Full Research

StageFR
Project No.R-03
Project NameHistorical Interactions between Multi-Cultural Societies and the Natural Environment in a Semi-arid Region in Central Eurasia
Abbreviated TitleIli Project
Project LeaderKUBOTA, Jumpei
Research AxisResources
URLhttp://www.ilipro.com/index.html
Key Wordsarid and semi-arid region Central Eurasia ethnic groups border agriculture nomadic pastoralism historical interactions

 

○Research Subject and Objectives

(1) Research objectives and background

 

   Historically, with the exception of those people who lived in oasis areas, people of the semi-arid region that extend across Central Eurasia once lived a predominately nomadic lifestyle. After a long transition marked by the rise and fall of various ethnic groups and countries, a tight and well-defined border divided the region between Russia and Qing China in the 18th century. At the same time, the people of this area experienced a great change in their lifestyle, caused by the migration of farmers, the settlement of nomads and development of agriculture. Settlement policies and borders prevented these people from following their way of adaptation. Finally, with the weakening of the Soviet Union, the Russian side of the political frontier was divided into many republics. Man-made trans-boundary issues, between countries or ethnic groups, religions, agriculture and nomadic pastoralism, commonly lie behind the various environment problems in the world. This is one of the keys to understanding the present environmental problems.

  

   This project aims to study and clarify the historical interaction between human activities and natural systems in the semi-arid region of Central Eurasia, with particular emphasis on trans-boundary issues. The project attempts to clarify historical changes, the rise and fall of nomadic groups and countries, their movements, changes in subsistence patterns, the use of natural resources, and climate change. At the same time, we will investigate the present status of the area and the effects of human activities on the natural environment, with particular emphasis on their historical, social and cultural background.

 

(2) Research methods

 

  The study area is the Ili River basin, which flows from China to Kazakhstan, terminating at Lake Balkhash as well as the surrounding areas, including Kyrgyz and Uzbekistan. Geographically, the Ili-Balkhash Basin is recognized as a fertile area with relatively high precipitation, lying to the north of the Tian Shan Mountains. Central Eurasia is an excellent location for tracing human reactions both to past climate changes and to anthropogenic activities. In this climatically sensitive area, which alternates between semi-arid and arid conditions, human influence can be traced historically. In the last two decades, many paleoclimatic records in this area were derived from ice cores, tree rings, lake sediments and glacier fluctuations (Thompson et. al., 1995; Marchenko and Gorbunov, 1997; Yao, 1997; Esper et. al., 2002, 2003; Narama, 2002a, b; Solomina and Alverson, 2004; Treydte et. al., 2006). These climate reconstructions provide a chance to describe and understand the full range of the natural climate system behaviour of this region. Also, there was an excellent research project, called “CLIMAN project”, including the collaboration of archaeology, geomorphology and geology on the human adaptation to lake level change in the Aral Sea (Boomer et al., 2009). However, Interactions between environmental changes and human reactions have rarely been studied in multi-disciplinary manner in Central Eurasia. So, we would like to investigate the area as follows;

 

a) Clarify historical changes, the rise and fall of nomadic groups and countries, their movements, changes in subsistence, the use of natural resources and climate change through the analysis of historical documents and archaeological investigations as well as various natural proxies such as ice cores, lake sediment samples, tree rings and wind-blown deposit.

 

b) Investigate the present status of the area and the effects of human activities on the natural environment, including their social, religious and cultural background.

 

c) Compare upstream and downstream areas in terms of historical changes and their present status, looking at both sides of the political border, which used to be the same but have developed differently, in order to understand the meaning of boundaries on environmental issues.

 

(3) Research organizations

 

   The project consists of two research groups: one has clarified historical changes in both human activities and natural systems and the other group has investigated the current processes of human activities and natural systems. In addition, we have been cooperating with various research institutions in overseas countries;

 

Kazakhstan: Institute of Geography; Institute of Archaeology; Kazakhstan Scientific Research Institute on Problems of the Cultural Heritage on Nomads; Tethys Scientific Society.

China: Cold and Arid Region Environment and Engineering Institute;

Others: Central Asia Deep Ice-Coring Project (CADIP); NESPI; CLAIMAN

 

(4) Significance as a RIHN Project

 

   Historically, human beings have strived to adapt to changes in the environment. This projects aims not to search for a so-called historical understanding of the rise and fall of the ethnic groups, but to find the history of adaptations by human beings in semi-arid regions of Central Eurasia, focusing natural resources use. On the basis of historical analysis, we have tried to investigate the present environmental problems caused by modern developments in both the former Soviet Union and China with special emphasis on man-made boundaries, which is one of the fundamental factors behind present environmental problems.

○Progress and Results in 2017

   We reconstructed the change of the climate in the area by using various proxies during the past 1,000 years as the basis for understanding the historical interaction between human activities and the environment. At first, we reconstructed a series of air temperature variations from tree ring width records in Kyrgyz (Esper et. al, 2002) and precipitation from the accumulation date at the Guliya ice-cap in China (Thompson et. al., 1995). Reconstructed temperature and precipitation, and estimated river discharge, indicated that the period from AD1000 to AD1500 was warm and dry, while the Little Ice Age (LIA), from 1500 to 1850 was cold and wet. After the LIA, the climate became wet and warm. This long-term trend well corresponds to the reconstructed lake level of Lake Balkhash represented by the ratio of saline and planktonic diatoms, indicating that there was a trend of decreasing lake level from the 10th to 13th century, as well as those of the Lake Issyk-Kul (Giralt et. al., 2002) and the Aral Sea (Boroffkka, et. al., 2006). After this significant regression, the lake level showed rapid recovery, and remained relatively high. Results from other proxies, such as dust and retrieval of glaciers supported this long-term trend.

 

   We developed a chronological database, showing the rise and falls of settlements. In the northern piedmont of the Tian Shan Mountains, oasis cities, which were the agricultural centres and trading bases in the Syr Darya basin of western Turkestan, flourished from the 7th century, while settlements in the Ili River basin were the next to be blessed with prosperity. Most of the settlements were not agricultural bases, but nomadic and trading bases with military use. In medieval times, agricultural and nomadic peoples lived separately, making full use of eco-environment variations. Their interactions were a complementary relationship in terms of natural resources use. The climate change caused not only negative, but also positive effects for agricultural/nomadic production. The warm and dry climate in the early medieval times might have accelerated the development of agricultural and trading activities, consequently contribute to the flourishing of the area, especially oasis cities in the Syr Darya basin of western Turkestan. Also, the cold and wet climate in the early LIA, might have affected the declines of oasis cities and the increase of nomadic activities in the Ili river basin and Dzungaria. Relocations and changes of subsistence complex patterns were major ways of adaptation.

 

   After the division of the area between Russia and Qing China, the balance between human capability and the impacts of environmental change, such as climate change, drastically altered. The establishment of a clear political border between Russia and Qing China shifted patterns of human-environmental interaction in the region.

 

   In Kazakhstan, this process could be divided into several stages. After the expansion of Russia, the first attempt at changing subsistence from nomadic pastoralism to agriculture, in association with the settlement of nomadic people started from the late 19th century. The collectivization of the agricultural sector from 1929 triggered serious social confusion in Kazakhstan, resulting in the loss of a large number of nomadic populations. In the Virgin Lands Programme of Khrushchev's Agricultural Policy, Kazakhstan was forced to become one of the major crop production areas in the Soviet Union, causing excessive development which ignored environmental capacity and exerted significant impact on the area. In addition, these development policies were applied while ignoring and destroying traditional social systems. Especially, newly applied production system including the division of labour, together with the migration of skilled peoples from other countries as leaders for collective farms, prevented the accumulation of agricultural knowledge, and also caused the loss of traditional knowledge of nomadic pastoralism. The collapse of the Soviet Union caused the deterioration of terms of trade in the agricultural sector. The amount of state purchase and subsidies was reduced. Consequently, many farmlands developed during the planned economy were abandoned. This reduced the pressure on natural resources, ironically resulting in the recovery of the ecosystem. At the same time, peoples labouring in divided systems were provided rather small farmlands as a result of privatization. But they could not manage their own privatized land because of their limited knowledge of subsistence. This caused a serious economic crisis, and made recovery to difficult.

 

   In China, the commencement of modern development had been delayed, not starting until the 1950’s. Agricultural development led by the Chinese Qing Dynasty was limited. After the first development period in the 1960’s in which grassland in plain areas was converted into farmland for growing cereals, the traditional nomadic pastoral system was well preserved by using natural grassland in the mountains. The second development was made by converting cereals to other cash crops, causing no serious damage to natural resources, such as land and water. Recent development after 2000 including industrial development, however, has been very active. The increasing demand for natural resources and consequent pollutions is projected.

○Project Members

Kubota, Jumpei ( RIHN,Associate Professor,Project leader )

Historical reconstruction group (Humanities and Social Sciences)

Uyama, Tomohiko ( Hokkaido University,Professor,Historical Analysis in Kazakhstan )

Kato, Yuzo ( RIHN,Assistant Professor,Analysis of Chinese documents )

Sugiyama, Masaaki ( Kyoto University,Professor,Historical analysis on Yuan Dynasty )

Chengzi ( RIHN,Senior Project Researcher,Historical Analysis on Manchuria documents )

Izumi, Takura ( Kyoto University,Professor,Archaeological investigation on subsistence in medieval time of Kazakhstan )

Onuma, Takahiro ( Tohoku Gakunin University,Lecturer,Historical analysis in China )

Ono, Hiroshi ( Kyoto Tachibana University,Professor,Historical analysis on Yuan Dynasty )

Hua, Li ( Osaka Keiho University,Professor,Historical analysis in China )

Wu, Yue ( Osaka Keiho University,Professor,Historical analysis in China )

Shiraishi, Noriyuki ( Niigata University,Professor,Archaeological analysis )

Sugiyama, Kyohiko ( Komazawa University,Associate Professor,Archaeological investigation on subsistence in medieval time of Kazakhstan )

Naiki, Satoshi ( Kyoto University,Graduate Student,Archaeological analysis in Central Asia )

Noda, Jin ( Waseda University,Assistant Professor,Historical Analysis in Kazakhstan )

Hayashi, Toshio ( Soka University,Professor,Archaeological analysis in Central Asia )

Fujimoto, Yu ( Doshisya University,Graduate Student,Archaeological investigation on subsistence in medieval time of Kazakhstan, Development GIS database )

Furumatsu, Takashi ( Kyoto University,Assistant Professor,Historical analysis in China )

Hori, Sunao ( Historical analysis in Central Asia )

Miya, Noriko ( Kyoto University,Assistant Professor,Historical analysis in China )

Murakami, Nobuaki ( Soka University,Lecturer,Historical analysis in China )

Moriya, Kazuki ( Osaka Shoin Women's University,Lecturer,Analysis of Chinese documents )

Baipakov, Karl ( Institute of Archaeology, Kazakhstan,Director, Professor,Archaeological investigation on subsistence in medieval time of Kazakhstan )

Boroffka, Nikolaus ( German Archaeological Institute,Senior researcher,Archaeological investigation on subsistence in medieval time of Kazakhstan )

Voyakin, Dimitry ( Institute of Archaeology, Kazakhstan,Research fellow,Archaeological investigation on subsistence in medieval time of Kazakhstan )

Yerofeyeva, Irina ( Kazakhstan Scientific Research Institute on Problems of the Cultural Heritage on Nomads,Director, Professor,Analysis on historical documents and maps )

Zhulduzbek, Abylkhozhin ( Institute of History and Ethnology, Kazakhstan,Professor,Analysis of agricultural development in Kazakhstan )

Historical reconstruction group (Natural science)

Sohma, Hidehiro ( Nara Women’s University,Professor,Analysis of archaeological monument using satellite images )

Takeuchi, Nozomu ( Chiba University,Associate Professor,Ice core analysis, Glacier biology )

Fujita, Koji ( Nagoya University,Associate Professor,Ice core analysis, Glacier discharge modelling )

Uetake, Jun ( National Institute of Polar Research,Research fellow,Ice core analysis, Glacier biology )

Uehara, Shogo ( Kyoto University,Graduate Student,Analysis of arid zone ecosystem )

Endo, Kunihiko ( Nihon University,Professor,Lake sediment core analysis )

Okamoto, Sachiko ( Nagoya University,Graduate Student,Ice core analysis )

Koshima, Ichiro ( Kyoto University,Professor,Ice core analysis )

Kobayashi, Osamu ( Ehime University,Associate Professor,Tree ring analysis )

Komorhi, Jiro ( Nihon University,Lecturer,Lake sediment core analysis )

Kondo, Reisuke ( Nihon University,Research fellow,Lake sediment core analysis )

Sato, Akio ( Nihon University,Graduate Student,Lake sediment core analysis )

Shimizu, Hitoshi ( University of Tokyo,Graduate Student,Lake sediment core analysis )

Sugai, Toshihiko ( University of Tokyo,Professor,Lake sediment core analysis )

Sera, Shuntaro ( Chiba University,Graduate Student,Ice core analysis )

Chiba, Takashi ( University of Tokyo,Graduate Student,Lake sediment core analysis )

Nakazawa, Fumio ( National Institute of Polar Research,Research fellow,Ice core analysis )

Nagatsuka, Naoko ( Chiba University,Graduate Student,Ice core analysis )

Nakayama, Yasunori ( Nihon University,Professor,Analysis on land use change using satellite images )

Narama, Chiyuki ( RIHN,Project Researcher,Analysis of Glacier discharge, Glacier distribution using satellite images, GIS database )

Haraguchi, Tuyoshi ( Osaka City University,Associate Professor,Lake sediment core Analysis, Sonic Sounding )

Funada, Ryo ( Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology,Professor,Tree ring analysis )

Matoba, Sumito ( Hokkaido University,Assistant Professor,Ice core analysis )

Miyake, Takayuki ( National Institute of Polar Research,Research fellow,Ice core analysis )

Murata, Taisuke ( Tottori Prefecture,Assistant Researcher,Lake sediment core analysis )

Minami, Yuichiro ( Osaka City University,Graduate Student,Lake sediment core analysis )

Montani, Hiroki ( University of Tokyo,Graduate Student,Lake sediment core analysis )

Abake, Guljianati ( Chiba University,Graduate Student,Ice core analysis )

Aizen, Elena M. ( University of Idaho,Associate Professor,Ice core analysis )

Aizen, Vladimir B. ( University of Idaho,Professor,Ice core analysis )

Aubekerov, Bolat ( Kazakhstan Scientific Research Institute on Problems of the Cultural Heritage on Nomads,Senior researcher,Lake sediment core analysis )

Deom, Jean-Marc ( Kazakhstan Scientific Research Institute on Problems of the Cultural Heritage on Nomads,Senior researcher,Development GIS database of Archaeological information )

Sala, Renato ( Kazakhstan Scientific Research Institute on Problems of the Cultural Heritage on Nomads,Senior researcher,Development GIS database of Archaeological information )

Present status research group (Humanities and Social Sciences)

Konagaya, Yuki ( National Museum of Ethnology,Professor,Analysis of nomadic system and agriculture in Central Asia )

Yoshida, Setsuko ( Shikoku Gakuin University,Associate Professor,Analysis of nomadic system )

Asamura, Kamilya ( Tohoku University,Graduate Student,Analysis of water resources management )

Abe, Kenichi ( RIHN,Professor,Analysis of agriculture development in Kazakhstan )

Iwashita, Tomohiro ( Hokkaido University,Professor,Analysis of policies and economy in Kazakhstan )

Endo, Takahiro ( University of Tsukuba,Associate Professor,Analysis of water resources management )

Ohji, Toshiaki ( Kyoto University,Emeritus Professors,Analysis on Agricultural system )

Ozaki, Takahiro ( Kagoshima University,Associate Professor,Analysis of Nomadic system and agriculture in China )

Kazato, Mari ( Kyoto University,PD Research Fellow,Analysis of Nomadic system and agriculture in Kazakhstan )

Kajiura, Takeshi ( Rissho University,Graduate Student,Analysis of Nomadic system and agriculture in Kyrgyzstan )

Kodama, Kanako ( Chiba University,Associate Professor,Analysis of Nomadic system and agriculture in China )

Simada, Yoshihito ( Nagoya University,Professor,Analysis of Nomadic system and agriculture in China )

Shinjilt ( Kumamoto University,Associate Professor,Analysis of Nomadic system and agriculture in China )

Chida, Tesuro ( University of Tokyo,Graduate Student,Analysis of policies and economy on agriculture in Kazakhstan )

Nakamura, Tomoko ( Tohoku University,Research fellow,Analysis of Nomadic system and agriculture in China )

Nobe, Koichi ( Senshu Univerisity,Professor,Analysis of policies and economy on agriculture in Kazakhstan )

Watanabe, Mitsuko ( RIHN,Project Researcher,Analysis of present status, especially land use change using satellite images,GIS database )

Rasulov, Zaur ( Analysis of water resources management )

Yerlan Abdievich Akhapov ( Kyoto University,Graduate Student,Analysis of agricultural development in Kazakhstan )

Present status research group (Natural science)

Funakawa, Shinya ( Kyoto University,Professor,Soil analysis )

Matsuyama, Hiroshi ( Tokyo Metropolitan University,Associate Professor,Analysis on precipitation and climate changes in Central Asia )

Yoshikawa, Ken ( Okayama University,Professor,Analysis of arid zone ecosystem )

Anzai, Toshihiko ( Tottori University,Graduate Student,Analysis on irrigation system and agricultural system )

Ogawa, Kenta ( Rakuno Gakuen University,Associate Professor,Analysis of arid zone ecosystem )

Kadono, Atsunobu ( Tokyo Metropolitan University,Assistant Professor,Soil analysis )

Kitamura, Yoshinobu ( Tottori University,Professor,Analysis on irrigation system and agricultural system )

Kozan, Osamu ( Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Hydrological Modeling )

Sakamoto, Keiji ( Okayama University,Professor,Analysis of arid zone ecosystem )

Shimizu, Katsuyuki ( Tottori University,Lecturer,Analysis on irrigation system and agricultural system )

Tsujimura, Maki ( University of Tsukuba,Associate Professor,Hydrological analysis using Isotope date )

Natsuhara, Yoshihiro ( Nagoya University,Professor,Analysis of arid zone ecosystem )

Horino, Haruhiko ( Osaka Prefecture University,Professor,Analysis on irrigation system and agricultural system )

Matsunaga, Kohei ( RIHN,Research Fellow,Geographical Analysis )

Morioka, Cocoro ( Kyoto University,Graduate Student,Soil analysis )

Morimura, Atsuro ( University of Human Environments,Associate Professor,Analysis of arid zone ecosystem )

Morimoto, Yukihiro ( Kyoto University,Professor,Analysis of arid zone ecosystem )

Watranabe, Tsugihiro ( RIHN,Professor,Analysis on irrigation system and agricultural system )

Jashenko, Roman ( Institute of Zoology, Kazakhstan,Senior researcher,Evaluation of impacts of agricultural development in Kazakhstan )

○Future Themes

- Reconstruction of the climate changes and human activities concerning the use of natural resources such as land and water will be finalized. This work will be accomplished through quantitative validation using the hydrological model which includes anthropological processes such as irrigation. We plan to apply our model not only on the Ili-Balkhash basin, but also the Aral Sea basin.

 

- We plan to investigate decision making processes of the development plans in the Ili River basin and the Aral Sea under the planned economy in the USSR era using historical documents. Detailed analysis about these processes would contribute how we establish proper environmental governance.

 

- We will publish the outcomes of our researches as a book series in three or four volumes. Each volume will be collectively written by several authors. This work should contribute to knowledge not only by dispatching the results to academic societies, but also for integrating outcomes.

 

- We plan to hold a workshop/symposium in Almaty, Kazakhstan, inviting cooperative researchers from overseas countries. The main purpose of this workshop/symposium is to feed back our findings and outcomes to the public, and especially to local researchers, engineers and planners.

Books

【Authored/Co-authored】

Noda Jin and Onuma Takahiro 2010 A Collection of Documents from the Kazakh Sultans to the Qing Dynasty. Joint Usage / Research Center for Islamic Area Studies, TIAS Central Eurasian Research Series Special Issue, No.1.. The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, 182pp.

Chengzhi(Kicengge) 2009,02 Daicing gurun to sono jidai: teikoku no keisei to hakki shakai(The Great Qing Empire and its historical background) . The University of Nagoya Press, Chikusa-ku Nagoya, 632pp. (in Japanese)

【Chapters/Sections】

SUGIYAMA Kiyohiko 2010,05 The Qing Empire in the Central Eurasian Context: Its Structure of Rule as Seen from the Eight Banner System. Matsuzato Kimitaka (ed.) Comparative Imperiology. Slavic Eurasian Studies. Journal of Central Eurasian Studies 2., 22. Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, pp.87-108.

Jumpei Kubota and Tomoko Nakamura 2010,03 Water issues and water saving policies in China. . Tomoya Akimich, Kazuhiko Komatsu and Yasuo Nakamura (ed.) Water and the Environment. Water and People, 1. Showa-do, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, pp.275-304. (in Japanese)

Jumpei Kubota 2010,02 Water and People in the Silkroads. Tomoya Akimichi (ed.) Water and Civilization. Showa-do, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, pp.174-204. (in Japanese)

Jumpei Kubota 2009,07 Historical changes of climate and water resources in central Eurasia. Yo-Ichiro Sato and Takashi Kurata (ed.) Agriculture and climate in desert and pasture. History of agriculture in Eurasia, 3. Rinsen Book co., Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, pp.93-140. (in Japanese)

Jumpei Kubota 2009,02 Water resources problem in the arid and semi-arid region as the global environmental issues: Case study on the agricultural development in the Heihe river basin. Masayoshi Nakawo,Qian Xin and Zheng Yue Jun (ed.) Water environmental issues in China: Water shortage caused by development. Bensei Publishing Inc., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, pp.15-30. (in Japanese)

Funakawa S, Yanai J, Takata Y, Karbozova-Saljnikov E, Akshalov K and Kosaki T 2007 Dynamics of water and soil organic matter under grain farming in Northern Kazakhstan. Eds. R. Lal, M. Suleimenov, B.A. Stewart, D.O. Hanson and P. Doraiswamy. (ed.) Toward sustainable land use both from the agronomic and environmental viewpoints. In Climate Change and Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Central Asia.. Taylor & Francis, Leiden, Netherlands, pp.279-331.

Editing

【Editing / Co-editing】

Mitsuko Watanabe and Jumpei Kubota (ed.) 2010,08 Reconceptualizing Cultural and Environmental Change in Central Asia: An Historical Perspective on the Future. Ili Project, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kita-ku, Kyoto., 215pp.

Jumpei Kubota (ed.) 2010,03 History of Central Eurasia from the 13th to 15th Century. Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, KIta-ku, Kyoto, 430pp. (in Japanese)

Jumpei Kuboa, Chengzhi and Mitsuyuki Inoue (ed.) 2009,03 History and geography in the Ili river basin: The view from inner Eurasia. Syoukadoh, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, 315pp. (in Japanese)

Uyama, T (ed.) 2008 Perception of Regions: Structure and Perception in Multi-ethnic countries. Kodansha, 310pp. (in Japanese)

Poujol, C., T. Uyama, and M. Suda (ed.) 2006 Kazakhstan. Hakusui-sha, 180pp. (in Japanese)

Papers

【Original Articles】

Uetake J, Kohshima S, Nakazawa F, Takeuchi N, Fujita K, Miyake T, Narita H, Aizen VB, Nakawo M 2011,02 Evidence for propagation of cold-adapted yeast in an ice core from a Siberian Altai glacier. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences 116(G01019). DOI:10.1029/2010JG001337 (reviewed).

Okamoto, S., K. Fujita, H. Narita, J. Uetake, N. Takeuchi, T. Miyake, F. Nakazawa, V. B. Aizen, S. A. Nikitin, M. Nakawo 2011,01 Re-evaluation of the reconstruction of summer temperatures from melt features in Belukha ice cores, Siberian Altai. Journal of Geophysical Research 116(D02110). DOI:10.1029/2010JD013977 (reviewed).

Onuma Takahiro 2010,12 The Development of the Junghars and the Role of Bukharan Merchants. Journal of Central Eurasian Studies 2.

Fujita K, Hiyama K, Iida H, Ageta Y 2010,11 Self-regulated fluctuations in the ablation of a snow patch over four decades. DOI:10.1029/2009WR008383 (reviewed).

Akiko Sakai, Koji Fujita, Chiyuki Narama, Jumpei Kubota, Masayoshi Nakawo, and Tandong Yao 2010,05 Reconstructions of annual discharge and equilibrium line altitude of glaciers at Qilian Shan, northwest China, from 1978 to 2002. Hydrological Processes. DOI:10.1002/hyp.7700 (reviewed).

Narama, C., Kääb, A., Duishonakunov, M., Abdrakhmatov, K 2010,05 Spatial variability of recent glacier area changes in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, using Corona (~ 1970), Landsat (~ 2000), and ALOS (~ 2007) satellite data. Global and Planetary Change 71:42-54. DOI:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2009.08.002 (reviewed).

Akiko Sakai, Koji Fujita, Chiyuki Narama, Jumpei Kubota, Masayoshi Nakawo, and Tandong Yao 2010,05 Reconstructions of annual discharge and equilibrium line altitude of glaciers at Qilian Shan, northwest China, from 1978 to 2002. Hydrological Processes 24(19):2798-2806. DOI:10.1002/hyp.7700 (reviewed).

Narama, C., Kääb, A., Duishonakunov, M., Abdrakhmatov, K. 2010,04 The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 10(4):647-659. DOI:10.5194/nhess-10-647-2010 (reviewed).

Zhang Y, Fujita K, Liu SY, Liu Q, Wang X 2010,04 Multi-decadal ice-velocity and elevation changes of a monsoonal maritime glacier: Hailuogou glacier, China. Journal of Glaciology 56(195):65-74. (reviewed).

Narama, C., Kääb, A., Duishonakunov, M., Abdrakhmatov, K. 2010,03 Spatial variability of recent glacier area changes in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, using Corona (~ 1970), Landsat (~ 2000), and ALOS (~ 2007) satellite data . Global and Planetary Change 71:42-54. DOI:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2009.08.002 (reviewed).

SHIMIZU Katsuyuki, KITAMURA Yoshinobu, KUBOTA Jumpei 2010 Agricultural Water Use and Its Impact on the Environs in the Lower Ili River Basin, Kazakhstan. Applied Hydrology 22:74-80. (reviewed).

Schlosser E, Manning KW, Powers JG, Duda MG, Birnbaum G, Fujita K 2010 Characteristics of high-precipitation events in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 115(D14107). DOI:10.1029/2009JD013410 (reviewed).

Matsuyama, H. and K. Kezer 2009 Long-term variation of precipitation around Lake Balkhash in Central Asia from the end of the 19th century. SOLA 5:73-76. (reviewed).

Chengzhi(Kicengge) 2009 The Manchu Language “Of the Ula region Map”. National Palace Museum Research Quarterly 26(4):1-74. (in Chinese) (reviewed).

Pachikin, K., Erokhina, O., and Funakawa, S 2009 Properties and distribution pattern of soils in Kazakhstan. Pedologist 53(1):30-37. (reviewed).

Narama, C., Kondo, R., Tsukamoto, S., Kajiura, T., Duishonakunov, M., Abdrakhmatov, K. 2009 2009 Timing of glacier expansion during the Last Glacial in the inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyz Republic by OSL dating. Quaternary International 119:147-156. (reviewed).

Narama, C., Severskiy, I., Yegorov, A. 2009 2009 Current state of glacier changes, glacial lakes, and outburst floods in the Ile Ala-Tau and Kungoy Ala-Too ranges, northern Tien Shan Mountains.. Annals of Hokkaido Geography 84:22-32. (reviewed).

Chengzhi(Kicengge) 2008,03 Research Trends in the Study of Manchu history in China. Journal of Asian Cultures 10:327-346. (in Japanese)

Narama, C., Kondo, R., Tsukamoto, S., Kajiura, T., Duishonakunov, M., Abdrakhmatov, K. 2008 Timing of glacier expansion during the Last Glacial in the inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyz Republic by OSL dating. Quaternary International. (reviewed).

Sugimori Y, Funakawa S, Pachikin KM, Ishida N and Kosaki T 2008 Soil salinity dynamics in irrigated fields and its effects on paddy-based rotation systems in southern Kazakhstan.. Land Degradation and Development 19(3):305-320.

Kadono A, Funakawa S and Kosaki T 2008 Factors controlling mineralization of soil organic matter in Eurasian steppe area. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40(4):947-955.

Kitamura, Y., Kozan, O., Sunada, K., and Oishi, S. 2007 Water problems in Central Asia. Journal of Disaster Research 2(3):134-142.

Narama, C., Kondo, R., Tsukamoto, S., Kajiura, T., Ormukov, C., and Abdrakhmatov, K. 2007 OSL dating of glacial deposits during the Last Glacial in the Terskey-Alatoo Range, Kyrgyz Republic.. Quaternary Geochronology 4:249-254. (reviewed).

Funakawa, S., R. Suzuki, S. Kanaya, E. Karbozova-Saljnikov, and T. Kosaki 2007 Distribution patterns of soluble salts and gypsum in soils under large-scale irrigation agriculture in Central Asia. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 53(2):150-161.

Y. Nakayama, T. Yanagi, S. Yamaguchi, J. Nishimura, G. Mu 2007 Monitoring of Environmental Change in Dzungar Basin by the Analysis of Multi Temporal Satellite Data Sets. Advances in Space Research 39:52-59.

Noda Dzhin 2007 “Kazhak step in 19th century between China and Russia, World civilization and Kazakhstan, part 2. (in Russian)

Noda , J 2006 he Qazaqs in the Muslim Rebellion in Xinjiang of 1864-65. Central Eurasian Studies Review 5(1):28-31.

Miyake, T., F. Nakazawa, H. Sukugawa, N. Takeuchi, K. Fujita, K. Ohta and M. Nakawo 2006 Concentrations and source variations of n-alkanes in a 21 m-ice core and snow samples at Belukha Glacier, Russian Altai Mountains. . Annals of Glaciology 43:142-147.

Narama, C., Y. Shimamura , D. Nakayama and K. Abdrakhmatov, 2006 Recent changes of glacier coverage in the western Terskey-Alatoo range, Kyrgyz Republic, using Corona and Landsat. Annals of Glaciology 43:223-229.

Research Presentations

【Oral Presentation】

Narama, C., Kääb, A., Duishonakunov, M., Abdrakhmatov, K., Tadono, T Current state of glacier hazards in the Tien Shan mountains. . The 4th Joint PI Symposium of ALOS Data Nodes for ALOS Science Program 2010 Tokyo, 2010.11.15-2010.11.17, Tokyo.

Toshihiko Anzai, Katsuyuki Shimizu, and Yoshinobu Kitamura Effect of spatial distribution of paddy and upland fields on groundwater level fluctuation – A case study of an irrigated district in the lower Ili river basin, Kazakhstan –. 7th International AFAS Joint Symposium between Korea and Japan on Current Status and Perspectives of Agriculture, Forestry, and Animal Sciences in 2010, November 2010, Chuncheon, Korea.

NODA Jin Kazak Nomadism in the Ili Region under the Russian Administration, 1871-1881. Central Eurasian Studies Society 11th Annual Conference, 2010.10.29, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, U.S.A.

Narama, C., Kicengge, Kubota, J., Shatravin, V., Duishonakunov, M., Moholdt, G., Abdrakhmatov, K. The lake-level changes in Central Asia during the last 1000 years based on historical map. PAGES 2K International Workshop, 2010.08.26-2010.08.27, Nagoya Univ. Aichi pref. Japan.

Fujita K, Takeuchi N, Nikitin SA, Surazakov AB, Okamoto S, Aizen VB, Kubota J Mass balance of Gregoriev Glacier, Kyrgyz Tienshan Mts. derived from GPS surveys and energy-balance model. International Symposium on Snow, Ice and Humanity in a Changing Climate, 2010.06.21-2010.06.25, Hokkaido Univ. Sapporo, Japan.

Okamoto, S., Fujita, K., Narita, H., Uetake, J., Takeuchi, N., Miyake, T., Nakazawa, F., Aizen, V. B., Nikitin, S. A. and Nakawo, M. Stratigraphy analysis focused on air bubbles in the Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai. International Symposium on Snow, Ice and Humanity in a Changing Climate, 2010.06.21-2010.06.26, Hokaido Univ. Sapporo, Japan.

Fujita K, Sakai A, Surazakov AB Re-evaluation of potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood in the Himalayas. International Symposium on Snow, Ice and Humanity in a Changing Climate, 2010.06.21-2010.06.25, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan.

Nagai H, Fujita K, Nuimura T Formation condition of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya derived by satellite data.. International Symposium on Snow, Ice and Humanity in a Changing Climate, , 2010.06.21-2010.06.25, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan.

Sakai A, Tadono T, Fujita K, Kubota J Formation conditions of supraglacial lakes on deris-covered glaciers in the Himalayas. International Symposium on Snow, Ice and Humanity in a Changing Climate, 2010.06.21-2010.06.25, Hokkaido Univ. Sapporo, Japan.

Narama, C., Kicengge Environmental changes in Central Asia during the last 1000 years. workshop: human activity and climatechanges in Central Asia, 2010.02.24, RIHN, Kyoto.

Funakawa, S., Shinjo, H., Kadono, A., and Kosaki, T Factors controlling the in situ decomposition rate of soil organic matter in different bioclimatic conditions of Eurasia. The 9th International Conference of the East and Southeast Asia Federation of Soil Science Societies, 2009.10.27-2009.10.28, Seoul Korea.

Jumpei Kubota Effects of human activities on the hydrological processes in arid regions of Central Eurasia –a multi-disciplinary approach. International Workshop on Changes in Surface and Ground Water in the Tarim River Basin, October 2009, Xi’an, China.

Narama,C., Duishonakunov, M., Sobr, M., Engel, Z., Cerny, M., Daiyrov, M., Kääb, A., Abdrakhmatov, K Glacier lake outburst flood in the western Zyndan glacier, Ysyk-Köl region, Kyrgyzstan on 24 July 2008. Mitigation of Natural Hazards in Mountain Areas, 2009.09.14-2009.09.18, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.

Jin NODA Turkistan as the capital of the “Kazakh Khanate” in the 16-19 centuries. Turko-Mongol Rulers, Cities and City-Life in Iran and the Neighboring Countries, 2009.09.13, Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo.

Jumpei Kubota Effects of human activities on the hydrological processes in arid regions of Central Eurasia -a multi-disciplinary research project. International Workshop on the Northern Eurasia High Mountain Ecosystems, September 2009, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan..

Jumpei Kubota Historical interactions between human activities and environmental changes in arid regions of Central Eurasia. IHDP 7th Open Meeting, April 2009, Bonn, Germany.

Chengzhi(Kicengge) The Manchu Language “Of the Ula region Map”. New Perspectives on Geographic Space. International Symposiun on Historical Cartography, 2008.11.06-November 2008, Taipei National Palace Museum. (in Chinese)  http://www.npm.gov.tw/hotnews/9711seminar/

Jin NODA The History of Eastern Kazakhstan Written by a Tatar Imam: Beyond the Border of the Empires.. Central Eurasian Studies Society,Ninth Annual Conference, 2008.09.20, Georgetown Univ.,Washington, D.C..

Narama, C Spatial variability of recent glacier area and volume changes in central Asia using Corona, Landsat, ASTER and ALOS optical satellite data. EGU, 2007.04.15, Vienna, Austria.

Narama, C Timing of glacier expansion during the last Glacial in the northern and central Tien Shan, Kyrgyz Republic by OSL dating. EGU, 2007.04.18, Vienna, Austria.

NODA Jin The Qazaq nomadism reflected in the imperial documents: Between the Qing and Russian Empires (19 c.). Central Eurasian Studies Society, Eighth Annual Conference, 2007.10.21, The university of Washington, Seattle (WA), USA.

Narama, C Timing of glacier expansion during the Last Glacial in the Tien Shan mountains. Pamis-Germany 80th Symposium, 2008.08.21, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

【Poster Presentation】

Sakai A, Narama C, Fujita K, Kubota J Recent fluctuation of discharge from glaciers and seasonal snow cover in Kyrgyz Tien Shan. International Symposium on Snow, Ice and Humanity in a Changing Climate, 2010.06.21-2010.06.25, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan.

Nakazawa F, Uetake J, Suyama Y, Kaneko R, Takeuchi N, Fujita K, Kanda H DNA analysis of a single Pinus pollen grain in a glacier for identification of the species. International Symposium on Snow, Ice and Humanity in a Changing Climate, 2010.06.21-2010.06.25, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan.

Sakai A, Fujita K, Narama C, Kubota J, Nakawo M, Yao TD Fluctuations of discharge from Qilian Mountains in northwest China during the last two millennia. 2010 PAGES (PAst Global changES) Regional Workshop in Japan, 2010.06.05-2010.06.06, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Japan.

Okamoto S, Fujita K, Narita H, Uetake J, Takeuchi N, Miyake T, Nakazawa F, Aizen V, Nikitin S, Nakawo M Re-evaluation of the reconstruction of summer temperatures from melt features in Belukha ice cores, Siberian Altai. 2010 PAGES (PAst Global changES) Regional Workshop in Japan, 2010.06.05-2010.06.06, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Japan.

Narama, C., Kääb, A., Duishonakonov, M., Daiyrov, M Glacier lake outburst floods during 2000-2009 in the Tien Shan mountains, Central Asia. Glacier Hazards, Permafrost Hazards and GLOFs in Mountain Areas: Processes, Assessment, Prevention, Mitigation, 2009.11.10-2009.11.13, Vienna, Austria.

Narama, C., Duishonakunov, M., Kääb, A., Severskiy, I., Abdrakhmatov, K., Kubota, J Remote-sensing based analysis of glacier changes and glacial lake hazards in the outer ranges of the Tien Shan mountains. International Workshop on the Northern Eurasia Mountain Ecosystems, 2009.09.10-2009.09.13, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.

Narama, C., Duishonakonov, M., Kääb, A., Abdrakhmatov, K Remote-sensing based analysis of glacier change and glacier lake hazards in the outer ranges of the Tien Shan mountains. EGU, 2009.04.19-2009.04.24, Vienna, Austria.

【Invited Lecture / Honorary Lecture / Panelist】

Fujita K Recent changes in Himalayan glaciers and glacial lakes. Workshop on Integrated Studies of Environmental Changes and Climate Adaptation Responses in the Tibet-Himalayan Region, 2010.09.13-2010.09.15, Kathmandu, Nepal..

Fujita K Glacier Monitoring Activities in Japan, Nepal and Bhutan. WGMS General Assembly of the National Correspondents, 2010.09.01-2010.09.04, Zermatt, Switzerland.

Fujita K Changes in cryosphere in the Asian highland. PAGES 1st Asia 2k Workshop, 2010.08.26-2010.08.27, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Japan..

Fujita K Recent changes in Himalayan glaciers and ice core studies in the Asian highland. 2010 PAGES (PAst Global changES) Regional Workshop in Japan, 2010.06.05-2010.06.06, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Japan.

Jumpei Kubota Historical interaction between human and the environment in arid regions of Central Eurasia. 1st International Conference “Aral: Past, Present and Future - Two Centuries of the Aral Sea Investigations, October 2009, St. Petersburg, Russia. .