analyzing the impact of cities on the environment and the social and economic benefits from cities based on a number of indicators relating to the environment (global environment and urban environment), the economy and society.  This CSI consists of two types of indicators: restricting indicators that restrict environmental impacts caused by cities, and maximizing indicators for strongly inducing social and economic benefits. At present we have already conducted 18 megacity assessments using five restricting indicators and seven maximizing indicators. We believe this research to be the most essential research inconsidering cities in relation to the global environment.


2)     How varied are the world’s cities in their stages of regional and economic development?

To answer this question, we undertook (1) a comparison of 18 megacities based on criteria such as topography, climate, city configuration, type of residential environment, and methods of communications, etc. As a result ofthis research, we found it was possible to classify the 18 megacities into about five types: 1) Monsoon Asia type (Tokyo, Shanghai, Jakarta, Dhaka, etc.); 2)Yellow Belt type (Beijing, Delhi, Cairo, etc.); 3) Euro-American type (NewYork, Los Angeles), 4) Tropical Africa type (Lagos); and 5) Latin American type(Mexico City, Sao Paulo, etc.)


3)     How varied should measures for mitigating impacts onthe global environment be for each region?

   From our field work in greaterJakarta, we found that the monsoon Asia type of megacity is characterized by its establishment in a rice-producing region that incorporates farmland and farming villages as it expands outwards to mildly undulating areas, is located in areas with high temperatures, high humidity and heavy rainfall, and has a strong sense of community. In the monsoon Asia type megacity, four types of residential environments exist simultaneously: rural village area, urban village area, high-rise residential area, and planned residential area types). Unlike megacities in other areas, megacities at different stages of economic development exist in monsoon Asia type megacities. Therefore, we are beginning to believe that measures used in Tokyo may also be of assistance in greaterJakarta, and that research results in Jakarta may have applicability in cities such as Dhaka.       


4)     How can we simultaneously provide solutions for global environmental problems and benefits for residents of cities and other areas(including poverty, economies, and amenities)?

Using data resulting from research in greater Jakarta to date, we havebeen attempting to verify an urban configuration that will be compatible with the global environment for megacities of monsoon Asia, which are set to expand to areas including rice-producing areas in mildly undulating terrain. (1) In our preparation of Megacity Scenario 2050, we assessed the extent of the environmental impacts of the polycentric city, monocentric city, and city with urban sprawl respectively in efforts to contribute to the training of local administrators. Our research to date indicates that switching to a polycentric configuration with a historiccore has relative advantages in terms of environmental and urban amenities. Furthermore,we are presenting (2) proposals for an eco-urban house for each of the four types of residential environments with a view to mitigating environmental impacts and improving comfort. In specific terms, we are currently formulating plans to i) actually build together with residents an urban village-type communitycenter in a residential area of the poorest segment of the population. We are also planning ii) a new rural village residential model and iii) high-rise residential model that emphasize landscaping, as well as an open-space mid-rise complex residential model.      


5)      How can we return our research results to society?

Rather than confining the results of our research to the academic world, we perceive the scope of this project as extending to the development of methods for funneling the results back to the broader society itself. As noted earlier, local residents and local university students are involved in the (1) cooperative construction of an urban village-type community center, and we consider at present its role as a place of education. Moreover, in Jakarta at present we are also (2) conducting and analyzing urban environmental literacy education for elementary school students. In addition, after integrating collected data, we have also commenced the (3) development and installation of a megacity geographical information system (Megacity GIS) that can be accessed from anywhere.


○Project Members

Muramatsu, Shin ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Professor )

Alinda Medril Zain ( Bogor Agricultural University )

Amemiya, Tomohiko ( Faculty & Graduate School of Urban Environment Sciences )

Aoki, Takenobu ( Center for International Research and Education, Chiba University,Visiting Professor )

Arai, Kenichiro ( Faculty of International Social Studies, Maebashi Kyoai Gakuen College )

Araki, Tetsuya ( Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo )

Arata, Mariko ( Graduate School of Innovation Management, Tokyo Institute of Technology,Assistant Professor )

Asawa, Takashi ( Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology,Associate Professor )

Ayukawa, Kei ( Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo,docotoral course )

Bao, Muping ( Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo )

Bi-Matsui, Taotao

Christodoulou, Aris ( EPFL(Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne), Management of Network Industries )

Chen, Laixing ( Graduate School of Economics, University of Hyogo,Professor )

Evawani, Elisa ( Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia )

Fukami, Naoko ( Organization for Isalmic Area Studies, Waseda University,Senior Researcher(Professor) )

Fujii, Toyonobu ( University of Aberdeen )

Guseva, Anna ( NIITAG )

Harashina, Koji ( Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University,Associate Professor )

Hayashi, Kengo ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature )

Hayashi, Reiko ( Dept of International Reserach and Cooperation, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research,Director )

Hirosue, Masashi ( Faculty of Letters, Rikkyo University,Professor )

Ichinose, Tomohiro ( Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University )

Ikejiri, Takashi ( Kinki University )

Ishikawa, Satoshi ( Department of fisheries, Tokai University )

Itakawa, Satoru ( Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University )

Ito, Kaori ( Department of Architecture, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science )

Iwai, Shigeki ( Institute for Research in Humanities, Kyoto University,Professor )

Iwafune, Yumiko ( Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo,Associate Professor )

Izumikawa, Hiroshi ( Hiroshima Jogakuin University )

Kagotani, Naoto ( Institute of Research in Humanities, Kyoto University,Professor )

Kato, Hironori ( School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo,Associate Professor )

Kato, Tsuyoshi ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Visiting Professor )

Kamiya, Akihiro ( Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo,docotoral course )

Kamiyama, Ryutaro ( Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Science, the University of Tokyo )

Kim, Jinsuk ( Faculty of Economics, Keiai University )

Kimura, Takeshi ( Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, the University of Tsukuba )

Kitagaki Ryoma ( Graduate School of Engineering, the University of Tokyo )

Kurihara, Shinji ( College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University )

McGee, Terry ( The University of British Colombia, Institute of Asian Studies,former Director, Professor )

Meutia, A. Ami. ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature )

Mori, Koichiro ( Shiga University International,Associate Professor )

Matsuda, Hiroko ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature )

Mimura, Yutaka ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature )

Muramakami, Akinobu ( Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering, University of Tsukuba )

Musha, Kaori ( Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo,d )

Nakaookubo, Chiaki ( Graduate School of science and Engineering, Saga University,Associate Professor )

Okabe, Akiko ( Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University,professor )

Ota, Hiroshi ( Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo )

Shima, Norihisa ( Department of Regional Development Studies, Toyo University,Associate Professor )

Shimada, Ryuto ( University of Tokyo Fuculty of Letters, Graduate school of Humanity and Sociology,Associate Professor )

Shiroyama, Tomoko ( Department of Economics, Hitotsubashi University )

Taguchi, Junko ( Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo,docotoral course )

Takaiwa, Yu ( Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo,Master course )

Takeuchi, Wataru ( Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo,Associate Professor )

Tanigawa, Ryuichi ( Kyoto University )

Taniguchi, Makoto ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature )

Torigoe, Keiko ( School of Cultural & Creative Studies, Aoyama Gakuin University,Professor )

Tsuchiya, Sadao ( K.K.Sadao,President )

Uchiyama, Yuta ( Research Institute for Humanities and Nature )

Uehara, Wataru ( Graduate School of Commerce and Management, Hitotsubashi University,Associate Professor )

Uemura, Yasuo ( Faculty of Letters, Hiroshima University,Professor Emeritus )

Washida, Yuichi ( Graduate School of Commerce and Management, Hitotsubashi University,Associate Professor )

Widodo, Johaness ( School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore,Associate Professor )

Yagita, Yoshie ( Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo )

Yamada, Kyota ( Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University )

Yamasaki, Seiko ( hitotsubashi University Graduate School of International Corporate Strategy,reseacher )

Yamashita, Tsuguta ( London school of Economic and Political Science )

Yamashita, Yuko ( Graduate School of Commerce and Management, Hitotsubashi University,Associate Professor )

Yoshida, Koushi ( College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University )

Yoshida, Mari ( College of Business Administration, Ritsumeikan University,Associate Professor )

Zenno, Yasushi ( Aoyama Gakuin Women's Junior College )

○Future Themes

Research Plan

FR5 (2014)

 Since next fiscal year is the final year of the project, we will not only complete the objectives of the project, but also set new goals for the further development of the project in the future.


1. Completion ofthe project goals


1)     Assessment of the burden of cities on the global environment and benefits from cities

(1) Completionof the CSI (city sustainability index): We will strive to make visible the efficiency of all 18 megacities sothat they can be assessed according to approximately 20 indicators which people in general will be able to understand.


2)      Diversity of cities

(1) Comparison of the 18 megacities: We will undertake field studies of Cairo and megacities in South America that have not yet been studied in efforts to clarify more exhaustively the characters of megacity types.

(2) Comparison of urban efficiency according to scale of population:The majority of the world’s 290,000 cities have populations of approximately 20,000. Using the CSI for smaller cities, we will assess urban efficiency by making comparisons of cities with varying population sizes. In doing so, we hope to be able to arrive at a relatively better understanding of the meaning of megacities.


3)     How varied should measures for mitigating impacts onglobal environment be for each region?

(1) We will clarify more exhaustively the commonalities and differences of megacities in monsoon Asia. We will continue to undertake field research inTokyo and Osaka as we have until now, and we will clarify the characters of megacitiesin monsoon Asia such as Dhaka, Jakarta, Manila, Tokyo, and Osaka, as well as the logic linking these.  


4)     Measures for both the mitigation of global environmental problems and benefits for urban residents

(1)  Completion of a “Megacity Scenario 2050” : In autumn 2014we will hold a joint workshop based on the Megacity Scenario 2050 in greaterJakarta with the participation of a local university and government, and we will establish the direction of future cooperative measures with local communities.

(2)  Realization of an eco-urban house for each type of residential environment: In Jakarta we will continue activities to realize new residential models with emphasis on landscaping as well as open-space mid-rise complexhousing models.   


5)      Returning research results

(1)   University study program: We will create aneco-urban house design program for tertiary-level study.

(2)   Completion of a megacity geographical information system (Megacity GIS): We will complete the Megacity GIS which will come packaged with dataof greater Jakarta data, and commence use of it.

(3)   Publication of “Global Environment and Megacities” works: We will summarize and organize the results of the project and publish them as books.



2. New objectives for further development of the project

1)     Exploring partnerships with megacities in monsoon Asia: We will create a platform for application of research results obtained in Jakarta to other megacities in monsoon Asia such as Dhaka, Manila, Bangkok, and Kolkata.

2)     Efforts to disseminate eco-urban houses: We will promote efforts to disseminate eco-urban residential designs by holding an exhibition on eco-urban housing in greater Jakarta and later take this exhibition to other cities.



Fukami N., John Pile (joint translation) 2014 A history of Interior design. Kashiwa Shobo (in Japanese)

S.MURAMATSU & A Hundred People Hundred Landscapes in Kyoto, Okazaki Project, 2013,04 A Hundred People , Hundred Landscapes in Kyoto, Okazaki. Kyoto Tsushinsha Press, 96pp.

HAYASHI, Reiko(with) Yoshimi Chitose, Katsuhisa Kojima, Masato Shimizu, Shiro Koike, Masahiro Kishi, Masataka Nakagawa, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research 2013,03 "2011 Population and Social Security Survey - the Seventh National Survey on Migration" .

Matsuda, Hiroko: 2013,03 Transition of Urban Intervention in Hydrological and Topographical Environment of Batavia under the Rule of the Netherlands, Dissertation. the University of Tokyo.

YAMADA, Kyota 2013 Viewing Sri Lanak from Ghaus Moidheen Mawata, Sri Lanka -Intermingle and Dynamism of Nationalism, Development and Daily Lives. , 54pp.

Ami,M 2012,10 Kado untuk Pasutri Norma Juliandi, dkk “Cinta Suku” . Pena Nusantara Publishing House

FUKAMI, N. 2011 World history in Islamic Architecture. Iwanami Shoten (in Japanese)

AMI, M. 2011 La Tahzan for Student. Lingkar Pena Publishing House, Jakarta (Other)

MURAMATSU, Shin., and MURAMATSU Lab 2010 Urban Heritage in Shibuya. Basilico (in Japanese)

KIDOKORO, T. OKATA, J. MATSUMURA, S. and SHIMA, N. 2008,08 Vulnerable Cities: Realities, innovations and strategies. cSUR-UT : Library for sustainable urban regeneration, 7. Springer, 330pp.

Takeshi Kimura 2008,03 Religions, Science and Sustainability. Union Press

HARA, Y., TAKEUCHI, K., PALIJON, A. and, MURAKAMI, A. 2008 Landfill Development in the Urban Fringe of Metro Manila. Springer Netherlands


Kurihara S. 2014,07 Living Space and Identity. National Museum of Ethnology (ed.) World ethnic encyclopedia. Maruzen, pp.458-459. (in Japanese)

S. KURIHARA, 2013,04 Chapter 4 Space and Behavior”, “Chapter 6 Living and Culture” ,. Research Committee of Teaching Material of Architectural Planning (eds.) Studying Architectural Planning (a revised edition). Rikoh Tosho. pp.21-26+p.251, pp.35-40 +pp.251-252 (In Japanese)

YAMADA, Kyota 2013 Dynamisms in the Hub City of Colombo and the Urban Networks around the Bay of Bengal from the Viewpoint of Daily Activities: The Locations of Religious Architecture from the 17th Century. The report for the Conference on the Cities of whole Earth and History. vol. 8.9.10. , pp.44-65.

KURIHARA, S. 2011 Theoretical Study on the Fieldworker’s eyes (2-1), The Positions of the Fieldworker (chapter 4), The Methods of Drawing Maps (Technical part 3), and Introduction of Literature (6 books). Architectural Institute of Japan (ed.) Let’s go to Fields! –Fieldwork on dwellings and life. Fukyosha.

TANIGAWA, R. 2011 The History of Modern Architecture and City in East Asia. Iwanami modern and contemporary history of East Asia series Separate volume. Iwanami-shoten, pp.177-202.

TANIGAWA, R. 2011 The History of Modern Architecture and City in East Asia. Iwanami modern and contemporary history of East Asia series Separate volume. Iwanami-shoten, pp.177-202.

KIMURA, T. 2011 Mythical Difference and Social Oppression. SHINODA, C. (ed.) Mythes, Symboles et Images. Librarie Rakuro, pp.157-171.

KATO, H. 2010 Case of Nagoya. IEDA, H. (ed.) Sustainable Urban Transport in an Asian Context. Springer, pp.135-137.

SHIMADA, R. 2010 Japanese Copper in the World. ARANO. Y. et al (ed.) Maturity of the Early Modern World. The International Ration of Japan, 6. Yoshikawakobunkan. (in Japanese)

IWAI, S. 2010 Tribute and Trade. The Modern History of East Asia, vol.1, The Modern Era of East Asia : Nineteenth Century. Iwanami-syoten, Tokyo, pp.134-153. (in Japanese)

IWAI, S. 2010 The International relations after China-Manchu struggle. The International Ration of Japan, vol.6, Maturity of Early Modern World. Yoshikawa-kobunkan, Tokyo. (in Japanese)

FUKAMI, N. 2010 Global Islamic Architecture – Its universality and diversity. Islam in Japan – Past, present and future. Bunka-bu in in Saudi Arabian Embassy, pp.35-70.

SHIROYAMA, T. 2010 China's relations with the international monetary system in the 20th century: historical analysis and contemporary implication. AKITA, S. and WHITE, N. (ed.) The International Order of Asia in the 1930s and the 1950s. Ashgate.

KATO, H. 2010 Urban transportation policy and poverty reduction in Asia. IEDA, H. (ed.) Sustainab Urban Transport in an Asian Contex let. Springer, pp.410-413.

ANDERSEN, H.T. 2008 Metropolis and Periphery in Denmark.. GÜLDENBERG, E. (ed.) Europäische Raumentwicklung: Metropolem und Periphere Regionen. Environmental University of Hannover, pp.119-129.

ANDERSEN, H.T. 2008 Renovasión urbana en Dinamarca de la demolición de los barrios probes al desarrollo urbano sostenible.. LEAL, J.M. (ed.) Rehabilitición de veveindas y renovasión urbana en las grandes ciudades europeas. Ciudad de Madrid, Madrid, pp.67-91. (Other)

ARATA, M. Enjoying Various Spices: Chili Peppers in Indonesia.. YAMAMOTO, N. (ed.) Songs of Praise to Chili Peppers. Yasaka-shobo, pp.150-160. (in Japanese)


【Editing / Co-editing】

OKABE, A., UI, etc. (ed.) 2014,03 Sensible High DenCity: Megacity Design Studio Indonesia-Japan 2013. ,. , 47pp.

YAMADA, K., FUKAMI, N., etc. (ed.) 2013,04 The report for the Conference on the Cities of whole Earth and History. vol. 8.9.10. ,

OKABE, A., UI, etc. (ed.) 2013,03 Sensible High DenCity: Megacity Design Studio Indonesia-Japan 2012. ,

YAMADA K, FUKAMI N, et al (ed.) 2012,04 The report for the Conference on the Cities of whole Earth and History. vol. 6,7 2011. ,

OKABE, A., UI, etc. (ed.) 2012,03 Sensible High DenCity: Megacity Design Studio Indonesia-Japan 2011.. ,

YAMADA K, FUKAMI N, et al (ed.) 2011,04 The report for the Conference on the Cities of whole Earth and History. vol. 4,5 2010. ,

MURAMATSU, S. (ed.) 2011 SEEDer: Measuring City, No. 5. Syowado,


【Original Articles】

Fukami N. 2015 Historic Coral Mosques in Maldives: A Comparative Architectural Study along the Indian Ocean. The 21th Annual Meeting of Japan Sociaty for Hellenistic-Islam Archaeological Studies:152-172.


Abe, R., Kato, H. 2014,12 The impact of built environment on gasoline consumption in a developing megacity: Evidence from the Jakarta Metropolitan Area, Transportation Research Record: . Journal of the Transportation Research Board . (accepted).

Henny, C. and A.A. Meutia. 2014,10 ‘Urban lake in megacity Jakarta: Risk and management for future sustainability’ . Procedia Enironmental Sciences (20):737-746.

Hayashi R. 2014 International Comparison of Migration – A construction of Model-mobility Using Japanese Indicators. Journal of Population Problems 70(1):1-20. (in Japanese)

Hayashi R. 2014 A Perspective on International Migration - Is there any Japanese model?. Journal of Population Problems 70(3):192-206. (in Japanese)

Murakami A., Kurihara S. and Harashina K. 2014 Relationships between thermal environment and residents’ usage of outdoor spaces in a kampung in Jakarta, Indonesia. Journal of the City Planning Institute of Japan 49(1):65-70.

Fukami N. 2014 The beauty of Islamic Architecture and the formation of living spaces. Journal of Islamic Sciences(10):83-92.

FUKAMI N. 2014 History of Medieval Islamic Architecture in South Asia: Digital Archive, Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia, the University of Tokyo, Diversity of Islam and India: NIHU Program. Collaboration Studies between IAS and INDAS, Kyoto University.

Shima N. and Ito,K. 2013,11 "A Study on Planning Rules Embedded in Informal Settlements: A Case of Urban Kampung, Chikin-Ampiun, Jakarta". Asian Plannning schools Association Congress 2013.

Koshi Yoshida, Issaku Azechi, Ryunosuke Hariya, Kenji Tanaka 2013,05 Development of River Discharge and Nitrogen Estimation Model in Citarum River Basin,. Proceedings of ISRS2013(International Symposium of Remote Sencing), Session D2:1-4.

Mori, K. 2013,05 Concept of City Sustainability Index (CSI): How should we evaluate city prosperity? The World Secretariat of City Prosperity Index (CPI): Expert Group Meeting. Accepted Papers (in CD-ROM). 1-9(A4).

HAYASHI, Reiko 2013,04 "Migration and mobility - A comparative perspective of Russia and Japan" . XIV April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development.  http://conf.hse.ru/en/2013/program

HAYASHI, Reiko 2013,03 "Islamic Population and Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa",. Journal of Islamic Area Studies, 5:32-42. Organization for Islamic Area Studies, Waseda University

Matsuda, Hiroko 2013,03 Waterways and Space Formation in Batavia under the Rule of the Dutch East India Company, Journal of Architecture and Planning. (reviewed).

Koshi Yoshida ,Issaku Azechi and Hisao Kuroda: 2013 Application of two layer heat balance model for calculation of paddy thermal condition. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. B1 (Hydraulic Engineering) 69(4):139-144.

Koshi Yoshida ,Issaku Azechi,Ryunosuke Hariya,Kenji Tanaka,Keigo Noda,Kazuo Oki,Chiharu Hongo,Koki Honma,Masayasu Maki and Hiroaki Shirakawa: 2013 Future Water Use in Asia Monsoon Region: A Case Study in Indonesia ,. Journal of Developments in Sustainable, Agriculture 8:25-31.

Liyantono, Tasuku Kato, Hisao Kuroda and Koshi Yoshida 2013 GIS analysis of conjunctive water resource use in Nganjuk district. east Java, Indonesia, Paddy and Water Environment 11:193-205.

HAYASHI, Reiko 2012,09 "Urbanization in societies of population decline - A Russia-Japan comparison" . Proceedings of the 2012 Inter-University Seminar on Asian Megacities, Pacific National University, Khabarovsk, Russia,:332-338.

Koshi Yoshida and Issaku Azechi 2012 Impact analysis of future climate change on water resources in Citarum river basin,Indonesia,. Proceedings of ACES,:356.

Liyantono, Tasuku Kato, Koshi Yoshida, Hisao Kuroda 2012 The Influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on Agricultural Production Sustainability in a Tropical Monsoon Region: Case Study in Nganjuk District, East Java, Indonesia,. Journal of Developments in Sustainable Agriculture 7(1):65-74.

MORI, K. and CHRISTODOULOU, A 2012 Review of sustainability indices and indicators: Towards a new City Sustainability Index (CSI). Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 32(1):94-106.

Kyota YAMADA 2012 Global Environment and Mega Cities: Cognitive Science, Science for Design and Human-World Interaction Approach. International Symposium Cities Under Change:21-23.

TANIGAWA, R. 2011 Colonial Structures Veiled in Publicity -Lighthouses, Bridges, and Dams Built by the Japanese Empire in Colonial Korea-,. Our Living Heritage: Industrial Buildings and Sites of Asia, mAAN Seoul 2011 8th International Conference:77-87.

FUKAMI, N. 2011 Medieval Mosques of Port Cities in Gujarat – Stylistic Analysis. Japan Society for Hellenistic-Islam Archaeological Studies 18:186-206.

FUKAMI, N. 2011 Medieval Islamic Architecture in Port Cities of Kathiawar, Gujarat. Bulletin of the Society for Western and Southern Asiatic Studies, Kyoto University:11-43.

GUSEVA, A. 2011 Challenges for Infrastructural Provision in Post-socialist Moscow’s Mega-urban Region: Housing and Communal Services. The Network Industries Quarterly 13(4):3-6.

GUSEVA, A. 2011 K voprosu istorii formirovaniya dachnyh posyolkov vokrug Moskvy v XX veke [A historical study on formation of second home settlements in Moscow’s suburbs in the Twentieth Century]. JSSEES (The Japanese Society for Slavic and East European Studies) 31:93-119. (in Russian)

HIROSUE, M. 2011 Symposium Ⅰ Port States in Southeast Asia. Tōhōgaku Kaihō, 100:11-13.

YAMADA, K 2011 Consideration on Unfolding of South Indian Merchant Activities and Formation of Port City Colombo: A Sketch of Organization and Transformation of Urban Space since the 18th Century. The Japanese Association for South Asian Studies, Proceedings for the 24th National Meeting:17-18.

AMI, A., MURAKAMI, A., and MURAMATSU, S. 2011 Development of Green Space as Public Space in Jakarta Metropolitan Area-Past, Present and Future-. World Delta Summit 2011 Abstract Book:161.

MORI, K. 2011 How are infrastructures related to urban sustainability? . Energy, transportation, water and health. Network Industries Quarterly 13(4):19-22.

UCHIYAMA, Y. and OKABE, A. 2011 Study on Categorization of Mega-cities by Their Characteristics of Distribution of Population - Categorization of 35 Mega-cities -. Journal of the City Planning Institute of Japan 46(3):883-888.

KIMURA, T. 2011 Yamaguchi Daigaku Tetsugaku Kenkyu. (in Japanese)

KATO, H., EMMANUEL D. C., and ONGA, M. 2010 Institutional spillover effects of infrastructure investment funded by foreign aid: Evidence from a road construction project in Manila. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies 8:41-56.

KATO, H., and NGUYEN, Le H. 2010 Land policy and property price in Hanoi, Vietnam. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies 8:999-1014.

ARATA, M. 2010 Safety Nets to Overcome Fuel Crises:On Indonesian governmental “Kerosene-to-LPG Conversion Program. Food and Human Security:61-76.

OKUBO, P., HARASHINA, K.,MUHAMAD D, ABDOELLAH OS, TAKEUCHI, K. 2010 Traditional perennial crop-based agroforestry in West Java: the tradeoff between on-farm biodiversity and income.. Agroforestry Systems 80:17-31.

HARASHINA, K. and ICHINOSE, T. 2010 A hierarchical zoning method for land resource management based on watershed and population: a case study in Iwate Prefecture. Journal of Landscape Architecture in Asia 5:1-6.

SHIMADA, R. 2010 Trading World of Early Modern Asia. History and Geography(634):1-14. (in Japanese)

KATO, H., KANEKO, Y., and INOUE, M. 2010 Comparative analysis of transit assignment: evidence from urban railway system in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Transportation 37(5):775-799.

KATO, H., CRISPIN, E., DIAZ, D., and MARIE 2010 The impact of foreign aid on local institutional systems: Case study of institutional spillover effect on the Batangas Port Development Project in the Philippines . Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2163:144-150.

SHIMA, N 2010 A Study on the Development Trend based on Development Permission in Jakarta Special Province, Indonesia. Journal of the City Planning Institute of Japan 45(3):31-36. (in Japanese)

MORI, K.and CHRISTODOULOU, A. 2010 Review of sustainability indices and indicators: Towards a new city sustainability index (CSI). Environmental Impact Assessment Review. under review

Kato, Hironori, Crispin, Emmanuel D. Diaz, and Marie Onga 2010 The impact of foreign aid on local institutional systems: Case study of institutional spillover effect on the Batangas Port Development Project in the Philippines . Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board(2163):144-150.

ANDERSEN, H. T. 2008 Copenhagen Denmark: Urban Regeneration at Economic and Social Sustainability.. KIDOKORO, T. HARATA, N. SUBANU, L.P. JESSEN, J. MOTTE, A. And SELTZER, E.P. (ed.) Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance.. Springer, Tokyo, pp.203-206.

FUKAMI, N., OKAMURA, T., Robert, C., and Andres, F., 2007,12 Digital Resource Semantic Management of Islamic Historical Buildings Case study on Isfahan Islamic Architecture Digital Collection.. the International Journal of Architectural Computing 5:356-373.

KATO, H. and FUJIU, M. 2007,12 How does the value of travel time saving vary over the individual's income? . the 12th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies. (reviewed).

KATO, H. 2007 Variation of value of travel time savings over travel time in urban commuting: Theoretical and empirical analysis. . Transportation and Traffic Theory 2007:179-196. (reviewed).

HAYAKAWA, Y., OGUCHI, T., KOMATSUBARA, J., ITO, K., HORI, K., and NISHIAKI, Y. 2007 Rapid On-site Topographic Mapping with a Handheld Laser Range Finder for a Geoarchaeological Survey in Syria.. Geographical Research 45(1):95-104.

MEUTIA, A. Reason to Keep Paddy Field,. Zaichi no chi: Hands-on Area Study News Letter, 32:4. (in Japanese)

ARATA, M. Overcoming Fuel Crises Using Social Safety Nets: The Case of “Kerosene to-LPG Conversion Program” in Sundanese Village, West Java, Indonesia. Asian Rural Sociology 4(2):380-390.

MEUTIA, A. 2011 Local Knowledge of Preserving Forests,. Zaichi no chi: Hands-on Area Study News Letter, 36:4. (in Japanese)

【Review Articles】

UEMURA,Y 2013,04 Expansion of the Activities of Japanese Shipping Companies to the Netherlands-India in Prewar Period. Hiroshima Journal of Oriental Researches(17).

HIROSUE,m 2013,03 Comment 2”, in Floods and Society. Emerging Regional Identity in Thailand. Center for Integrated Area Studies, Kyoto University, kyoto, pp.65-66.

Research Presentations

【Oral Presentation】

FUKAMI, Naoko ‘Cultural Relations of along Indian Ocean from the mosque architecture’, . Human migration and Habitat culture, , 2015.03.07, Architectural Institute of Japan Building .

FUKAMI, Naoko ‘Islamic Architecture on Silk Road’,. “Culture and Architecture on Silk Road”, 2015.02.28, the Industry Club of Japan.

FUKAMI, Naoko ‘Conservation of Cultural Property in Maldives’. “ SE Asia and South Asia session meeting, Japan Consortium for International Cooperation in Cultural Heritage”,, 2015.02.06, National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo .

Takada, Y., Abe, R., Kato, H. Relationship between built environment and resident gasoline consumption in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area: Residential self-selection and the Structural Equation Modeling approach,. Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board 2015 Annual Meeting, Washington DC (U.S.)., January 2015.

FUKAMI, Naoko ‘The Gardens as a Paradise in Arid zone: From the vision of Persian Architecture’. “Workshop of Turkish Culture, Mukogawa Women’s University”, 2014.12.19, Koshien Hall.

HAYASHI, Reiko "Long-term care of older persons - The case of Japan",. UN ESCAPRegional expert consultation on long-term care of older persons, , 2014.12.09-2014.12.10, Bangkok, Thailand.

FUKAMI, Naoko ‘Historical Islamic Architecture in Danger’. “ The Convulsion and the Calm of Islam: Serious Chaos or predawn?”, 2014.11.30, Waseda University .

FUKAMI, Naoko ‘The Study for the living diversity in historical cities: Penang and Malacca as the World Heritage city’. “Workshop of The Kajima Foundation”, 2014.11.27, Kajima KI Bldg. .

Y.Uemura "Trade and Shipping in Batavia in the late colonial era". "Urban Development and Social Integration: Long Term Perspective" , 2014.11.24, Faculty of Engineering, Univeritas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.

FUKAMI, Naoko ‘Habitation and Livelihood of Muslim’,, . Extension lecture of Kanazawa University, 2014.11.15, Satellite Plaza.

HAYASHI, Reiko "Demographic changes and social impact - The case of Japan". Joint Research Network Forum on Ageing and Health in Asia, , 2014.11.11, Ito International Research Center.

FUKAMI, Naoko ‘ The information of Islamic Architecture in Cairo-The Database of OIAS, Waseda University. “The 3rd seminar of Coptic and Islamic Material Culture”, 2014.11.08, the University of Tokyo .

Takada, Y., Abe, R., Kato, H. How does built environment influence household energy consumption in a developing megacity?: Evidence from the Jakarta Metropolitan Area,. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of IASUR., October 2014.

Yamashita, T., Mori K., Uchiyama Y., Mimura Y., Hayashi K., and Fujii T. Development and Visualization of City Sustainability Index: How can we measure urban sustainability?. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies., 2014.09.13-2014.09.14, Hosei University. (in Japanese)

FUKAMI, Naoko ‘Islamic cities and Megacities: Studying regions and history’, . RIHN 9th International Symposium:Living in the Megacity, , 2014.06.25.

FUKAMI, Naoko ‘Rehabilitation from the disasters based on the Cultural heritage: Western Indian Earthquake in 2001 and Hadramaut Flood in 2008’. Forum of the overseas scientific research coordination, 2014.06.18, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.

SHIMADA, R “Batavia: A Centre for Indonesian, Asian and Global Trade, 1619-1850”. First International Workshop: East-West Connections, Exchanges and Encounters, 16th-19th Centuries, 2013.11.11, University of Macau, Macau.

Shimada,R “Batavia as World Trade Centre?: A Key Trading Port in Indonesian, Asian and Global Perspectives, 1619-1799”. International Conference: Maritime East Asia in the 16th-18th Centuries: Sources, Archives, Researches: Present Results and Future Perspectives, 2013.10.02, “Orientale” University of Naples, Italy.

Matsuda, Hiroko Floods and Urban Kampungs in Batavia, 1853-1940, International Workshop. "Jakarta's Past: Space, Ethnicity and Urban Development", 2013.04.03, Kyoto University.

Mimura.Y, and Hayashi, K Population density of KAMPUNG in the suburbs of Jakarta around 1930.. Jakarta's Past: Space, Ethnicity and Urban Development  , 2013.04.03, kyoto University.

HAYASHI.,Reiko "Urbanization in societies of population decline in the context of Cold Climate Civilization" Academic Exchanges - Innovation and development of urban planning and architectural design, . , 2013.03.24, 瀋陽建築大学, China.

Kyota YAMADA、 Viewing Sri Lanka from a Perspective of New Moor Street and Ghaus Moidheen Mawata, Colombo、. International Conference on Islam and Multiculturalism: Islam, Modern Science, and Technology, 2013.01.05, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Kyota YAMADA、 Global Environment and Mega Cities: Cognitive Science, Science for Design and Human-World Interaction Approach、. International Symposium Cities Under Change、, 2012.10.17, Kolkata, India.

HAYASHI.,Reiko “Population ageing in Africa”. UNFPA Symposium“Ageing in the Twenty-First Century: A Celebration and A Challenge”, 2012.10.01, U Thant International Conference Hall, United Nations University.

YAMASAKI, Seiko “30 Years of WVS outreach” . International symposia “Social Survey and Infrastructure, October 2012, Tokyo (Japan). held by Japanese Association for Social Research,

HIROSUE,M The Rise of Indonesian Nationalism and Mixed Marriage between Indonesians and Europeans: Free Love, Concubinage and Marriage. Seminar Cetak Biru Center of Excellence (Organized by National Archives of the Republic of Indonesia), , 2012.09.18-2012.09.19, Indonesia, Jakarta.

YAMADA, K. Urban Micro Activities as Driving Forces of Transformation of Colombo City and Indian Ocean: Urban Networks since the 17th Century. JSPS Asia and Africa Science Platform Program Islam and Multiculturalism: Between Norms and Forms Seminar, November 2011, Tokyo, Japan.

GUSEVA, A. Is the Muscovite lifestyle a luxury?. Open House, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 2011.08.05.

GUSEVA, A. Second-home Settlements of the Moscow City Dwellers and its Role for the Post-Soviet Urbanization of the Region.. 180th Danwakai seminar, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, 2011.07.19.

ARATA, M. Food Culture and Business ― Eating Habits, Religions and Recognition influencing Food Choice.. Foodex Japan, 2011.07.08.

MEUTIA, A. Indonesia Water and Folk Knowledge. the 10th RIHN Forums-Reflections on the Water Around Us, 2011.07.03, Kyoto International Conference Hall,.

MURAMATSU, S. Expressions of the Water Memories. the 10th RIHN Forums-Reflections on the Water Around Us., 2011.07.03, Kyoto International Conference Hall. (in Japanese)

HAYASHI, K. Discovering urban heritages in Kyoto-Wisdom for living better on the earth. Press colloquium., 2011.07.01, Heartpia Kyoto,.

ARATA, M. JOJOBA: Happy Singletons ―Altered food habit and gender norm among career women in Jakarta.. the 85th Conference of Japan Society for South-East Asian Studies, 2011.06.11.

HAYASHI, K. Establishing the concept of "Urban Services" for Global Environmental Studies: Towards synthesis of Ecosystem Services and Urban Services. the Asian Conference on Sustainability, Energy and the Environment 2011, 2011.06.02-2011.06.05, Osaka, Japan.

GUSEVA, A. Suburban gardens: Russian second homes and urbanization.. Press colloquium, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 2011.03.18.

KIMURA, T. Voices from Religions: Religions for Sustainability. The 4th International Conference for the Society of the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture, 2010.12.16-2010.12.19, The University of Western Australia.

HAYASHI, K. Field work on the comprehensive survey on Urban Cultural Resources in Asia. Practice and Succession of Architectural Fieldwork ?Process of its Acquirement and Communication- (Symposium held by the sub-committee of Comparative Dwelling Culture in Architectural Planning and Design, 2010.11.27, Architectural Institute of Japan. (in Japanese)

MURAKAMI, A. The Influences of Urbanization on the Thermal Environment and Residents„ Life Styles in Jakarta, Indonesia. The International Conference on Urbanization and Global Environmental Change (UGEC): Opportunities and Challenges for Sustainability in an Urbanizing World, 2010.10.17-2010.10.19, University of Arizona,.

KATO, H. Transportation and environment. Seminar on Development of "National Implementation Plan" under the "ASEAN-Japan Action Plan on Environment Improvement in the Transport Sector", October 2010, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Tokyo (Japan).

AMI, M. Japanese Education System. Kyoto University Seminar for Indonesian Islamic school and university teachers, October 2010, CSEAS.

SHIROYAMA, T. The Institutions and Dynamics of the Long Distance Trade in the 18th to 19th Centuries: The Case of Batavia Gong’an Archives. The Second International Conference on Taiwan Business History, The Institute of Taiwan History, 2010.09.23-2010.09.25, Academia Sinica, Taipei. (in Chinese)

KATO, H Regional railway network in mega city: Implications from the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. International Workshop on Sustainable Urban Future in Pearl River Delta Regions,, September 2010, University of Macau (China).

KURIHARA, S. rchitectural Fieldwork, in Future Style of Fieldwork. Conference of Architectural Planning and Design in annual meeting of Architectural Institute of Japan, September 2010, H. (in Japanese)

KURIHARA, S. The change of the meaning of courtyard space in Chinese traditional courtyard-style house “Si-he-yuan” from the viewpoint of material, living behavior and cinematography -Through the Chinese movie “Sunflower”-. ANNUAL MEETING of ARCHITECTURAL INSTITUTE OF JAPAN, September 2010, Hokuriku. (in Japanese)

TORIGOE, K. The Japanese Hot Spring Soundscape- Open Air Bathing as Cultural Listening, Ideologies and Ethics. the Uses and Abuses of Sound, 2010.06.18, Koli, Finland.

KIMURA, T. On Future of Sustainability: Does that Future Exist?. Nihon Jikan Gakkai, 2010.05.05-2010.05.06, Yamaguchi University. (in Japanese)

TANGAWA, R. Study of constructions of lighthouses along the coast of Korean Peninsula in the beginning of the 20th century. , April 2010, Kanagawa-University. (in Japanese)

KATO, H. and SATO, J. Urban freight transport analysis in developing countries: Case study in Medan, Indonesia.. he 2nd International Conference on Transportation and Logistics, 2007.06.04-2007.06.06, Shenzhen, P. R. China..

MATSUDA, H. Floods and Cities in Japan. Water History Conference Delft 2010, .

【Poster Presentation】

Itagawa, S., Ichinose, T. The study of the relation between land use elements composition and Odonates diversity.. The 6th EAFES International Congress, Poster Presentations,, 2014.04.10, HUANDAO TIDE Hotel, Haikou, China.. the Standing Poster Award)

YAMASAKI, Seiko “Economic Development and Cultural Change: World Values Survey” . World Values Survey Global Meeting,, March 2013, Qatar.

YAMASAKI, Seiko “World Values Survey's Achievements, Underutilized Areas of the Survey Materials, and Future Prospects” . The Behaviormetric Society of Japan, September 2012, Niigata.

AMI, A., MURAKAMI, A., and MURAMATSU, S. Development of Green Space as Public Space in Jakarta Metropolitan Area-Past, Present and Future-. World Delta Summit 2011, 2011, Jakarta.

POJECT MURAMATSU FOR F.S. OF RIHN The Whole Earth Urban Historical Research Project,2008.. the Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Open Campus, May 2008, the Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo. (in Japanese)

TAKEUCHI, K. Environmental Settings for Traditional Agricultural Land-use in Hilly Zones of West Java: A Geomorphic Approach.. Proceedings of the Final Seminar on: Toward Harmonization between Development and Environmental Conservation in Biological Production, 2008.02.29, the University of Tokyo.

HAYASHI, R. Long term population dynamics in Africa: A perspective from the urban structure. Union for African Population Studies Fifth African Population Conference, 2007.12.10-2007.12.14, Arusha, Tanzania.

【Invited Lecture / Honorary Lecture / Panelist】

Kato, H. Lifestyles of Jabodetabek people: Impact on urban environment, presented at the Public Lecture Series, . Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia) , March 2014, .