Full Research

StageFR
Project No.D-03
Project NameHuman Life, Aging and Disease in High-Altitude Environments:Physio-Medical, Ecological and Cultural Adaptation in “Highland Civilizations”
Project LeaderOKUMIYA, Kiyohito
Research AxisDiversity

 

○Research Subject and Objectives

Research Objectives:

We intend to explore new perspectives regarding how people live in high-altitude environments where oxygen levels are low and natural resources are limited. We focus on aging problems and lifestyle-related diseases because we regard these as manifestations of global environmental issues in the human body. We aim to clarify “highland civilization”, as defined by ecological and cultural adaptations to high-altitude environments, physiological adaptations, and how recent changes in lifestyle have affected quality of life (QOL) amongst the elderly. We also propose a model of human-nature interactions in “highland civilization.” 

 

Background:

In humans, acute lack of oxygen causes irreversible brain damage within five minutes. In highland areas, humans have adapted to the physiological, ecological and cultural challenges of high altitude environments, which include low oxygen levels and scarce food sources, over many generations (Aldenderfer 2003) (Baker 1978) (Beall 2006) (Rivera 2007). “Highland civilization” embodies both ecological and cultural adaptations and it has been reported that elderly highlanders have a high subjective QOL (Yamamoto 2008) (Matsubayashi 2009). In recent decades, modern lifestyle changes have impacted highland life. Whilst highland life has become more convenient with increased food supplies, it is estimated that lifestyle-related diseases such as myocardial infarction or diabetes will increase as a result. Any increase in cardio-respiratory disease may have greater impact in a low oxygen environment. In this project, we will study the influence of these lifestyle changes over several decades on QOL among elderly highlanders.

 

Significance for  “Global Environmental Issues”:

Environmental changes associated with human activities are actualized on a global scale. Improvements in diet and medicine have increased the average life span, and with this, an increase in age-related diseases including lifestyle-related diseases. Lifestyle-related diseases are age-related diseases influenced by lifestyle, such as eating habits, activity level, sleep patterns, smoking and alcohol consumption. Reconsidering lifestyles that encourage lifestyle-related diseases may be incidentally coupled with rethinking lifestyles that impact the environment, such as activities that may contribute to pollution and global warming.

This research explores a fundamental message regarding global environmental problems based on aspects of lifestyle-related diseases and QOL in the elderly. Our project is compatible with RIHN’s mission to integrate the humanities and science by investigating QOL, lifestyle and environments within various disciplines, including geography, agriculture, anthropology, meteorology, ecology, economics and medicine. The Himalaya-Tibet area is the strategic investigation site. In 2007, the IPCC reported that this area exceeds the global average for temperature increase and the severe glacial retreat is globally important. Additionally, the decreasing water supply to the lower stream is an additional concern. We have set an automated weather station (AWS) in Ladakh and started providing information to the public.

○Progress and Results in 2017

Research findings indicate the following.

1) Ecological and cultural adaptation in highlands is characterized as maximal and sustainable utilization of limited but diversified natural resources, flexible management for disasters and simple life with modest virtues.

2) The “Himalaya model of lifestyle-related diseases” hypothesis of diabetes acceleration was developed by the interaction among physiological adaptation in high-altitude and the effect of recent change of lifestyles with socio-economic globalization.

 

Ecological and cultural adaptation to the high-altitude environment and recent lifestyle change due to the globalization

 Subsistence lifestyle and economic conditions supporting the base of “highland civilizations” were studied in the three ecologically distinct zones in Himalaya-Tibet region: Arunachal Pradesh and Bhutan in the forest zone, Ladakh in the oasis zone, and Qinghai in the grassland zone. Vertical distribution of vegetation, ethnic groups, subsistence lifestyle and alien plant invasion were described from 200 to 4000 m in Arunachal Pradesh (Kosaka 2010). The detailed household interview and analysis of satellite image revealed the recent decrease in the number of livestock, the increasing use of chemical fertilizer, and the distribution pattern of spreading abandoned land at Domkhar village in Ladakh. Shortage of fodder, heavy snowfall, and less accessibility to social services were identified as the reasons for migration of pastoral people from Changthang highland to Leh city in Ladakh. Risk assessment of glacial lake collapsing, recording the restoration process from flooding damage (Yamaguchi 2011), and analysis of the climatic aspect of disaster occurrence have also been conducted in Ladakh.

 

“Himalaya model of lifestyle-related diseases” : The interaction between long-term physiological high-altitude adaptation and recent lifestyle change.

There was the association between physiological hypoxic adaptation and lifestyle-related diseases. Han people had higher hemoglobin concentration compared with Tibetans in Qinghai. Increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus was strongly associated with increases in hemoglobin levels related to adaptation to hypoxia in Ladakh, Yushu, and Arunachal(Okumiya 2010).

There was the association between high-altitude and lifestyle-related diseases. High blood sugar, pulmonary disorder by dust, sleep disorder (Ladakh), hypertension and hyperlipidemia (Arunachal) were more prevalent in higher-altitude dwelling people (Ishimoto 2011).

There was the association among ecological environment, globalization and food diversity. The food diversity score was highest in Arunachal (humid), moderate in Qinghai (semi rid) and lowest in Ladakh (arid). In Ladakh there was lower food diversity in people in rural area than urban one.

There was the association between settlement, livelihood change and lifestyle-related diseases. Lifestyle-related diseases were more prevalent in urban area of Yushu than rural area of Haiyan in Qinghai(Okumiya 2010). Official workers and monks had more prevalence of obesity, hypertension and diabetes than agro-pastoral local people in urban areas of Yushu and Leh.

The prevalence of diabetes was low in the traditional lifestyle in pastoral people in Arunachal and Haiyan (3000 m) but the prevalence of prediabetes in Ladakh was high in Ladakh (2900-3800 m) where natural resource is lowest and they may be fragile to lifestyle change. There was more prevalence of high hemoglobin level and high blood sugar with obesity and hypertension in Yushu (3600 m) than in Ladakh. Change of lifestyle in hypoxia-adapted people may accelerate lifestyle-related diseases: ”Diabetes acceleration hypothesis”.

 

Health care design for elderly people in highlands for successful aging with high QOL

 We started follow-up monitoring of blood pressure, body weight and amount of exercise with the collaboration of local health staffs in Ladakh. Comprehensive geriatric functional analysis in all elderly people in Khaling in Bhutan were assessed and we are developing geriatric care system by the collaboration with local health staffs including traditional medical staffs and monks to promote health, high spirituality and QOL (Sakamoto 2011).

○Project Members

Kiyohito Okumiya ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Associate Professor,Supervision )

Kozo Matsubayashi ( Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University,Professor,Supervision, Health and Disease in Highlands, Aging and Culture )

Masayuki Ishine ( Yasugi Clinic,Researcher,Lifestyle-related diseases )

Kuniaki Otsuka ( Medical Center East, Tokyo Women's University,Professor,Arteriosclerosis and Hypoxia )

Yoriko Kasahara ( Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University,Student,Nursing Care )

Yasuko Ishimoto ( Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University,Student,Exercise Therapy )

Yumi Kimura ( Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University,Student,Nutrition )

Taizo Wada ( Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University,Researcher,Mental Health )

Ryota Sakamoto ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Student,Field Medicine, Public Health )

Motonao Ishikawa ( Medical Center East, Tokyo Women's University,Assistant Professor,Psychosomatic Medicine )

Michiko Fujisawa ( Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University,Assistant Professor,Evolutionary Medicine )

Norio Yamamoto ( National Museum of Ethnology,Emeritus Professor,Supervision, Agricultural Culture, Highland Civilization )

Tetsuya Inamura ( Department of Literature, Aichi Provincial University,Professor,Livestock Farming and Environmental Exploitation )

Akio Hongo ( Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine,Professor,Domestication of Livestock )

Masayoshi Shigeta ( Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University,Professor,Plant Use, Agricultural Culture )

Morie Kaneko ( Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University,Assistant Professor )

Shuichi Ohyama ( Department of Geography, Tokyo Metropolitan University,Assocoate Professor,Change of Livelihood along with Environmental Change )

Yuji Tohkura ( Cooperative Research Center, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine,Coodinator,Glassland Use )

Yoshi Kawamoto ( Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Evolutionary Adaptation at High-altitude Environment )

Kiyoaki Saito ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Former Professor,Nature View, Tibetan Civilization )

Tshul khrims skal bzang ( Department of Buddhist Studies, Otani University,Professor,Buddhism and Tibetan Civilization )

Kazuo Ando ( Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Supervision, Locally Existing Technologies and Rural Development )

Akinobu Kawai ( Faculty of Industry and Technology, The University of The Air,Professor,Sustainable Agricultural and Rural Development )

Naoji Okuyama ( Koyasan University,Professor,Tantric Buddhism )

Koichi Usami ( Graduate School of International Development, Nagoya University,Professor,Agricultural Livelihood and Rural Market )

Kazuharu Mizuno ( Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Plant Geography and Human Activities in Highland )

Nobuhiro Ohnishi ( Faculty of Bioenvironmental Science, Kyoto Gakuen University,Associate Professor,Environmental Conservation, Resource Management for Tourism )

Tetsuya Kinoshita ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Professor,History of Chinese Philosophy )

Shinji Miyamoto ( Biwako Museum,Researcher,Paleo-Environment )

Yasuyuki Kosaka ( Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University,Researcher,Ethnological Plant Use )

Jyoti Prakash Tamang ( Sikkim University,Professor,Fermented food and Health )

Luo Er-hu ( Graduate School of Shanghai University,Professor,Paleo-Livelihoods )

Toshihiro Tsukihara ( Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, Fukui University,Associate Professor,Highland-Lowland Interaction, Pastoralism in Extreme Highland )

Masahiro Hirata ( Department of Agro-Environment Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine,Associate Professor,Milk Processing Techniques )

Naho Ikeda ( National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention,Researcher,Transhumance Grazing Systems )

Shinya Takeda ( Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Supervision, Forest Ecology, Forest Resource Use )

Mitsuhiro Nose ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Research Associate,Forest Ecology, Forest Resource Use )

Makoto Kato ( Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Professor,Biota and Bioresource )

Reiji Suzuki ( Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University,Assistant Professor,Soil and Land Use )

Fumikazu Ubukata ( Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Okayama University,Researcher,Resource Use and Social Movement )

Tetsuyoshi Yamaguchi ( Kyoto Gakuen University,Researcher,Transhumance and Environmental Exploitation )

Ayako Sasaki ( Division of Forest and Biomaterials Science, Kyoto University,Postdoctorial Fellow,Forest Resource Use )

Isamu Yamada ( Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University,Emeritus Professor,Forest and Eco-Tourism )

Akiyo Yatagai ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Assistant Professor,Change of Climate in Highlands )

Naoyuki Kobayashi ( Kobayashi Photo Studio,Photographer,Photographing )

Takayuki Shiraiwa ( Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University,Associate Professor,Evaluation of High-Altitude Environment, Snow Ice )

○Future Themes

Manifestations of global environmental issues in the human body has been clarified in the changing highland civilizations under the twin influences of socioeconomic globalization and global warming. Verifying the difference of adaptation and maladaptation in “Himalaya model of lifestyle-related diseases”-daibates acceleration hypothesis, the integration of medical and cultural/ecological team will be promoted. Pursuing culturally and ecologically fitted health care design with high QOL and presenting wisdom of the aged and wisdom of coexistence to deal with aging and disease, we will reconsider present lifestyles and the future of modern civilization.

Books

【Authored/Co-authored】

Kawai A, Saitou M. 2007 Non-profit organization management. The Society for the Promotion of the University of the Air, 189pp. (in Japanese)

Takagi Y, Kawai A. 2007 Development Economics: Theory and Reality. The Society for the Promotion of the University of the Air, 230pp. (in Japanese)

Papers

【Original Articles】

Matsubayashi K, Sakagami T, Wada T, Ishine M, Sakamoto R, Yamanaka G, Otsuka K, Fujisawa M, Okumiya K 2010,01 Mood disorders in community-dwelling older adults in Asia. J Am Geriatr Soc 58(1):213-214. (reviewed).

Hirosaki M, Ishimoto Y, Kasahara Y, Konno A, Kimura Y, Fukutomi E, Ling CW, Nakatsuka M, Fujisawa M, Sakamoto R, Ishine M, Okumiya K, Otsuka K, Wada T, Matsubayashi K 2010,01 Self-rated health and comprehensive geriatric functions in community-living older adults in Japan. J Am Geriatr Soc 58(1):207-209. (reviewed).

Kimura Y, Okumiya K, Sakamoto R, Ishine M, Wada T, Kosaka Y, Wada C, Ishimoto Y, Hirosaki M, Kasahara Y, Konno A, Chen W, Otsuka K, Fujisawa M, Nakatsuka M, Nakashima M, Wang H, Dai Q, Yang A, Gao J, Li Z, Qiao H, Zhang Y, Ge RL, Matsubayashi K 2009,12 Comprehensive geriatric assessment of elderly highlanders in Qinghai, China IV: comparison of food diversity and its relation to health of Han and Tibetan elderly. Geriatr Gerontol Int 9(4):359-365. (reviewed).

Okumiya K, Sakamoto R, Kimura Y, Ishine M, Kosaka Y, Wada T, Wada C, Nakatsuka M, Ishimoto Y, Hirosaki M, Kasahara Y, Konno A, Chen W, Fujisawa M, Otsuka K, Nakashima M, Wang H, Dai Q, Yang A, Qiao H, Gao J, Li Z, Zhang Y, Ge RL, Matsubayashi K 2009,12 Comprehensive geriatric assessment of elderly highlanders in Qinghai, China II: the association of polycythemia with lifestyle-related diseases among the three ethnicities. Geriatr Gerontol Int 9(4):342-351. (reviewed).

Wada T, Ishimoto Y, Hirosaki M, Konno A, Kasahara Y, Kimura Y, Nakatsuka H, Sakamoto R, Ishine M, Okumiya K, Fujisawa M, Otsuka K, Matsubayashi K 2009,12 Twenty-one-item fall risk index predicts falls in elderly community-dwelling Japanese. J Am Geriatr Soc 57(12):2369-2371. (reviewed).

Matsubayashi K, Kimura Y, Sakamoto R, Wada T, Ishimoto Y, Hirosaki M, Konno A, Chen W, Ishine M, Kosaka Y, Wada C, Nakatsuka M, Otsuka K, Fujisawa M, Wang H, Dai Q, Yang A, Gao J, Li Z, Qiao H, Zhang Y, Ge RL, Okumiya K 2009,12 Comprehensive geriatric assessment of elderly highlanders in Qinghai, China I: activities of daily living, quality of life and metabolic syndrome. Geriatr Gerontol Int 9(4):333-341. (reviewed).

Sakamoto R, Matsubayashi K, Kimura Y, Ishine M, Kosaka Y, Wada T, Wada C, Nakatsuka M, Ishimoto Y, Hirosaki M, Kasahara Y, Konno A, Chen W, Fujisawa M, Otsuka K, Nakashima M, Wang H, Dai Q, Yang A, Qiao H, Gao J, Li Z, Zhang Y, Ge RL, Okumiya K 2009,12 Comprehensive geriatric assessment of elderly highlanders in Qinghai, China, III: oxidative stress and aging in Tibetan and Han elderly highlanders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 9(4):359-365. (reviewed).

Ishine M, Okumiya K, Hirosaki M, Sakamoto R, Fujisawa M, Hotta N, Otsuka K, Nishinaga M, Doi Y, Matsubayashi K. 2008 Prevalence of hypertension and its awareness, treatment, and satisfactory control through treatment in elderly Japanese . J Am Geriatr Soc. 56(2):374-375. (reviewed).

Kameda Y, Kato M. 2008 Systematic revision of the subgenus Luchuhadra (Pulmonata: Camaenidae: Satsuma) occurring in the central Ryukyu Archipelago. Venus 65:291-297. (reviewed).

Suetsugu K, Kawakita A, Kato M. 2008 Host range and selectivity of the hemiparasitic plant Thesium chinense (Santalaceae). Annals of Botany 102:49-56. (reviewed).

Ishine M, Okumiya K, Hirosaki M, Sakamoto R, Fujisawa M, Hotta N, Otsuka K, Nishinaga M, Doi Y, Matsubayashi K. 2008 Prevalence of hypertension and its awareness, treatment, and satisfactory control through treatment in elderly Japanese. J Am Geriatr Soc. 56(2):374-375. (reviewed).

Kawai A. 2008 Harmonizing agricultural development with the preservation of forest in the southern slope of Bhutan Himalaya. Himalayan Study Monographs 9:54-83. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Okuyama Y, Pellmyr O, Kato M. 2008 Parallel floral adaptations to pollination by fungus gnats within the genus Mitella (Saxifragaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46:560-575. (reviewed).

Fujisawa M, Okumiya K, Maysubayashi K, Hamada T, Endo H, Doi Y. 2008 Factors associated with carotid atherosclerosis in the oldest elderly over 80 years in the community. Geriatrics & Gerotology International 8(1):12-18. (reviewed).

Yatagai A, Xie P, Alpert P. 2008 Development of a daily gridded precipitation data set for the Middle East. Advance in Geosci. 12:165-170. (reviewed).

Miyamoto S. 2008 The issues of natural disaster of the high altitude mountains area, Himalaya. Himalayan Study Monographs 9:49-53. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Fujisawa M, Ishine M, Okumiya K, Otsuka K, Matsubayashi K. 2007 Trends in diabetes. Lancet 369:1257-1257. (reviewed).

Fujisawa M, Ishine M, Okumiya K, Nishinaga M, Doi Y, Ozawa T, Matsubayashi K. 2007 Effects of long-term exercise class on prevention of falls in community-dwelling elderly: Kahoku longitudinal aging study . Gerontol Geriatr Intern 7:357-362. (reviewed).

Okumiya K, Fujisawa M, Ishine M, Wada T, Sakamoto R, Hirata Y, Del Saz EG, Griapon Y, Togodly A, Sanggenafa N, Rantetampang AL, Kokubo Y, Kuzuhara S, Matsubayashi K. 2007 Fieldwork survey of neurodegenerative diseases in West New-Guinea in 2001-02 and 2006-07 . Rinsho Shinkeigaku 47(11):977-978. (reviewed).

Kobayashi C, Fukasawa Y, Hirose D, Kato M. 2007 Contribution of symbiotic mycangial fungi to larval nutrition of a leaf-rolling weevil. Evolutionary Ecology 22:150-155. (reviewed).

Kameda Y, Kawakita A, Kato M. 2007 Cryptic genetic divergence and associated morphological differentiation in the arboreal land snail Satsuma (Luchuhadra) largillierti (Camaenidae) endemic to the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45:519-533. (reviewed).

Nakazawa T, Ishida N, Kato M, Yamamura M. 2007 Larger body size with higher predation rate. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 16:362-372. (reviewed).

Kato M, Ohsuga K. 2007 A new tellinoidean bivalve in seagrass beds in the Ryukyu Archipelago. Venus 65:291-297. (reviewed).

Okumiya K, Ishine M, Wada T, Pongvongsa T, Boupha B, Matsubayashi K. 2007 The close association between low economic status and glucose intolerance in elderly subjects in a rural area in Laos. J Am Geriatr Soc. 55:2101-2102. (reviewed).

Miyamoto S. 2007 Vegetational changes since the last glacial from the pollen influx in Hokuriku District, central Japan. Geographical Review of Japan 80(5):330-331. (reviewed).

Kawai A. 2007 Issues for local governance and participatory rural development through decentralization in Kingdom of Bhutan. Journal of the Open University of Japan 25:9-66. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Nishimura Y, Norboo T, Murakami S, Hotta N, Chogyal T, Kubo Y, Otsuka K. 2007 Chronoecological health watch of neuro-cardio-pulmonary function in elderly community at high-altitude (3524 m) town. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical 135:48. (reviewed).

Suzuki R, Takeda S, Hla Maung Thein 2007 Analysis of land use history and fallow vegetation recovery: A case study of shifting cultivation by the Karen in the Bago Mountains, Myanmar. Southeast Asian Studies 45(3):343-358. (reviewed).

Suzuki R, Takeda S, Hla Maung Thein 2007 Chronosequence changes in soil properties of teak (Tectona grandis) plantations in the Bago Mountains, Myanmar . Journal of Tropical Forest Science 19(4):207-217. (reviewed).

Yatagai A, Yamazaki N, Kurino T. 2007 The products and validation of GAME reanalysis and JRA-25 Part 1: Surface Fluxes. Hydrological Processes 21:2061-2073. (reviewed).

Yatagai A. 2007 Interannual Variation of Summertime Precipitation over the Qilian Mountains in Northwest China. Bulletin of Glaciological Research 24:1-11. (reviewed).

Okamoto T, Kawakita A, Kato M. 2007 Interspecific variation of floral scent composition in Glochidion and its association with host-specific pollinating seed parasite (Epicephala). Journal of Chemical Ecology 33:1065-1081. (reviewed).

Goto R, Kato M. 2007 Obligate commensalism of Curvemysella paula (Bivalvia, Galeommatidae) with hermit crabs. Marine Biology 151:1615-1622. (reviewed).

Kobayashi C, Kato M. 2007 Effects of leaf quality and microhabitat on the survival of a leaf-rolling weevil (Attelabidae). Ecological Research 22:150-155. (reviewed).

【Review Articles】

Kobayashi N. 2008,02 17 years in Meili Snow Mountains: A journey to the base camp. Yama to Keikoku(February 2008). (in Japanese)

Kobayashi N. 2007,12 The ancient road of tea and horse in Yunnan . Coyote(December 2007). (in Japanese)

Kobayashi N. 2007,05 A glacier in Meili Mountains retreated. National Geographic, Japan(May 2007). (in Japanese)

Kobayashi N. 2007,05 The Mingyong Glacier of the Meili Snow MOuntains in China. Japanese Alpine News 8. (reviewed).

Oyama S, Kondo F, Yamamoto N. 2007 Where is the origin of potato in the Andean mountains ?: focusing on the wild potato of Solanum acaule. Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture 51(Extra issue 1):103-104. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Oyama S. 2007 Natural History Series Wildlife Conservation of Vicuña and Rural Development in Andean mountains. Monthly Magazine for National Museum of Ethnology 30(6):20-21. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Inamura T. 2007 Pastoralists in the 21th Century: Pastoralism and hunting in the central Andes that changes the established theories . Monthly Geography 52(3):32-40. (reviewed).

Yatagai A. 2007 Water circulation analysis: Database and its use. Weather 54:11-14. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Research Presentations

【Oral Presentation】

Suzuki R, Takeda S, Hla Maung Thein. Long term change in land cover of Karen village under traditional shifting cultivation: A case study in the Bago Mountains, Myanmar. The Japanese forest society, March 2008, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology. (in Japanese)

Yamamoto N. Ecological view of the Highland Civilization. The Japan Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations, 2008.02.02, National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka. (in Japanese)

Yatagai A. Asian Precipitation – Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of the Water Resources. Program for the Evaluation of High Resolution Precipitation Products, 2007.12.04, Geneva, Switzerland.

Kobayashi N. The ancient road of tea and horse in Yunnan. Unnan Konwakai, 2007.12.01. (in Japanese)

Miyamoto S, Ando K. The formation process of the homestead (bari-bhiti) along the Jamuna-river alluvial lowland, Central Bangladesh. Association of Human Geography, Japan, November 2007, Kwansaigakuin University, Nishinomiya. (in Japanese)

Okumiya K. The close association between economic status and glucose intolerance in the community-dwelling elderly in Asian countries. Congress of Geriatrics and Gerontology in Asia & Oceania, 2007.10.22, Beijing, China.

Oyama S. Co-evolution of Camelidae animals and potato in Andean mountains. 1st Academic Meeting of Nature and Society Research group, The General Meeting of the Association of Japanese Geographers in 2007 Autumn, 2007.10.07, Kumamoto University. (in Japanese)

Suzuki R, Takeda S, Hla Maung Thein. Analysis of land use history and fallow vegetation recovery -A case study of shifting cultivation by Karen people in the Bago Mountains, Myanmar. Society for Tropical Agriculture Congress, October 2007, Miyazaki University. (in Japanese)

Okumiya K. The close association between economic status and glucose intolerance in the community-dwelling elderly in Asian countries. Forum of health and development in Lao PDR. Forum of Health and Development in Lao PDR, 2007.09.24-2007.09.24, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Yatagai A. The isotopic composition of water vapor and the concurrent meteorological conditions around the northeast part of the Tibetan Plateau. IUGG, 2007.07.12, Perugia, Italy.

Yatagai A. Asian Precipitation: Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of the Water Resources. 21st Pacific Science Congress, 2007.06.16, Okinawa.

Miyamoto S. Chronology and Sedimentary Environment of the Fluvial Sediments along the Kuiseb River in Namib Desert, Namibia. African Study Association of Japan, May 2007, Blick Hall, Nagasaki. (in Japanese)

Miyamoto S, Ando K. Land development in central and eastern Himalaya. Associiation of Historical Geography, Japan, May 2007, Kokugakuin University, Tokyo. (in Japanese)

Kobayashi N. Meili Snow Mountains: Life and wisdom. Unnan Konwakai, 2007.04.21. (in Japanese)

Oyama S, Kondo F, Yamamoto N. Where is the original place of potato (Solanum sp.) in Andean Mountains ?. 101th meeting of Japanese Society of Tropical Agriculture, 2007.04.01, Tokyo Agricultural University, Tokyo. (in Japanese)

【Poster Presentation】

Okumiya K. The association between economic status and Diabetes in the community-dwelling elderly in Asia. The health forum of Khon Khaen University, 2007.10.17, Khon Khaen, Thailand.

Kovit K, Okumiya K. Comparison of Prevalence of Diabetes between Rural and Urban Area in Thailand and Follow-up of People with Diabetes. The health forum of Khon Khaen University, 2007.10.17, Khon Khaen, Thailand.