Project No.C-01
Project NameEmissions of Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols, and Human Activities in East Asia
Project LeaderHAYASAKA, Tadahiro
Key Wordsmacro-economy, fossil fuel, land use, greenhouse gas, aerosol, East Asia


○Research Subject and Objectives Background and Objectives

 Most of human activities have been based essentially on the individual climate, culture, and social economic system, but recently they are being changed drastically by the influences of the globalization and developing market of economy and global-scale climate change. The human activities affected by the various global phenomena give rise to various environmental issues and emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, which again bring about many problems in large area or over the world. In this research project, the atmospheric constituent is studied, taking account of global warming issues. Therefore, it is not a mere local air pollution study, but the study on the relationship between human activities and climate change through emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols.

 The recent growth of economy in East Asian region is being watched with keen interest. The relationship be-tween human activities and emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols in this region are studied with collaboration of socioeconomic analysts and atmospheric scientists. This research project consists of macro-analysis of economy, development of emission inventory, analysis of atmospheric transport by using model and satellite data, and ground-

based observation around Japan and China.

  The objectives of the present research project are to investigate


1)  the relationship between changes in economy; industry, social system under the  globalization and changes in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and


2)  influences of these greenhouse gases and aerosols emitted in Asian region on the global-scale atmospheric environment and climate change.


2. Strategy


  While most of studies similar to this research project are mainly carried out by atmospheric scientists, viewpoints from human activities are emphasized in this study.


1) Socioeconomic analyses on the anthropogenic emissions are carried out. Changes in land use, consumption, quality, and transport process of energy for the past 20 years in Asia are analyzed.


2) Regional emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols due to human activities are estimated

through the analysis of observed data with atmospheric transport model.


3) The effects of greenhouse gases and aerosols emitted by human activities in Asia are evaluated synthetically.

○Progress and Results in 2018

Outcomes in 2006


  Economic development by industrialization in the East Asian countries has increased the energy consumption, the emissions of greenhouse gases, and aerosols. The amount of SO2 emission has not increased by the expectation.

  The emission density of CO2 is almost a level-off according to the rise of the energy efficiency or it decreases. This desirable tendency has been promoted by the direct investment, the technology transfer through the development aid, and the rise in environmental consideration in the "Late-started" countries. However, the amount of the CO2 emission

will keep increasing any more when the economic growth rate is too large even if the energy efficiency is improved.

  The increase in CO2 emission depends on a competition between the economic growth rate and the decrease rate in the emission density if the east Asian nations, especially China continue the economic growth through industrialization in the future. Nevertheless, it is remarkable enough that the decreasing tendency of the emission density has continued

except part of nations under the present situation. The importance of the technology transfer will grow more and more in the future.

 The amounts of energy consumption and emissions of material (SO2, NOx, CO, BC, OC, NMVOC, NH3, CHa,N2O, CO2) were estimated in Asian region for 1980-2003. The energy consumption in an Asian region increased double during about 20 years (1980-2000), and the emissions of aerosols and gases in the atmosphere increased by 1.2(BC)-2.3 (NOx) times accordingly. Especially, the increasing tendency in China is remarkable, and the increase of the

NOx emission for 20 years was triples. It is thought that the increase in the emissions to the atmosphere has brought a big influence on an atmospheric environment in the Asian region.

It was suggested from the model analysis of long-term CO2 observation over Japan that the CO2 concentration in the atmospheric layer of 2-4 km above the planetary boundary layer over Japan is much influenced by the emission from China. This result is not consistent with the energy consumption data reported by Chinese government for the period after middle of 1990's. Moreover, the observations of CO2 and CH4 were carried out at 7 locations in China, and it was shown that the annual average of CO2 concentration was several ppm higher than that in Japan, and the seasonal amplitude was also larger than Japan. The seasonal variation of CO2 was estimated to be influenced by the C44 plant from the analysis of carbon isotope of CO2. It is thought that this result is related to the land use change according to the man activity.

  The observations of aerosols were carried out at Fukuejima, Amami-Ohshima, and Okinawa. The results have shown black carbon (BC) abundant composition and strong light absorption property. Especially, the aerosols observed at Fukuejima consist of much organic compounds. It seems that the aerosols of the biomass burning origin are transported from the continent, and are related also to coal and the biomass fuel in China. Aerosol concentration had increased over China for the period around 1960-1990, but leveled off since then. On the other hand, the total cloud amount decreases while the cloud droplet size of low clouds became smaller by the indirect effect of aerosol. The temperature increased after 1960 though the surface shortwave irradiance is in a long-term decreasing tendency. The change in the amount of evaporation, which is important for the surface energy budget, might be important because precipitation has been decreasing in northern part of China.

○Project Members

HAYASAKA, Tadahiro ( RIHN )

IWAMI, Toru ( Univ. of Tokyo )

KAWAMOTO, Kazuaki ( RIHN )

SAEKI, Tazu ( RIHN )

NAKAZAWA, Takakiyo ( Tohoku Univ )

NAKAJIMA, Teruyuki ( Univ. of Tokyo )

HAYASHIDA, Sachiko ( Nara Women's Univ )

SHI, Guangyu ( Institute of Atmospheric Physics, CAS, China )

○Future Themes Relation with the Research Program

 In the past few decades, socioeconomic situations in Eastern Asia have been changing largely. It is consistent with the purpose of research axis 2 to study the relationship between those changes and emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, which are major anthropogenic factors in recent climate changes.



Toru Iwami 2004 Development and the Environment: The Political Economy of the Relationship. University of Tokyo Press,2004


【Original Articles】

MATSUOKA,M.,T.HAYASAKA,Y.FUKUSHIMA, AND Y.HONDA 2007 Land Cover in East Asia Classified using Terra MODIS and DMSP OLS Products. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28:221-248. DOI:10.1080/01431160600675911.

ARAO,K.,M.NISHIKAWA,S.HATAKEYAMA,A.TAKAMI,S.MATSUYAMA,T.HAYASAKA 2006 Atmospheric Turbid Conditions due to Fine Particles in Recent Years at Nagasaki, Japan. J. Environmental Studies, Nagasaki University, 9:23-30.

R.SUZUKI, J.XU and K.MOTOYA 2006 Global Analyses of satellite-derived vegetation index related to climatological wetness and warmth. International Journal of Climatology 26:425-438.

T.HAYASAKA, K.KAWAMOTO, G.-Y.SHI, A.OHMURA 2006 The Importance of Aerosols in Satellite-derived Estimates of Surface Shortwave Irradiance over China,. DOI:10.1029/2005GL025093. Geophys.Res.Lett.,33,L06802,

S.FUKAGAWA, H.KUZE, G.BAGTASA, S.NAITO, M.YABUKI, T.TAKAMURA, N.TAKEUCHI 2006 Characterization of seasonal and long-term variation of tropospheric aerosols in Chiba, Japan. Atmospheric Environment, 40(12):2160-2169.

SUZUKI,R.,J.XU,and K.MOTOYA 2006 Global Analyses of satellite-derived vegetation index related to climatological wetness and warmth. International Journal of Climatology 26:425-438.

KUJI,M.,S.HAYASHIDA,M.SHIOBARA,M.YABUKI,K.IIARA,H.KOBAYASHI,T.HAYASAKA,S.SATAKE 2006 Characteristics of sulfate haze over East Asia retrieved with satellite and ground-based remote sensing data.. Proceedings of SPIE 6408,64080R.

T.IWAMI 2006 The trade, direct investment, and environmental issues in East Asia,. Keizaigakuronshu, Univ. Tokyo 71(4).

HAYASAKA,T.,K.KAWAMOTO,J.-Q.XU and G.-Y.SHI 2006 Long-term trend of surface shortwave radiation over China. IRS2004:395-398. Current Problems in Atmospheric Radia-tion (Edited by H. Fischer and B.-J. Sohn), A. Deepak Publishing

KAWAMOTO,K.,T.HAYASAKA AND.I.UNO 2006 Correspondence of the low cloud microphysics to the aerosol amount over China. . IRS2004:443-445. Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation (Edited by H. Fischer and B.-J. Sohn), A. Deepak Publishing

KAWAMOTO,K.,T.HAYASAKA,I.UN0,AND T.OHARA 2006 A correlative study on the relationship between modeled anthropogenic aerosol concentration and satellite-observed cloud properties over East Asia. . J. Geophys. Res 111. DOI:10.1029/2005JD006919. D19201

T.IWAMI 2005 Globalization and Pollution Industries in East Asia. Center for International Researches on the Japanese Economy, University of Tokyo, Discussion Paper Series. CIRJE-F-394,January 2006.

ZHANG, XIA, T.NAKAZAWA, S.AOKI, S.NAKAOKA, M.ISHIZAWA, S.MAKSYUTOV, S.SUGAWARA, T.SAEKI, T.HAYASAKA 2005 Temporal variations of the atmospheric C02 concentration in the southmost part of Japan. Proceedings of the 7th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Boulder. USA(CD)

J.XU, S.HAGINOYA, K.SAITO, K.MOTOYA 2005 Surface heat balance and pan evaporation trends in Eastern Asia in the period 1971-2000. Hydrological Processes 19:2161-2186. DOI:10.1002/hyp.5668.

A.TAKAMI, A.HIGURASHI, T.MIYOSHI, A.SHIMONO, S.HAYAKEYAMA 2005 Difference of chemical compositions observed at the northern and southern Japanese coastal region in East China Sea . J. Aerosol Res 20:352-354.

A.TAKAMI, T.MIYOSHI, A.SHIMONO, S.HATAKEYAMA 2005 Chemical composition of fine aerosol measured by AMS at Fukue Island, Japan during APEX period.. Atmospheric Environment 39:4913-4924. 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.04.038

S.SUGAWARA, S.AOKI, T.NAKAZAWA, J.TANG, D.ZHANG, G.SHI, Y.LIU, S.MORIMOTO, S.ISHIDOYA, 2005 Observations of atmospheric C02 concentration and its carbon isotopic ratio in China. Proceedings of the 7th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Boulder,. USA(CD)

T.-Y.NAKAJIMA, A.UCHIYAMA, T.TAKAMURA, N.TSUJIOKA, T.TAKEMURA, T.NAKAJIMA 2005 Comparisons of warm cloud properties obtained from satellite, ground, and aircraft measurements during APEX intensive observation period in 2000 and 2001. . J. Met. Soc. Japan, 83(6):1085-1095.

S.MURAYAMA, N.SAIGUSA, S.YAMAMOTO, C.TAKAMURA, S.MORIMOTO, H.KONDO, T.NAKAZAWA, S.AOKI, T.USAMI 2005 Temporal variations of C02 and its carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in central Japan . Proceedings of the 7th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Boulder. USA(CD)

S.MUKAI, I.SANO, M.YASUMOTO,Y.NAKAGUCHI 2005 Simultaneous monitoring of aerosols and PM2.5 over Osaka. SPIE 5979. DOI:10.1117/12.627368,2005. pp.59791z-1-8

S.MUKAI,I.SANO,B.N.HOLBEN 2005 Aerosol properties over Japan by sun/sky photometry. Water Air and Soil Pollution 5:133-143.

I.SANO, S.MUKAI 2005 Retrieval of aerosols from space with POLDER on the satellite ADEOS-1 in 1977 to ADEOS-2 in 2003,. SPIE 5979. DOI:10.1117/12.627378,2005. pp.597920-1-8

T.IWAMI 2005 "Advantage of Latecomer" in Abating Air-Pollution: Experience in East Asia. International .Journal of Social Economics. 32-3

Toru Iwami 2004,09 Global Sustainability of Population and Food. The International Economy 55.

Toru Iwami 2004,01 Is the Globalization an Enemy, or an Ally of the Poor?. Keizaigaku = Kenkyu (Journal of Political Economy), 70-4/5.

Fujitani,Y.,N.Murao, S.Ohta, S.Yamagata 2004 Atmospheric aerosols over the Western Pacific Pcean during the R/V Mirai in 2002. Journal of the Meteorological society of Japan, 82:1417-1434.

Satake,S.,et al 2004 Characteristics of Asian aerosol transport simulated with a regional-scale chemical transport model during the ACE-Asia observation, . J. Geophys. Res. 109. DOI:10.1029/2003JD003997. D19S22

Murao, N., S.Ohta, S.Yamagata. et al. 2004 Aerosol chemical species and volatile organic compounds at Barrow, Alaska. Journal of Global Environment Engineering 10:11-26.

Mukai, M., T.Nakajima, and T.Takemura 2004 A study of the long-term trend of mineral dust aerosol distributions in Asia using a general circulation model.. J. Geophys. Res. 109. DOI:10.1029/2003JD004270. D19204

Kito, H. 2004 Demography and Living Standards, with A. Hayami, in A.Hayami,O.Saito and R.Toby(eds.)Emergence of Economic Society in Japan 1600-1859,. Oxford University Press,2004:213-246.

Kawamoto, K., T.Hayasaka, T.Nakajima, D.Streets, J.Woo 2004 Cloud properties derived from satellite remote sensing andtheir relationships with other factors in East Asia.. Atmos. Res. 72:353-363.

Kato, T.,T.Nakazawa, S.Aoki, S.Sugawara and M.Ishizawa 2004 Seasonal variation of the oxygen isotopic ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide in a temperate forest, Japan . Global Biogeochemical Cycle 18. DOI:10.1029/2003GB002173. GB2020

Yamaji K., T.Ohara, H.Akimoto 2004 Regional-specific emission inventory for NH3, N20, and CH4 via animal farming in South, Southeast, and East Asia, . Atmospheric Environment 38:7111-7121.

Hayasaka,T., K.Kawamoto, J.Xu 2004 Seasonal variations of clouds, aerosols and shortwave radiation over China.. Proc.14th International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation:387-388. 19-23 July 2004, Bologna, Italy,

Yamagata, S., N.Murao, S.Ohta. et al. 2004 Mineral particles in cloud droplets produced in an artificial cloud experimental system (ACES). Aerosol Science and Technology 38:293-299.

Toru Iwami 2004 Economic Development and/or Environmental Quality: Emissions of CO2 and SO2 in East Asia. Seoul Journal of Economics 17(1):55-83.

Iwami,T. 2003 Economic development and emissions of CO2 and SO2 in East. Asia. Keizaigakuronshu 69(2):2-21.

Nakajima,T., 2003 Significance of direct and indirect radiative forcings of aerosols in the East China Sea region. J.Geophys Res 108(D23). DOI:10.1029/2002JD003261 8658

Sano I.,S.Mukai,Y.Okada,B.N.Holben,S.Ohta,T.Takamura 2003 Optical properties of aerosols during APEX and ACE-Asia experiments. J.Geophys.Res 108(D23). DOI:10.1029/2002JD003263 8649

Uno I.,et al 2003 Regional chemical weather forecasting system CFORS:Model descriptions and analysis of surface observations at Japanese island stations during the ACE-Asia experiment. J.Geophys.Res 108(D23). DOI:10.1029/2002JD002845 8668

Iwabuxhi.H.and T. Hayasaka 2003 Multi-special nonlocal method for retrieval of boundary layer cloud optical thickness and droplet effective radius.. Remote Sensing Environment 88:294-308.

Kuda,N.,H.Iwabuchi,K.Maruyama,T.Hayasaka,T.Takeda,and Y.Fujiyoshi 2003 Parameterization of the effect of cloud condensation nuclei on the optical properties of a non-precipitating water layer cloud . J.Meteor,Soc.Japan 81:393-414.

Takemura T.,T.Nakajima,A.Higurashi,S.Ohta,N.sugimoto 2003 Aerosol distributions and radiative forcing over the Asian Pacific region simulated by Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for Aerosol Species(SPRINTARS). J.Geophys.Res 108(D23). DOI:10.1029/2002JD003210 8659

Research Presentations

【Oral Presentation】

HAYASAKA,T.,K.AOKI,A.SHIMIZU,N.SUGIMOTO,I.MATSUI,S.,SATAKE, AND Y MURAJI Vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols observed over Japan in spring 2005. Proceedings of the 23rd International Laser radar Conference, , 2006.07.24-2006.07.28, Nara, Japan,. 639-642

K.ARAO Atmospheric aerosol environment in recent years in Western Kyushu, Japan. Proceedings of the 21th Asian Conference on Environmental Issue (ACEI2005),. , 2005.11.17-2005.11.18. 88-93

Hayasaka, T., K.Kawamoto, J.Xu, G.Y.Shi Seasonal and long-term variations of shortwave radiation in China.. Proc. The CEReS International Symposium on Radiation Budget and Atmospheric Parameters Studied by Satellite and Ground Observation Data,, 2005.02.17-2005.02.18, Chiba University, Japan, . 132-135

Hayasaka,T., T.Nakajima, T.Takamura, B.J.Sohn Radiation and aerosol measurements in ABC project. Proc. Forth ADEC Workshop, 2005.01.26-2005.01.28, Nagasaki, Japan,. 45-48.

Kawamoto, K., T.Hayasaka Relationship between the low-level cloud fields from satellites and precipitation from ground over China.. Proc. 14th International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation,, 2004.07.19-2004.07.23, Bologna, Italy. 554-555

Hayasaka,T. et al 2003: Aerosol and radiation measurements in Fukue-jima and Amami-ohshima islands,Japan during APEX-E3 campaign. Sixth international Aymposium on Tropospheric Profiling, 2003.09.14-2003.09.19, Leipzig,Germany. 222-224

Kawamoto,K.,THayasaka,T.Nakajima,D.Streets and J-H.Woo Possible effects on low-level cloud properties by anthropogenic SO2 emission Proc. International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling,, 2003.09.14-2003.09.19, Leipzig,Germany. pp 300-302