Full Research

StageFR
Project No.14200103
Project NameResearch and Social Implementation of Ecosystem-based Disaster Risk Reduction as Climate Change Adaptation in Shrinking Societies
Abbreviated TitleEco-DRR project
Project LeaderYOSHIDA Takehito
Research AxisProgram 1: Societal Transformation under Environmental Change
URLhttps://www.facebook.com/EcoDRR2018/
Key WordsEcosystem-based Disaster Risk Reduction

 

○Research Subject and Objectives

Problem, background, and objectives

    Climate change is ongoing and projected to intensify in the future, and its impacts expand to various natural and human systems (IPCC 2014). Among the impacts, this project focuses on natural disasters, and it aims to contribute to adaptation strategy of reducing and managing the risks. The risk of climate change or natural disaster results from the interaction among climate-related hazard, exposure and vulnerability of human activities (IPCC 2012, 2014), so that adaptation to the natural disaster risk can be realized by diminishing exposure (by improving land use) and vulnerability to hazard. Our project mainly focuses on the land use in order to lower the disaster risk.

    Existing hard-engineering countermeasures against natural disasters have target safety levels, below which natural disasters can be prevented. Although these countermeasures are effective if the hazard level of natural disaster is below the target safety level, we are increasingly being faced with the situation, in which the hazard level goes well beyond the safety level, resulting in a devastating natural disaster. Also, conventional countermeasures are sometimes criticized for negatively affecting natural environment and biodiversity that supply multiple ecosystem services supporting our livelihood. Eco-DRR (Ecosystem-based Disaster Risk Reduction) approaches focus on lowering the exposure of human activities to the hazard of natural disasters, by which the losses and damages of natural disasters can be reduced, if not prevented. Eco-DRR approaches take advantage of the multi-functionality of ecosystems, including their capacity to mitigate disasters while providing multiple ecosystem services (e.g. Convention on Biological Diversity 2015, UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015, Ministry of the Environment (MOE) Japan 2016). Thus, Eco-DRR approaches complement the existing conventional approaches against natural disasters, although the effectiveness and multi-functionality of Eco-DRR are not yet clearly and quantitatively understood (Science Council of Japan 2014, The Royal Society 2014).

    Japan is facing aging and shrinking population, and it is leading to the abandonment of farmlands, houses and other intensive land use, providing an opportunity for improving the land use (e.g. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) Japan 2015). The population of Japan increased substantially over the last century, making the risk of natural disasters larger and spreading wider. Evaluating the past change of natural disaster risks provides valuable information when considering the adaptation not only in Japan but also in other countries.

 

    Given the above background, this project sets the two main goals.

Goal 1. Developing the methodology of evaluating the multi-functionality of Eco-DRR in terms of reducing natural disaster risks and other ecosystem services, and assessing Eco-DRR by comparing the multi-functionality between the past, the present and the future.

Goal 2. Supporting the implementation of Eco-DRR through transdisciplinary approaches in collaboration with local communities, governments, insurance industry and other stakeholders.

 

Methodology, structure and schedule

    Three research components (described below) contribute to achieve the above two goals with the spatial scales of research.


Research component 1) Visualizing the risks of natural disasters in the present and the past

    The risk components of hazards, exposure and vulnerability for different natural disasters will be analysed on the GIS, and then the risks of natural disasters in terms of monetary loss will be

evaluated and visualized as the risk maps for the present and the past. By comparing the maps between the present and the past, temporal changes of the natural disaster risks will be examined,

and modeling the risk for the different scenarios of exposure will contribute to assess Eco-DRR.

 

Research component 2) Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality of Eco-DRR

    Provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services will be evaluated on the GIS, and their spatial distribution will be modelled in relation to population and land use. The model will be used for evaluating the ecosystem services for different land use scenarios to assess Eco-DRR.

 

Research component 3) Transdisciplinary scenario analysis and developing social and economic incentives of Eco-DRR

    Together with local communities and local governments, transdisciplinary platforms will be formed at each of the local research sites by taking advantage of existing platforms. This transdisciplinary platform will function to deepen the understanding, discuss the future options, and build the consensus of Eco-DRR. Transdisciplinary scenario analysis will be conducted in consideration of climate change and shrinking population. Multiple scenarios of the future local community will be developed, and the risks of natural disasters and ecosystem services will be modelled for each scenario. In addition, traditional and local knowledge of Eco-DRR will be inventoried and evaluated for the multi-functionality to be shared in the platform.

    In collaboration with insurance industry, a research forum will be formed to discuss the possibility and feasibility of what insurance industry can contribute to develop economic incentives of Eco-DRR. Also, various laws and institutions in national and local governments related to disaster risk reduction and land use will be assessed in the research forum as well.

 

Expected results

    Visualization of the present status, historical changes and future scenarios of natural disaster risks and utilization of Eco-DRR will help us understand what and where natural disaster risks exist in relation to land use, how we happened to have the risks historically, and what options we have in the future. Our project also contributes to consensus building and developing incentives to promote and conserve Eco-DRR approaches by collaborating with diverse stakeholders in local communities, governments and insurance industry.

 

Project organization and membership

    The research components 1 to 3 will be conducted by the groups and sub-groups. Thetotal number of project members now count about eighty.

 

Contribution to the program

    Our project is affiliated with the Program 1 “Societal Transformation under Environmental Change” that aims at providing realistic perspectives and options to facilitate the transformation towards a society that can flexibly respond to environmental changes and natural disasters.

    Even in the highly developed countries such as Japan, natural disasters frequently occur and cause devastating losses and damages in human society, and there is an increasing trend of natural disasters caused by storms and typhoons, and heavy rain under the ongoing climate change. Existing countermeasures against natural disasters based on the conventional civil engineering technologies have target safety levels, below which natural disasters can be prevented. Although these countermeasures are effective if the hazard level of a natural disaster is below the target safety level, we are increasingly being faced with the situation, in which the hazard level goes well beyond the safety level, resulting in a devastating natural disaster. Also, conventional countermeasures are sometimes criticized for negatively affecting natural environment and biodiversity that supply multiple ecosystem services supporting our livelihood. Eco-DRR (Ecosystem-based Disaster Risk Reduction) approaches focus on lowering the exposure of human activities to the hazard of natural disasters, by which the losses and damages of natural disasters can be reduced, if not prevented. Eco-DRR approaches take advantage of the multi-functionality of ecosystems, including their capacity to mitigate disasters while providing multiple ecosystem services. Thus, Eco-DRR approaches complement the existing conventional approaches against natural disasters, although the effectiveness and multi-functionality of Eco-DRR are not yet clearly and quantitatively understood (Science Council of Japan 2014, The Royal Society 2014). Our project aims at deepening the understanding of Eco-DRR in an interdisciplinary way combining natural and social sciences, and contributes to the Program by addressing the links between natural disasters and social issues.

    Land use and land ownership are the key issue for the social implementation of Eco-DRR, and they are the most challenging issue when we discuss the future options and build the consensus of Eco-DRR in the transdisciplinary platform. Our project aims at understanding the history of land use change and examining the future scenarios of land use under the conditions of climate change and shrinking population, in relation to the laws and institutions associated with land use and land ownership. Land ownership right in conformity with public welfare is described in the current constitution of Japan as well as in the former Meiji constitution, but the actual relationship between land ownership right and public welfare on the ground should be reviewed and assessed in light of disaster risk reduction and multi-functionality of land. Social transformation with regard to land use and land ownership will be considered in our project, which suggests the strong link between our project and the Program 1. The Program 1 is starting the discussion forum on land use and land ownership, and we would like to contribute to it.

○Progress and Results in 2017

Project organization and research sites

    After our PR started in June 2017, the organization of the project was more developed by having additional members joined the research team, and the total number of project members now count about 80. Three research assistants (one in full time and two in part time) are hired and joined as in-house project members to support the project leader and the core members in the headquarter function of the project. Also, one or two postdocs will be hired in the spring of 2018 and they are expected to play a central role in conducting the research components described below.

    In September 2017, we had a kick-off meeting among the all members of the project to share the project outlines and discuss the research plans in more details. The project organization was almost fixed by December 2017, and since then, we have been having or planning meetings for each research group and sub-group to discuss ongoing research activities and future research plans in more details.

    The local research sites of the project were decided to be the Mikatagoko lakes and other areas in Fukui Prefecture, the Otsu and Takashima areas in Shiga Prefecture, and the Lake Inba area in Chiba Prefecture. At each local site, the transdisciplinary platform that diverse local stakeholders are involved is being developed or prepared to develop, although more time and efforts are needed for the full development.

 

Research component 1) Visualizing the risks of natural disasters in the present and the past

    The methodology for evaluating and visualizing the risks of natural disasters in the present and the past was developed and applied to a local research site in Fukui. The results revealed that the present natural disaster risk is distributed heterogeneously in the area, and the risk has substantially increased over the last ninety years as the population and the number of households increased in the earlier and later phases, respectively. Future challenges exist in applying the method to multiple types of natural disasters, improving the evaluation of potential socio-economic loss and damages, applying the method to other local research sites and larger spatial scales (prefectural and national levels), etc.

 

Research component 2) Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality of Eco-DRR

    The existing methodologies for evaluating and modelling ecosystem services were assessed to decide which methodology will be used for this project. Also, parameters and land use data have been reviewed and collected to be used for our analysis. The preliminary version of the methodology was applied to the local research site in Fukui to evaluate multiple ecosystem services. Future challenges exist in evaluating as diverse ecosystem services as possible using existing and developing methodologies, validating the values of ecosystem services in collaboration with diverse stakeholders in local research sites, setting multiple scenarios to be used in this analysis, evaluating the potential benefits and costs of Eco-DRR for each scenario, etc.

 

Research component 3) Transdisciplinary scenario analysis and developing social and economic incentives of Eco-DRR

    Transdisciplinary platforms are being formed in the research sites of Fukui and Shiga. The platform in Fukui is based on the existing Mikatagoko Nature Restoration Committee, in which one of the several working groups aims at achieving ecological restoration of lakeshore and river and flood risk reduction at the same time using Eco-DRR approaches. The trial research results of the research components 1 and 2 (described above) are prepared to be shared in the platform to foster the understanding and discussion among the stakeholders. The platform in Shiga is based on the existing regional association, in which the risk of rainfall-induced landslides has been discussed since an evacuation order of the district was issued and then some difficulties happened in 2015. For the Chiba research site, preparation to form a platform with diverse stakeholders started. The transdisciplinary scenario analysis is expected to be conducted in the later phase of the project after research outcomes from the research components 1 and 2 accumulate to some extent.

    In these local research sites, we also started to collect the traditional and local knowledge of Eco-DRR including the history of land use management, flood control measures built in the Edo period, etc., but obviously more efforts are needed and planned in the following years of FR.

    As for the natural disaster insurance, we started the collaboration with an insurance company, and the research forum among insurance industry, academia and government officials is being formed to discuss the possibility and feasibility of economic incentives to promote Eco-DRR. Laws and institutions related to disaster risk reduction will also be discussed in the research forum, but the progress in this aspect is still limited and more efforts are needed and planned in the following years of FR.


Most notable outputs to date

Chen IC, Hsieh C, Kondoh K, Lin, HJ, Miki T, Nakamura M, Ohgushi T, Urabe J, Yoshida T (2017) Filling the gaps in ecological studies of socio-ecological systems. Ecological Research. 32(6):873-885.

Fukamachi K (2017) Sustainability of terraced paddy fields in traditional satoyama landscapes of Japan. Journal of Environmental Management. 202(3):543-549.

Guillen VP, Murakami A (2017) Dynamics of house state consolidation in Lima Metropolitan area: a cellular automata approach. Journal of the Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture.80(5):657-662.

Karanja JM, Saito O (2017) Cost–benefit analysis of mangrove ecosystems in flood risk reduction: a case study of the Tana Delta, Kenya. Sustainability Science. doi:10.1007/s11625-017-0427-3.

Kobayashi Y, Mori AS (2017) The potential role of tree diversity in reducing shallow landslide risk. Environmental Management. 59(5):807-815.

Managi S, Guan D (2017) Multiple disasters management: Lessons from the Fukushima triple events. Economic Analysis and Policy. 53:114-122.

Robles LR, Ichinose T (in press) Filipino Students Collective Narratives of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake: A perspective on resilience formation and social capital. Asian Studies: Journal of Critical Perspectives on Asia.

Uehara M (2017) The long term economic value of holistic ecological planning for disaster risk. In: Yan W, Galloway W (eds) Rethinking Resilience, Adaptation and Transformation in a Time of Change. Springer, Cham. pp267-289.

Sanuki H, Shibuo Y, Lee S, Yoshimura K, Tajima Y, Furumai H & Sato S (2017). Inundation forecast simulation in urbanized coastal low-lying areas based on high-resolution precipitation nowcast data. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. B2 (Coastal Engineering). 73. I_499-I_504. (in Japanese)

Yamamoto S (2017) The possibility of using the natural environment and geographical features for disaster risk reduction in the assumed tsunami inundation area in Nankoku city, Kochi prefecture. Journal of the Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture. 80(5):669-672. (in Japanese)

 

Project organization and members

The above-mentioned research components 1 to 3 will be conducted by corresponding three (main) groups 1 to 3 as described below. The group 3 has two sub-groups on specific research subjects and three sub-groups for local research sites. In addition, the international affairs sub-group is affiliated with the core (project steering) group. The research outcomes of the groups and sub-groups will contribute to the two goals of our project, which will be coordinated by the core group consisting of group leaders and core members with taking advice from external advisors and program directors. The goal 1 will be achieved mainly by the groups 1 and 2, and the goal 2 mainly by the group 3 and the associated sub-groups. The international affairs sub-group will contribute to discussions and negotiations relating to Eco-DRR in various international organizations and platforms by providing the research outcomes of the entire project.

○Project Members

YOSHIDA, Takehito ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) & Department of General Systems Studies, University of Tokyo,Associate Professor,Project management, Transdisciplinary platforms, TLK research )

Group 1 (Natural disaster risk assessment)

ICHINOSE, Tomohiro ( Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University,Professor,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Transdisciplinary platforms )

SHIBASAKI, Ryosuke ( Center for Spatial Information Science, University of Tokyo,Professor,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters )

AKIYAMA, Yuki ( Center for Spatial Information Science, University of Tokyo,Assistant Professor,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters )

UEHARA, Misato ( Shinshu University,Associate Professor,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters )

AKASAKA, Takumi ( Department of Life Science and Agriculture, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine,Assistant Professor,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters )

ITAGAWA, Satoru ( Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University,Project Researcher,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters )

IMAI, Yota ( Tokushima University,Graduate Student,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Transdisciplinary platforms )

IMOTO, Ikuko ( Keio Research Intsitute at SFC,Senior Researcher,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters )

KAMADA, Mahito ( Tokushima University,Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

HUANG, Wanhui ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Researcher,Regional Environmental Studies, GIS )

TAKAHASHI, Seiichiro ( LPD Landscape Planning & Design inc.,Technical advisor,Landscape architecture )

TAKI, Kentaro ( The University of Shiga Prefecture,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms, Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Developing incentives and institutions )

NAGAI, Masahiko ( Center for Spatial Information Science, University of Tokyo,Project Associate Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality, Developing incentives and institutions )

NAKAMURA, Futoshi ( Hokkaido University,Professor,External advisor )

FURUTANI, Tomoyuki ( Faculty of Policy Management, Keio University,Professor,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters )

FURUMAI, Hiroaki ( Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo,Professor,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters )

MUTO, Yasunori ( Tokushima University,Professor,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Transdisciplinary platforms )

MURAKAMI, Akinobu ( Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems, University of Tsukuba,Associate Professor,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Developing incentives and institutions )

MORISAKI, Michiya ( Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University,Graduate Student,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Transdisciplinary platforms )

YAMADA, Yumi ( Keio University,Extraordinary scientist,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Transdisciplinary platforms )

Group 2 (Multifunctionality evaluation)

SAITO, Osamu ( United Nations University, Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability (UNU-IAS); Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo,Academic Director, Academic Program Officer; Visiting Associate Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality )

HASHIMOTO, Shizuka ( Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo,Associate Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality )

ITO, Motomi ( Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo,Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality )

KURASHIMA, Osamu ( Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo,Project Researcher,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality )

HUANG, Wanhui ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Researcher,Regional Environmental Studies, GIS )

TSUCHIYA, Kazuaki ( Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo,Assistant Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality )

HARASHINA, Koji ( Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University,Associate Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality )

HORI, Keiko ( United Nations University, Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability (UNU-IAS),Research Asistant,Environment creation studies, Sustainability science )

MATSUI, Takanori ( Osaka University,Assistant Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality )

MANAGI, Shunsuke ( Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University,Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms, Developing incentives and institutions )

MIYASHITA, Tadashi ( Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo,Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality )

MORI, Akira ( Yokohama National University,Associate Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality, International affairs )

YAGI, Hironori ( Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo,Associate Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality )

YAGI, Nobuyuki ( Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo,Associate Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality )

YAMAJI, Eiji ( Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo,Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality )

Group 3 (Social implementation)・FUKUI subgroup

YOSHIDA, Takehito ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) & Department of General Systems Studies, University of Tokyo,Associate Professor,Project management, Transdisciplinary platforms, TLK research )

ISHII, Jun ( Fukui Prefectural Satoyama-Satoumi Research Institute,Researcher,Transdisciplinary platforms )

ICHINOSE, Tomohiro ( Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University,Professor,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Transdisciplinary platforms )

UCHIDA, Kei ( Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo,Project Researcher,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters )

KASADA, Minoru ( Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo,Project Researcher,Transdisciplinary platforms )

KITAGAWA, Junko ( Fukui Prefectural Satoyama-Satoumi Research Institute,Chief Scientist,Transdisciplinary platforms )

KOJIMA, Hideaki ( Wakasa Mikata Museum of Jomon Period,Curator,Transdisciplinary platforms )

SHINOHARA, Naoto ( Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo,Graduate Student,Transdisciplinary platforms )

NAKAMURA, Ryo ( Fukui Prefectural Satoyama-Satoumi Research Institute,Researcher,Transdisciplinary platforms )

FUKUSHIMA, Mariko ( University of Tokyo,Graduate Student,Transdisciplinary platforms )

MIYAMOTO, Yasushi ( Fukui Prefectural Satoyama-Satoumi Research Institute,Researcher,Transdisciplinary platforms )

MORISAKI, Michiya ( Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University,Graduate Student,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Transdisciplinary platforms )

YAMADA, Yumi ( Keio University,Extraordinary scientist,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Transdisciplinary platforms )

Group 3 (Social implementation)・SHIGA subgroup

FUKAMACHI, Katsue ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms, TLK research )

MIYOSHI, Iwao ( Kyoto Prefectural University,Assistant Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

TAKI, Kentaro ( The University of Shiga Prefecture,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms, Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Developing incentives and institutions )

AZUMA, Sachiyo ( The University of Shiga Prefecture,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

WANG, Wen ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Graduate student,Landscape architecture )

OSAWA, Sotaro ( Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University,Graduate Student,Architecture )

OCHIAI, Chiho ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Assistant Professor,Community disaster prevention, Community participation type disaster reconstruction )

ONITSUKA, Kenichiro ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Assistant Professor,Rural planning studies, Rural informationization )

KATOH, Sadahisa ( Center for Global Partnerships and Education, Okayama University,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

KAMATANI, Kaoru ( College of Gastronomy Management, Ritsumeikan University,Associate Professor,Japanese history )

KUBOTA, Yoshiaki ( University of Toyama,Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

KOBAYASHI, Hirohide ( Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

SHIMADA, Kazuhisa ( The University of Shiga Prefecture,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

TAKAHASHI, Hiroki ( Otsu City Museum of History,Curator,Japanese history )

TAKAMURA, Noriko ( National Institute for Environmental Studies,Fellow,Transdisciplinary platforms )

ZHANG, Pingxing ( Kyoto Prefectural University,Postdoctoral fellow,Landscape architecture )

TSAI, Sunglun ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Graduate Student,Architecture )

NINOMIYA, Kento ( Gurauate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University,Graduate Student,Rural planning studies, Rural informationization )

HASHIMOTO, Shizuka ( Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo,Associate Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality )

MIZUTANI, Shusuke ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Graduate Student,Landscape architecture )

MURAKAMI, Shuichi ( The University of Shiga Prefecture,Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

MORISAKI, Michiya ( Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University,Graduate Student,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Transdisciplinary platforms )

YAMAMOTO, Akiko ( Takashima city board of education,Supervisor,Regional history )

YAMAMOTO, Kiyotatsu ( University of Tokyo,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

WATANABE, Keiichi ( Lake Biwa Museum, Shiga Prefecture,Curator,Folkloristics )

Group 3 (Social implementation)・CHIBA subgroup

NISHIHIRO, Jun ( Toho University,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

SHOJI, Taro ( Toho University,Visiting Researcher,Transdisciplinary platforms )

ONUMA, Ayumi ( Faculty of Economics, Keio University,Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms, Forum for natural disaster insurance )

SHIBATA, Yuki ( Toho University,Associate Professor,Environpolitics )

TSUGE, Takahiro ( Konan University,Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms, Developing incentives and institutions )

HASEGAWA, Masami ( Toho University,Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

Group 3 (Social implementation)・Incentive & Institution subgroup

URASHIMA, Hiroko ( Corporate Social Responsibility Section, Corporate Planning Department, MS&AD Insurance Group Holdings, Inc.,Section Head,Transdisciplinary platforms, Developing incentives and institutions )

NISHIDA, Takaaki ( Mitsubishi UFJ Research and Consulting Co., Ltd.,Deputy Chief Scientist,Developing incentives and institutions )

IIDA, Akiko ( University of Tokyo,Assistant Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms, Developing incentives and institutions )

ICHINOSE, Tomohiro ( Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University,Professor,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Transdisciplinary platforms )

ONUMA, Ayumi ( Faculty of Economics, Keio University,Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms, Forum for natural disaster insurance )

OKANO, Takahiro ( Ministry of the Environment,Environment policy,Developing incentives and institutions )

KANIE, Yasumasa ( MS & AD Insurance Group Holdings, Inc.,Section Head,Transdisciplinary platforms, Developing incentives and institutions )

TAKI, Kentaro ( The University of Shiga Prefecture,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms, Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Developing incentives and institutions )

TAKEYA, Takako ( Mitsubishi UFJ Research and Consulting Co., Ltd.,Researcher,Developing incentives and institutions )

TSUGE, Takahiro ( Konan University,Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms, Developing incentives and institutions )

TSUCHIYA, Kazuaki ( Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo,Assistant Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality )

HARAGUCHI, Makoto ( InterRisk Research Institute & Consulting, Inc.,Manager, Senior consultant,Developing incentives and institutions )

FUKAMACHI, Katsue ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms, TLK research )

MANAGI, Shunsuke ( Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University,Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms, Developing incentives and institutions )

MURAKAMI, Akinobu ( Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems, University of Tsukuba,Associate Professor,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, Developing incentives and institutions )

YOSHIDA, Takehito ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) & Department of General Systems Studies, University of Tokyo,Associate Professor,Project management, Transdisciplinary platforms, TLK research )

Group 3 (Social implementation)・Traditional Local Knowledge subgroup

FUKAMACHI, Katsue ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms, TLK research )

AZUMA, Sachiyo ( The University of Shiga Prefecture,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

UCHIYAMA, Yuta ( Tohoku University,Researcher,Transdisciplinary platforms, TLK research, International affairs )

WANG, Wen ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Graduate student,Landscape architecture )

OSAWA, Sotaro ( Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University,Graduate Student,Architecture )

OKU, Hirokazu ( University of Toyama Faculty of Art and Design,Associate Professor,Landscape architecture )

OCHIAI, Chiho ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Assistant Professor,Community disaster prevention, Community participation type disaster reconstruction )

KAKINUMA, Kaoru ( Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University,Assistant Professor,Environmentology )

KAJIMA, Syuichiri ( Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University,Graduate Student,Environpolitics, Environmental economics )

KAMATANI, Kaoru ( College of Gastronomy Management, Ritsumeikan University,Associate Professor,Japanese history )

LUKMAN, Kevin M ( Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University,Graduate Student,Forest community )

KOHSAKA, Ryo ( Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University,Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality, International affairs )

KOBAYASHI, Hirohide ( Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

SAITO, Haruo ( University of Tokyo,Assistant Professor,TLK research )

SHIMADA, Kazuhisa ( The University of Shiga Prefecture,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

JAMIN, Celine ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Graduate Student,Architecture )

TAKAHASHI, Hiroki ( Otsu City Museum of History,Curator,Japanese history )

TASHIRO, Ai ( Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University,Researcher,Environmental epidemiology )

TSAI, Sunglun ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Graduate Student,Architecture )

FUNAHASHI, Tomomi ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Graduate Student,Ecosystem Conservation )

FURUTA, Naoya ( Taisho University; International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources(IUCN),Professor; Coordinator,International affairs, Developing incentives and institutions )

MIYAJI, Mari ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Graduate Student,Architecture )

YAMAMOTO, Akiko ( Takashima city board of education,Supervisor,Regional history )

YOSHIDA, Takehito ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) & Department of General Systems Studies, University of Tokyo,Associate Professor,Project management, Transdisciplinary platforms, TLK research )

WATANABE, Keiichi ( Lake Biwa Museum, Shiga Prefecture,Curator,Folkloristics )

International Address subgroup

FURUTA Naoya ( Taisho University; International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources(IUCN),Professor; Coordinator,International affairs, Developing incentives and institutions )

UCHIYAMA, Yuta ( Tohoku University,Researcher,Transdisciplinary platforms, TLK research, International affairs )

KAWASHIMA, Yutaka ( Japan International Cooperation Agency,Government Office,International affairs )

KOHSAKA, Ryo ( Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University,Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality, International affairs )

MIYAZAKI, Hiroyuki ( Center for Spatial Information Science, University of Tokyo; School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology,Project Assistant Professor; Visiting Associate Professor,Visualizing and modelling risks of natural disasters, International affairs )

MORI, Akira ( Yokohama National University,Associate Professor,Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality, International affairs )

YAMAZAKI , Takashi ( JICA,Adviser,Forest policy )

Adviser

KAYABA, Yuichi ( Public Works Research Institute,Senior Scientist,External advisor )

SHIMATANI, Yukihiro ( Kyushu University,Professor,External advisor )

TAKEUCHI, Kazuhiko ( Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science, University of Tokyo,Director and Professor,External advisor )

NAKAMURA, Futoshi ( Hokkaido University,Professor,External advisor )

WASHITANI, Izumi ( Department of Integrated Science and Engineering for Sustainable Society, Chuo University,Professor,External advisor )

KIKUCHI, Naoki ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

MARUYAMA, Yasushi ( Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University,Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

MIYAUCHI, Taisuke ( Graduate School of Letters, Hokkaido University,Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

MORI, Terutaka ( Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo,Project Researcher,Transdisciplinary platforms )

TANAKA, Kenta ( Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba,Associate Professor,Transdisciplinary platforms )

○Future Themes

Research component 1) Visualizing the risks of natural disasters in the present and the past

    The risk components of hazards, exposure and vulnerability for different natural disasters (river flood, coastal flood and rainfall-induced landslides) will be analysed on the GIS by digitizing and integrating different source data (existing GIS data, various paper maps, government statistics, our own observation data, etc.). Then, the risks of different natural disasters in terms of monetary loss (according to the government manual, MLIT 2005) will be evaluated as the product of the components and visualized as the risk maps. The risk maps for the present will cover the all area of Japan including the local research sites of this project, and the maps for the past will cover the local research sites for the different times during the last century or so. By comparing the maps between the present and the past, temporal changes of the natural disaster risks will be examined. The disaster risks will also be modeled as a function of land use and population distribution, and the risks will be predicted for the different cases of exposure (e.g. changing disaster-prone residential area to natural wetland or paddy) to be used in the transdisciplinary scenario analysis (see below).

 

Research component 2) Evaluating and modelling multi-functionality of Eco-DRR

    Provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services will be evaluated on the GIS by the existing and currently developing methods (e.g. Hashimoto et al. 2014, Kabaya & Okayasu 2014, Englund et al. 2017) using the existing data and statistics, and our own observation data. Then, the spatial distribution of those ecosystem services will be analysed and modelled in relation to the spatial distribution of population and land use. The model will be used for evaluating the change of ecosystem services for the different scenario cases of land use to assess Eco-DRR options in the transdisciplinary scenario analysis (see below). The spatial scale of this research ranges from the local research sites of this project to the all area of Japan, and will be matched to the results of Research component 1 (see above) to evaluate the multi-functionality of Eco-DRR at various spatial scales.

 

Research component 3) Transdisciplinary scenario analysis and developing social and economic incentives of Eco-DRR

    Together with local communities and local governments, transdisciplinary platforms will be formed at each of the local research sites of this project by taking advantage of existing platforms such as a Nature Restoration Committee based on the law, a regional association and a watershed management committee, etc. This transdisciplinary platform will function to deepen the understanding, discuss the future options, and build the consensus of Eco-DRR among local stakeholders. Transdisciplinary scenario analysis will be conducted in the platform in consideration of climate change and aging and shrinking population in order to stimulate the understanding and discussion. Multiple scenarios of the future local community will be developed in the platform by using participatory approaches, and the risks of natural disasters and ecosystem services will be modelled for each scenario using the research outcomes of the research components 1 and 2. Then, the results of the scenario analysis will be shared and discussed in the platform, and if necessary, the analysis will be repeated for the different scenarios to stimulate consensus building. Other research outcomes of the research components 1 and 2 will also be shared in the platform.

   In addition, traditional and local knowledge of Eco-DRR will be inventoried, evaluated for the multi-functionality using the methodology of the research components 1 and 2, and then shared in the transdisciplinary platform. Depending on the consensus building in the platform, we will support the social implementation of Eco-DRR by making policy recommendations, contributing to land use planning, etc.

    Another economic incentive of Eco-DRR we consider in the project is natural disaster insurance. In collaboration with insurance industry, a research forum will be formed to discuss the possibility and feasibility of what insurance industry can contribute to develop economic incentives of Eco-DRR. Reforming natural disaster insurance for households and businesses, improved risk hedge in insurance industry, and better information sharing of the natural disaster risks with customers can be options but not limited to. Also, various laws and institutions in national and local governments related to disaster risk reduction and land use will be assessed to examine the possibility of using existing legal frameworks for the promotion of Eco-DRR and to find the gaps that the existing laws and institutions do not secure.

 

Study Area

    Local research sites of the project include the Mikatagoko lakes and other areas in Fukui Prefecture, the Otsu and Takashima areas in Shiga Prefecture, and the Lake Inba area in Chiba Prefecture. Also, some research components will be conducted at a national level of Japan.

 

Research schedule

   Research subjects aiming at the goal 1 (methodology development and assessing Eco-DRR) will be conducted mostly in the earlier phase of the project, while those aiming at the goal 2 (implementation of Eco-DRR by transdisciplinary approaches) have longer scope of research development.

Books

【Chapters/Sections】

Uehara M 2017 The Long Term Economic Value of Holistic Ecological Planning for Disaster Risk. Yan W, Galloway W (ed.) Rethinking Resilience, Adaptation and Transformation in a Time of Change. Springer, Cham, pp.267-289. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-50171-0_18

Uehara M, Yan W 2017 The Lessons Derived from 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and the Repercussion of the Myopic Decision-Making Structures. Roggema R, Yan W (ed.) Tsunami and Fukushima Disaster: Design for Reconstruction. Springer, Cham, pp.19-37. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-56742-6_3

Ichinose T 2017 Green Infrastructure in Reconstruction After the 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: A Case Study of Historical Change on Awaji Island in Japan. Yan W, Galloway W (ed.) Rethinking Resilience, Adaptation and Transformation in a Time of Change. Springer, Cham, pp.253-265. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-50171-0_17

Robles LR, Ichinose T 2017 Empowering Migrant Communities: a step towards Inclusive disaster risk reduction and recovery. Guadagno L, Fuhrer M, Twigg J (ed.) Migrants in Disaster Risk Reduction: Practices for Inclusion. International Organization for Migration, Council of Europe, pp.101-104.

Editing

【Editing / Co-editing】

Yokohari M, Murakami A, Hara Y, Tsuchiya K (ed.) 2017 Sustainable Landscape Planning in Selected Urban Regions. Science for Sustainable Societies book series (SFSS), XV. Springer Japan, Tokyo, 265pp.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-56445-4

Papers

【Original Articles】

Chen IC, Hsieh C, Kondoh K et al. 2017 Filling the gaps in ecological studies of socio-ecological systems. Ecological Research 32(6):873-885. DOI:10.1007/s11284-017-1521-9 (reviewed).

Fukamachi K 2017 Sustainability of terraced paddy fields in traditional satoyama landscapes of Japan. Journal of Environmental Management 202(3):543-549. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.11.061 (reviewed).

Guillen VP, Murakami A 2017 Dynamics of house state consolidation in Lima Metropolitan area: a cellular automata approach. Journal of the Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture 80(5):657-662. DOI:10.5632/jila.80.657 (reviewed).

Imamura K, Managi S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T 2017 Abandoned forest ecosystem: Implications for Japan's Oak Wilt disease. Journal of Forest Economics 29(A):56-61. DOI:10.1016/j.jfe.2017.08.005 (reviewed).

Karanja JM, Saito O 2017 Cost–benefit analysis of mangrove ecosystems in flood risk reduction: a case study of the Tana Delta, Kenya. Sustainability Science 03 March 2017. DOI:10.1007/s11625-017-0427-3 (reviewed).

Kobayashi Y, Mori AS 2017 The Potential Role of Tree Diversity in Reducing Shallow Landslide Risk. Environmental Management 59(5):807-815. DOI:10.1007/s00267-017-0820-9 (reviewed).

Kohsaka R, Uchiyama Y 2017 Motivation, Strategy and Challenges of Conserving Urban Biodiversity in Local Contexts: Cases of 12 Municipalities in Ishikawa, Japan. Procedia Engineering 198:212-218. DOI:10.1016/j.proeng.2017.07.085 (reviewed).

Managi S, Guan D 2017 Multiple disasters management: Lessons from the Fukushima triple events. Economic Analysis and Policy 53:114-122. DOI:10.1016/j.eap.2016.12.002 (reviewed).

Plieninger T, Kohsaka R, Bieling C et al. 2017 Fostering biocultural diversity in landscapes through place-based food networks: a “solution scan” of European and Japanese models. Sustainability Science 11 July 2017. DOI:10.1007/s11625-017-0455-z (reviewed).

Uchiyama Y, Kohsaka R 2017 Spatio-temporal Analysis of Biodiversity, Land-use Mix and Human Population in a Socio-ecological Production Landscape: A Case Study in the Hokuriku Region, Japan. Procedia Engineering 198:219-226. DOI:10.1016/j.proeng.2017.07.086 (reviewed).

Research Presentations

【Oral Presentation】

Kato S, Hishiyama K Conservation and Reinterpretation of Traditional Small Urban Green Spaces (Telajakan) in Bali, Indonesia. Resilience Conference 2017, 2017.08.21, Stockholm, Sweden.

Muto Y, Murata Y, Miyoshi M, Tamura T Retarding Effect Evaluation of Paddy Fields and their Land-use Change. International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research 2017, 2017.08.13-2017.08.18, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Otake F, Yamamoto K, Shimomura A Intention to Use the National Park and Geopark for Disaster Risk Reduction: A Case Study of Sanriku Tsunami-hit Area. Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2017, 2017.05.23, Chiba, Japan.

Yamamoto K Discovering Tourism Resources in the Two Fishing Villages of the Ozaki Peninsula in Kamaishi City, Iwate, Japan. Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2017, 2017.05.23, Chiba, Japan.

【Poster Presentation】

Michiya Morisaki, Tomohiro Ichinose, Takehito Yoshida, Shunsuke Managi, Kentaro Taki Estimation of Economic Value of Green Infrastructure Using Hedonic Pricing Method. JpGU Meeting 2018, 2018.05.20-2018.05.24, Chiba-City.