Full Research

StageFR
Project No.14200107
Project NameThe Sanitation Value Chain: Designing Sanitation Systems as Eco-Community-Value System
Abbreviated TitleSanitation
Project LeaderNaoyuki FUNAMIZU
Research AxisProgram 3: Designing Lifeworlds of Sustainability and Wellbeing
URLhttp://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/
Key Wordsresources oriented sanitation; value chain

 

○Research Subject and Objectives

Problem, background, and objectives

Global environmental problem discussed in the project: 

The word “Sanitation” is used for showing the provision of facilities and services for safe disposal and resources recovery of human urine, faeces and wastewater in the project.  Sanitation is essential for promoting health, reventing environment pollution, conserving ecosystem, and recovering and recycling resources. Therefore, it can be said that sanitation is closely related to such current global issues as poverty, urban slum, conservation of ecosystem, and resources management. In developing world, population is growing rapidly especially in urban slums and they have still high under 5 mortality and poverty issues (see Supplement Fig.0-1). It also reported that 2.4 billion people are still using unimproved sanitation facilities, including 946 million people who are still practicing open defecation in 2015 (UN, 2015). On the other hand, depopulation and aging are progressing especially in rural area of developed world (see Supplement Fig.0-2), and the financial capability of municipality which is a management agency of sanitation system is becoming weaker and weaker.

Key question in the project:  

Namely, the question, “How can we handle the waste from 10 billion people in future” and “how can we achieve water and sanitation target in SDGs?” are a global environmental problem to be solved.

Working hypothesis of the research: 

Hypothesis-1: Current sanitation issues are caused by the dissociation between the value which is provided by the sanitation system and the values of the individual people and/or the community of the people.

Hypothesis -2: Sanitation technologies can’t work well without support system. The mismatch between prerequisites of technologies and local characteristics makes sanitation issues more complicated.

Key concept - Sanitation Value chain:  

 The project is proposing Sanitation Value Chain, which has the following basic policies: 1) Put values of people and community in the centre of discussion, and prepare sanitation system to drive this value chain; 2) Design the sanitation system by focusing on direct incentive for individual users and community; 3) Recognize a sanitation system as an integrated system with social and technical units; 4) Design the sanitation system by making a good matching between social characteristics and prerequisites of technologies.

Why Value Chain? :

We are strongly thinking that 1) Planning and installation of infrastructures such as sanitation system is nothing but planning and installing value chain as shown in Supplement Fig.0-3; and 2) Because of weakening of municipalities, the prerequisites of current management model for water and sanitation system will be no longer satisfied in future.

 

b) Methodology

Four research topics to achieve the goal (Supplement Fig.5-1):

 In Topic-1 (Life and Sanitation), field and literature surveys are performed 1)for analyzing values and Happiness of people; 2)for understanding norm to human excreta of current situation as well as historical change; 3)for re-evaluating the value of sanitation system; 4)for analyzing the mismatch between prerequisites of sanitation technologies and regional specific characteristics of human and community by gathering failed cases; 5)for understanding historical change of sanitation system in target areas; and 6)for matching the values of people, community and value provided by sanitation system.

In Topic -2 (Technology), four research activities are planned:

1)summarizing prerequisites of sanitation technologies; 2)re-evaluating the value of sanitation system; 3) analyzing mismatch between prerequisites of sanitation technologies and regional specific characteristics of human and community by gathering failed cases; 4) developing required technologies. In Topic-3 (Co-creation of sanitation value chain), the following three steps will be adapted:1) identifying stake holders and understanding the structure of values of people and community by field survey;2) analyzing hierarchy and structure of stakeholders’ value chain and evaluating their mutual affinity;3) developing the co-creation process. In Topic 4 (TD-visualization), main activity is to develop visualization methods of our concept and research results by using various media and techniques. We are strongly recognizing the importance of the visual images in TD approach.

Field study: 

The project performs the field study at 1) the rural area in Ishikari River Basin; 2) the rural and urban area in Burkina Faso; 3) the urban slum in Indonesia; and 4)the urban slum in Zambia.

 

c) Goals and Expected results

The goals of this research project are to: 1) propose the concept of Sanitation Value Chain as relevant to both developing and developed countries; 2) design several pilot studies demonstrating the significance of societal, academic, and professional involvement in the co-creation of this value chain; and 3)contribute to the establishment of a new interdisciplinary academic foundation regarding on sanitation. The examples of the sanitation value chain will be demonstrated and co-created at pilot study sites.

 

d) Project organization and membership

For project management, coordination group are organized. Four research teams are also organized as shown in Fig.8-1 (a) Project Organization and (b)Structure Matrix.

 

e) Current status of research on resource oriented sanitation

Research groups in Switzerland, Germany, Sweden, Norway and Finland are studying resource recovery type sanitation. Three specialist groups of the International Water Association (Specialist group on Small Water and Wastewater Systems, Resources Oriented Sanitation and Terra Preta Sanitation & Decentralized Wastewater System in IWA) jointly held an international conference (S2SMALL International IWA conference on sustainable solutions for small water and wastewater treatment systems) in October,2017. The sessions of the meeting are as follows: Aerobic Process; Greywater Treatment; Wetlands; Small wastewater treatment; Onsite Sanitation System; Phosphorous and Nitrogen treatment and recovery). Also, the topics of the 6th Dry Toilet conference to be held next year are as follows: research on safe use of excreta and/or urine; social and cultural aspects of sustainable sanitation; sanitation and nutrient recycling in business; cross-organizational cooperation and co-creation; hi- and low-tech solutions in urban/rural environment; ecosan meets water-food-energy nexus; promoting sustainable sanitation and nutrient recycling among different stakeholders; community engagement. The project leader is contributing to this dry toilet conference as a member of scientific committee. The four research topic performed in the project can make a big contribution to world research on sanitation.

 

Program 3 Goal:                         

Our “lifeworlds” are composed of the physical spaces and socio-cultural spheres of our everyday lives. They are continually reproduced, reimagined, and evolving through an interactive and reflexive relationship with society, culture, and nature. Program 3 proposes research aimed at illuminating reciprocal linkages between diverse rural and urban lifeworlds and contributing to the solution of sustainability problems by working with various societal partners such as governments, companies, and citizen groups. Special emphasis is placed on envisioning sustainable futures that improve wellbeing and gauging their feasibility.

 

Contribution to Program 3                       

In the mission statement of Program 3, there is the following message: “Through there construction of the lifeworld concept and by highlighting the reciprocal linkages between rural and urban spaces, Program 3 designs lifeworld of sustainability and wellbeing and co-creates concrete pathways for their realization.”  We are thinking that Sanitation is an essential system for lifeworld. The sanitation contributes to human public health, material/resource recycling of society, environmental pollution/ecosystem management. In our project, sanitation value chains for not only rural area but also for urban area are discussing. Especially in sanitation value chain for urban area, we are designing material and value flow between rural and urban spaces.

Our Program 3 mission statement also is saying that “Pre-existing, yet latent, diverse socio-cultural elements, such as livelihood styles, lay knowledge, conflict resolution strategies, and the vitality of the people themselves can be called upon to address problems and help to chart a course toward possible future societies. Program 3 builds upon these experiences and knowledge of human-nature interaction to propose concrete changes needed to achieve a sustainable society.” We could not succeed to install the practical scale of sanitation system in Burkina Faso at SATREPS project, and we are thinking that the reason is the lack of analysis on human and social aspects. In our project, we are carefully examining values of people and community; norm to human excreta at our field sites. 

 The mission statement includes the following message that “Program 3 will not investigate top-down approaches to system change, but will work with local residents, government officials, companies, citizen groups and other various stakeholders to propose sustainable alternatives and gauge their feasibility.” Co-creation of “Sanitation Value Chain” is one of the important points in our Sanitation project.

We will contribute to the mission by aiming for the design of life world; showing solutions; proposing the transition of society, realizing co-creation of sanitation value chain with diverse stakeholders; founding academic bases on sanitation. Our program director, Dr. Saijo is proposing the concept of “Future Design” and he is stressing the importance of “virtual future generation” in design. Our sanitation project has started to discussion on how to include the “virtual future generation” in designing process of sanitation value chain.

○Progress and Results in 2017

Project Progress during the FR Period to Date

(1) Achievement – 1: The launch of the International Journal on Sanitation: 

The international online journal “Sanitation Value Chain” was launched in November 2017. The ISSN is 2432-5066 (online) and the journal web site is http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal.html. We organized the international editorial board by sanitation specialist from seven countries.

 

(2) Achievement-2: Holding and co-hosting 11 international and domestic conferences, workshops 

We organized eleven meetings in 2017 as listed in Annex 2. The typical meetings include Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition, International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains in Jakarta, Workshop on Science Communication, Jakarta and Indonesia &Philippine & Japan Joint International Seminar on Water and Sanitation.

 

(3) Achievement-3: Conclusion of research agreement: 

Research Implementation Agreement was concluded in accordance with the signing of MOU between Indonesian LIPI and RIHN, and MOU with Zambia University and RIHN was signed.

 

(4) Achievement -4: Toiletthat can concentrate urine1)-7)

 In order to co-create sanitation value chain for managing human urine in urban area, transporting urine to rural farmland is essential. The technology required for transporting urine is volume reduction technology for cost reduction. As a technology to concentrate urine, we examined forward osmosis process this year. The results obtained are as follows: 1) The area of the forward osmotic membrane required to concentrate 1 L of urine is 55.6 cm2. This area is small enough to install the urine concentration device in the toilet bowl; 2) It was shown that 78.6% of ammonia, 97.8% of potassium and 99.6% of phosphate can be recovered. Output numbers in Annex 2 are 40, 42, 182, 184, 187, 189, 191.

 

(5) Achievement -5: Toiletthat can produce Phosphorus fertilizer8)-10)

It is confirmed that phosphorus in urine can be recovered directly from urine as calcium phosphate (DCPD) using shell as calcium source, and we clarified the reaction pathway and reaction rate of reaction. Thus, by installing a simple shell packed column in a urine collection pipe of a toilet, it has become possible to make a toilet for producing phosphorus fertilizer. We will set up a compost toilet with phosphorus recovery function at RIHN and plan to start demonstration experiments from March next year. Output numbers in Annex 2 are 182, 188, 190.

 

(6) Achievement-6:New method for analysing exposure pathways of pathogens by molecular biology11)-14)

We developed a new method to analyze the infection route from feces to new infected people. In this method, pathogenic Escherichia coli is separated and quantified by PCR method, and pathway is to be identified from the pathogenic Escherichia coli type. As a result of applying this method, it was found that the type of Escherichia coliin the drinking water and in feces was different as shown in supplement Fig.2-1, suggesting the importance of other sources of contamination such as live stocks. And three prioritized exposure pathways are identified: pond bathing, outdoor playing and drinking as shown in supplement Fig.2-2. Output numbers in Annex2 are 49, 193, 194, 195.

 

(7) Achievement-7: Evaluation of inactivation mechanism of virus during urine concentration15) 

Real Time-qPCR method applied to target six genome regions for monitoring MS2 (indicator of virus) infectivity during urine concentration process, and we found that 1) Uncharged ammonia is the predominant factor for MS2 inactivation; 2) Genome damage is the main mechanism for MS2 infectivity loss; 3) MS2 infectivity loss in urine can be predicted by ion composition and speciation. Output number in Annex 2 is 46.

 

(8) Achievement – 8: Agricultural Technologyfor compost, urine and reclaimed gray water reuse16)-,18): 

Salinity management of soil is essential when compost, urine and reclaimed gray water is reused in farm land. Mathematical simulation model has been developed for describing fate of salts in soil system, and the leaching requirement for removing salts is evaluated by the simulation.  The fate of pathogen in soil system was evaluated, and health risk of worker at the farm land was estimated. Output numbers in Annex 2 are 36, 43, 45.

 

(9) Achievement-9: Acceptability of sanitation system was evaluated from technical side19)-21):

We conducted survey on new prototype model of composting type toilet at Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) and a mosque in Sapporo. The results are summaries as follows: 1)Half of the people answered that the bad smell is a point to be checked; 2)70% of respondents worried about excreta sticking to the toilet bowl; 3) The new type toilet is acceptable;4)70% was unsatisfied with its size; 40% felt discomfort in terms of the impression of sitting on the toilet seat, feeling like they might fall into the hole.  We also conducted survey on dewatered digested sludge for soil conditioner in Iwamizawa, Japan. Output numbers in Annex 2 are 44, 50, 176.

 

(10) Achievement-10: Visualization of research

1) The video, “Samurai-kun Sanitation Value Chain” (Indonesian version) was produced and screened at Bandung City, Water Supply Corporation, Indonesia Science EXPO, Chiara Chon-Dong district residents.  Japanese version was screened at the open house event at RIHN; 2)The video showing our sanitation project produced and screened  at Indonesia Science EXPO and  Workshop on Science Communication; 3)The event video archive was carried out; 4) Participated in RIHN project on visualization of state-of-the-art research.

 

(11) Achivement-11: Questionnaire on customsand norms concerning excrement / excretion behaviour 

Japanese version questionnaire has been prepared. In this questionnaire, we examine the following items: purification/ uncleanness, norms / preferences for excretion behaviour, norms / preferences for products used by compost, reclaimed wastewater.

 

(12) Achievement-12: Build relationship with actors onthe field site

Indonesia site:  1)We had meeting with local officials, leaders of neighbourhood association, staffs of elementary school of this district (See supplement Fig.2-4); 2)We conducted surveys on health and nutritional status, hygiene environment and behaviour, for elementary school children.

Ishikari site:  1)We designed the structure of water source management system coordinated with local high schools / local governments (supplementFig.2-5);  2) we made a meeting with user unions small-scale water supply;  3) We designed technology packages (membrane processing, sensoring, data handling)suitable for autonomous water supply.

Zambia site:   1) We established "Children's Club" to conduct action research with local youth group in Lusaka's peri-urban area and we organized the meeting of "Children's Club" (supplement Fig.2-6); 2) We discussed on the current sanitation situation with them.

Burkina Faso site:  1) We completed the negotiation with local NGO for conducting the questionnaire survey; 2) We confirmed the existence of a waste scraper and recognized the necessity of analyzing their actual situation.

 

Most Notable Outputs to Date

Award

1.      Ito R, Funamizu N : The best paper award: The full authors are Guizani M,Yajima K,Kawaguchi T,Ito R,Funamizu N. The title of the paper is Morphological, chemical andElectro chemical carbon based and novel metal electrode characterization foruse in water electrochemical disinfection, 1st Euro-Mediterranean Conference for Environmental Integration, November 22-25, 2017, Sousse, Tunisia

2.      Funamizu N: Environment Reconstruction and Recycling Bureau Director Award, Ministry of the Environment. October 10, 2017


External fund

3.      Ushijima K: Title: Transition to regional autonomous next-generation type water infrastructure management system. Source: The Cabinet Office "Strategic Innovation Creation Program (SIP)" "Infrastructure Maintenance / Update / Management Technology" (JST Management, Period: from September, 2016 to March, 2019)


New journal publication

4.      The international scientific journals “Sanitation Value Chain”   ISSN 2432-5058 (print), ISSN 2432-5066 (online). Editor in chief: Yamauchi T. http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal.html


Videos/Photographic Works

5.      Sanitation Education Program: Free lecture series on You-Tube.  (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCcDLZXSBauZWQSGE29x7lYg).


Symposia/Conferences/Workshops (Organized or Co-organized) 

6.      The International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains. The first symposium:  3-5 October, 2016, the second symposium October23-24, 2017, Jakarta, Indonesia.

7.      Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition (ZAWAFE) 2017, RIHN project session, Lusaka, 12 June 2017

 

Academic Papers

8.      Ushijima K., Funamizu N, Nabeshima T, Hijikata N, Ito R, Sou M, Maiga AM, Sintawardani N(2015) The Postmodern Sanitation - Agro-sanitation Business Model as a New Policy -, Water Policy, 17(2); 283-298, DOI:10.2166/wp.2014.093

9.      Hijikata N, Tezuka R, Kazama S, Otaki M, Ushijima K, Ito R, Okabe S, Sano D, Funamizu N(2016) Bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost using calcium lime and ash, Journal of Environmental Management, Journal of Environmental Management, Vol.181, 721-727, DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.08.026

10.   Ito R, Funamizu N (2016) Phosphate Recovery from synthetic Urine with shell of Mizuhopecten Yessoensis, Journal of Water and Environment Technology, 14(6),437-446 .

11.   B.C.W. Nikiema, R. Ito, Guizani Mokhtar and N. Funamizu (2017) Estimation of water flux and solute movement during the concentration process of hydrolysed urine by forward osmosis, Journal of Water and Environment Technology Vol.15N.5, pp163-173

12.   Ryusei Ito, Mei Tanie, Ken Ushijima, Dewi Nilawati, Neni Sintawardani, Naoyuki Funamizu (2017) Evaluation of acceptance of a composting toilet prototype for people in slum area in Indonesia, Desalination and Water Treatment, doi:10.5004/dwt.2017.20880

13.   Oishi W, Sano D, Decrey L, Kadoya S, Kohn T, Funamizu N (2017) Identification of the inactivating factors and mechanisms exerted on MS2 coliphage in concentrated synthetic urine, Science of the Total Environment, 598: 213-219 doi:org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.088

14.   Min Li Chua, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Michiya Kodera, Shotaro Goto, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Shohagi Rani Saha, Akira Sakai (2017) Comparison in Fecal Exposure Assessment of Three Transmission Pathways in a Bangladeshi Urban Slum Community, Journal of Environment System and Engineering, JSCE,31(3), 145-148.

15.   Mayu Ikemi (2017) Sanitation and Income Improvement by Local Community as Sustainable Participatory Development, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol.60, No. 012034

○Project Members

YAMAUCHI Taro ( Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,Professor,Co-Creation of Value Chain )

FUNAMIZU Naoyuki ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

IKEMI Mayu ( Graduate School of Economics and Business Administration, Hokkaido University,Assistant professor,Sanitation & Life )

ITO Ryusei ( Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,Assistant professor,Sanitation Technology )

USHIJIMA Ken ( Hokkaido Research Organization,Research chief,Sanitation & Life )

SANO Daisuke ( School of Engineering, Tohoku University,Associate professor,Sanitation Technology )

NAKATANI Tomoaki ( Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University,Associate professor,Sanitation & Life )

NABESHIMA Takako ( Research Faculuty of Media and Communication, Hokkaido University,Associate professor,Sanitation & Life )

HARADA Hidenori ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Assistant professor,Sanitation Technology )

FUJIWARA Taku ( Research and Education Faculty, Natural Sciences Cluster, Agriculture Unit, Kochi University,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

HAYASHI Koji ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Researcher,Sanitation & Life )

NAKAO Seiji ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Researcher,Sanitation & Life )

INOUE Takashi ( Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

SHIMIZU Takao ( Center for the study of International Cooperation in Education, Hiroshima University,Researcher,Sanitation & Life )

HAKOYAMA Fumiko ( Fuji Women's University,Lecturer,Sanitation & Life )

FUKUI Junichi ( Hokkaido Research Organization,Research chief,Sanitation & Life )

ISHII Akira ( Hokkaido Research Organization,Research chief,Sanitation & Life )

OKOSHI Ango ( Hokkaido Research Organization,Research chief,Sanitation Technology )

KUSUDA Tetsuya ( Advanced Institute, Kyushu University,Senior Adviser,Sanitation Technology )

FUJII Shigeo ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

WATANABE Kazuo ( Enter for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University,Affiliated Associate Professor,Sanitation Technology )

NISHI Makoto ( Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Sanitation & Life )

KATAOKA Yoshimi ( Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,Technical staff,TD visualization )

KAKUI Hironori ( Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,Technical staff,TD visualization )

TOKUDA Kohei ( Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,Technical staff,TD visualization )

SHIGEI Makoto ( Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University,Master Student,Sanitation Technology )

OTSUKA Yumiko ( Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University,Doctoral Student,Co-Creation of Value Chain )

MASUKI Yui ( Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University,JSPS Research Fellow,Sanitation & Life )

HASEGAWA Yoshiki ( Hokkaido Research Organization,Researcher,Co-Creation of Value Chain )

HAMIDAH Umi ( Research Unit for Clean Technology, LIPI,Researcher,Sanitation Technology )

AKAO Satoshi ( Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University,Associate Professor,Sanitation Technology )

Sikopo P Nyambe ( Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University,Doctoral Student,Co-Creation of Value Chain )

HASHIMOTO Daisuke ( Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University,Doctoral Student,Sanitation & Life )

GUIZANI Mokhtar ( Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,Assistant professor,Sanitation Technology )

Neni Sintawadani ( Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia,Senior Researcher,Sanitation Technology )

Widyarani ( Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia,Researcher,Sanitation Technology )

Aswatini Manaf ( Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia,Professor,Sanitation & Life )

Carolina ( Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia,Senior researcher,Sanitation Technology )

Syam Surya ( University of Surya,Lecturer,Sanitation & Life )

Rizkiana Restu Utami ( Polteknik Kesehatan Bandung,Research assistant,Sanitation & Life )

Imasiku Anayawa NYAMBE ( University of Zambia,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

Zulu ( University of Zambia,Lecturer,Sanitation Technology )

Amadou Hama MAIGA ( International Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

Lopez Zavala Miguel Angel ( Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

Lina AGESTIKA ( Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University,Grauduate student,Sanitation & Life )

Aileen ORBECIDO ( DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY,Associate Professor,Sanitation Technology )

Marlon ERA ( DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY,Associate Professor,Sanitation & Life )

Jonathan Jared IGNACIO ( DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY,Graduate Student (Master)/Research Assistant,Sanitation Technology )

Diana Rahayuning WULAN ( Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI),Researcher,Sanitation Technology )

Nilawati DEWI ( Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI),Researcher,Sanitation Technology )

Joseph WETHE ( The University of Ouagadougou New Dawn,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

Benedicte NIKIEMA ( Sanitation Technology )

HOMNA Saki ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Research assosiate,TD visualization )

KIMURA Ayako ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Research assosiate,TD visualization )

○Future Themes

(1) Four Research Topics to achieve the goals

The project is proposing new concept, Sanitation Value Chain, which has the following basic policies: 1) Put values of people and community in the centre of discussion, and prepare sanitation system to drive this value chain; 2) Design the sanitation system by focusing on direct incentive for individual users and community; 3) Recognize a sanitation system as an integrated system with social and technical units; 4) Design the sanitation system by making a good matching between social characteristics and prerequisites of technologies. Accordingly, the goals of this research project are to: 1) propose the concept of Sanitation Value Chain as relevant to both developing and developed countries; 2) design several pilot studies demonstrating the significance of societal, academic, and professional involvement in the co-creation of this value chain; and 3)contribute to the establishment of a new interdisciplinary academic foundation regarding sanitation. In order to achieve the goals, we will study from four points of views (Topics 1, 2, 3 and 4) as shown in Supplement Fig.5-1.

In Topic -1(Life and Sanitation), the following six research activities are planned: (1-1)Field survey for analyzing values and Happiness of people; (1-2)Field and literature survey on norm to human excreta of current situation as well as historical change; (1-3) Field and literature survey for re-evaluation of the value of sanitation system; (1-4) Field and literature survey for analyzing the mismatch between prerequisites of sanitation technologies and regional specific characteristics of human and community by gathering failed cases; (1-5) Field and literature survey on historical change of sanitation system in target areas; (1-6) Matching the values of people, community and value  provided by sanitation system.

In Topic -2 (Technology), the following four research activities are planned: (2-1) Literature survey on prerequisites of sanitation technologies; (2-2) Field and literature survey on “Prerequisites of sanitation technologies by gathering success cases; (2-3) Field and literature survey for re-evaluation of the value of sanitation system; (2-4)  Field and literature survey for analyzing the mismatch between prerequisites of sanitation technologies and regional specific characteristics of human and community by gathering failed cases.

In Topic-3 (Co-creation of sanitation value chain), the following four activities are planned: (3-1) Identifying stakeholders and understanding the structure of values of people and community; (3-2) Analyzing Hierarchy and structure of stakeholders’ value chain and evaluation of their affinity; (3-3)Developing the co-creation process; (3-4) Demonstrating co-creation of sanitation value chain.

In Topic-4 (TD visualization), we will develop a transmission method by various media and methods of our concept and research results. We are strongly recognizing the importance of the visual image as one of the expression methods of the outcome.

 

(2) Fields 

 The project performs the field study at 1) the rural area in Ishikari River Basin; 2) the rural area in Burkina Faso; 3) the urban slum in Indonesia; and 4) the urban slum in Zambia.

 

(3) Activities in 2018     

T1 Life and Sanitation group:

1) Positioning of Excretion and toilet in the history of humanity (humanization, settlement). We will start field survey in Cameroon (hunter gatherer society, agricultural society, rural town, slum of the capital); 2) Field survey is conducted in Burkina Faso to discuss about ”mismatch between sanitation technology and values of local community during development assistance”; 3) By using Best & Worst scaling method, customs and norms on excrement and excretion behaviour is analyzed in Indonesia, Zambia, Burkina Faso.

 

T2Technology group: 

1) Analysis of prerequisites and material flow of sanitation technologies; 2) Revaluation of value of sanitation system (Developing new methodology for identifying exposure pathways of pathogens);3) Analysis of Value Chain for wastewater treatment + sludge agriculture use at Ishikari; 4)Developing new sanitation technologies having a different prerequisites: disinfection method for solids; nutrient recovery from urine)

 

T3 Co-creation group:

1) Identifying actors related to sanitation and visualizing their value chain; 2) Analyzing hierarchy and affinity of their value chains at Indonesia and Ishikari; 3) Implementation of residents (children) participatory action research at Zambia, Indonesia, Ishikari.

 

T4 TD visualization group:

1) Prototyping short concept video using the characteristics of each image expression; 2) Archiving video of events for sharing information among researchers dotted in remote areas.

 

Indonesia team:

The previous study and FS study22) have given the tentative idea for installing sanitation system as shown in Supplement Fig.5-2. The field survey at the urban slum in Bandung, Indonesia and stakeholders’ analysis including the interview to the Islam Leaders have shown that 1)organic production in agriculture is their tradition; 2) farmer would like to have organic fertilizer and organic products are traded in good price in the market; 3)reuse of recovered resources from human excreta is possible in the Islamic context if the excreta is treated adequately; 4) one idea is that users of sanitation system might be able to sell their excreta to farmers because of their fertilizing value; 5) collection system of solid waste system is working very well in the slum area currently, and this current collection system will be used for collecting urine and compost. Therefore, for co-creating sanitation value chain, we will continue to perform a trans-disciplinary approach with actors.

 

Ishikariteam:

Since the rural community in Ishikari is becoming impoverished because of depopulation and aging of the community. As a preliminary research toward co-creation of sanitation value chain, we will study the process of co-creation for the realization of a better mechanism for regional autonomous water supply. In2018, we will continue to work on 1) creating a water source management system by regional stakeholders; and 2) Studying technology package suitable for regional autonomous water supply. We will also start to preparation for expanding activities to sanitation values chain.

 

Burkina Fasoteam:

  Supplement Fig.5-3 shows the possible sanitation value chain of people in rural area, Burkina Faso23).  Sanitation value chain is connecting agricultural chain and finance chain. We will continue to work for co-creating sanitation value chain in rural area. As discussed in Chapter 2, we confirmed the existence of a waste scraper and recognized the necessity of analyzing their actual situation. Therefore we will start to work on sanitation value chain in urban area, Burkina Faso. The tentative idea of actors in the chain are 1) user of dry toilet (selling their excreta to collector); 2) collector of human excreta (scooping human excreta by vacuum tanker and transport to resources recovery facility); 3) energy supplier(recovering organic matter and producing heat energy ); 4) fertilizer supplier(recovering P, K, N); 5) farmers in urban and rural area; 6) social capitalist for supporting collector of excreta, energy and fertilizer supplier. We will also try to consider the possibility to operate this value chain by private sector.

Books

【Authored/Co-authored】

Nakao S, Magane IK 2016 A props des 50 ans qui vont de la fondation de la section voltaïque de l’Union Culturelle Musulmane à la Communauté Musulmane, Burkina Faso (Bobo-Dioulasso, 1962-2012). RIHN, Kyoto, 184pp. (in French) (in Japanese)

【Chapters/Sections】

Kobayashi, H., Shimizu, T., Ito, M. and Nakao, S. 2017,08 Transforming Kasena houses and indigenous building technology in Burkina Faso.. Camilla Mileto・Fernando Vegas López-Manzanares・Lidia García-Soriano・ Valentina Cristini (ed.) (ed.) Vernacular and Earthen Architecture: Conservation and Sustainability. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp.147-152.

Hirohide KOBAYASHI, Takao SHIMIZU, Miku ITO, Seiji NAKAO 2017,08 Transforming the Kasena houses and indigenous building technology in Burkina Faso.. Camilla Mileto, Fernando Vegas López-Manzanares, Lidia García-Soriano, Valentina Cristini (ed.) (ed.) Vernacular and Earthen Architecture: Conservation and Sustainability. CRC Press,, Boca Raton, pp.147-152.

Takao SHIMIZU, Seiji NAKAO, Hirohide KOBAYASHI, Miku ITO 2017,08 Transformation in the Kasena’s large earthen compound houses in Burkina Faso.. C. Mileto, F. Vegas Lopez-Manzanares, L. Garcia-Soriano & V. Cristini (ed.) (ed.) Vernacular and Earthen Architecture: Conservation and Sustainability.. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp.343-348.

Editing

【Editing / Co-editing】

Funamizu N (ed.) 2018,07 Resource-Oriented Agro-sanitation Systems: Concept, Business Model, and Technology. Springer Japan, Tokyo, 314pp.  https://www.springer.com/us/book/9784431568339

Yamauchi T et. al. (ed.) 2017,11 . Sanitation Value Chain, 1(1). Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, 70pp.  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/issues.html#Current_Issue

Papers

【Original Articles】

Timothy R. Julian, Hasitha S.K. Vithanage, Min Li Chua, Matasaka Kuroda, Ana K. Pitol, Pham Hong Lien Nguyen, Robert A. Canales, Shigeo Fujii, Hidenori Harada 2018,09 High time-resolution simulation of E. coli on hands reveals large variation in microbial exposures amongst Vietnamese farmers using human excreta for agriculture. Science of The Total Environment(635):120-131. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.100 (reviewed).

Nagahori C, Kinjo Y, Vodounon AJ, Alao MJ, Padounou Batossi G, Hounkpatin B, Amoule Houenassi E, Yamauchi T 2018,09 Possible effect of maternal safe food preparation behavior on child malnutrition in Benin, Africa. Pediatrics International 2018(60):875-881. DOI:10.1111/ped.13656 (reviewed).

Taisuke Takayama, Atsushi Horibe and Tomoaki Nakatani 2018,09 Women and farmland preservation: The impact of women’s participation in farmland management governance in Japan. Land Use Policy(77):116-125.

Min Li Chua, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Akira Sakai, Michiya Kodera, Shotaro Goto, Shohagi Rani Saha 2018,07 Multi-pathway fecal exposure assessment on total and human specific E. coli in a Bangladeshi slum. Proceedings of the 27th Joint KAIST-KU-NTU-NUS Symposium on Environmental Engineering(27):110-117.

Taisuke Takayama, Hirotaka Matsuda and Tomoaki Nakatani 2018,07 The determinants of collective action in irrigation management systems: Evidence from rural communities in Japan. Agricultural Water Management(206):113-123.

M. Tanaka, H. Harada, S. Fujii, M. Chua, H. Nguyen, L. Nguyen, D. Nghiem, R. Gomi 2018,07 Source identification of Escherichia coli by using a Human-associated genetic marker: A case study in Nhue River, Vietnam. Proceedings of the 27th Joint KAIST-KU-NTU-NUS Symposium on Environmental Engineering(27):118. DOI:124

Hidenori Harada, Yuji Fujimori, Ryota Gomi, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Shigeo Fujii, Akira Sakai, Tomonari Matsuda 2018,06 Pathotyping of Escherichia coli isolated from community toilet wastewater and stored drinking water in a slum in Bangladesh. Letters in Applied Microbiology. DOI:10.1111/lam.12878 (reviewed).

Eisuke Ito, Takaaki Sato, Daisuke Sano, Etsuko Utagawa, Tsuyoshi Kato 2018,06 Virus particle detection by convolutional neural network in transmission electron microscopy images. Food and Environmental Virology 10(2):201-208. DOI:10.1007/s12560-018-9335-7 (reviewed).

M. Ikemi, K. Ushijima, Y. Otsuka, T. Yamauchi, D. Nilawati, D. R. Wulan, and N. Sintawardani 2018,06 Economic situation of value chain actors in urban slums of Bandung: A case of Kiaracondong. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 160(012019). (reviewed).  http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/160/1/012019/pdf

Eiji Haramoto, Masaaki Kitajima, Akihiko Hata, Jason R. Torrey, Yoshifumi Masago, Daisuke Sano, Hiroyuki Katayama 2018,05 A review on recent progress in the detection methods and prevalence of human enteric viruses in water. Water Research(135):168-186. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2018.02.004 (reviewed).

Mamoru Oshiki, Takayuki Miura, Shinobu Kazama, Takahiro Segawa, Satoshi Ishii, Masashi Hatamoto, Takashi Yamaguchi, Kengo Kubota, Akinori Iguchi, Tadashi Tagawa, Tsutomu Okubo, Shigeki Uemura, Hideki Harada, Naohiro Kobayashi, Nobuo Araki, Daisuke Sano 2018,04 Microfluidic PCR amplification and MiSeq amplicon sequencing techniques for high-throughput detection and genotyping of human pathogenic RNA viruses in human feces, sewage, and oysters. Frontiers in Microbiology(9):830. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2018.00830 (reviewed).

Andri Taruna Rachmadi, Masaaki Kitajima, Kozo Watanabe, Sakiko Yaegashi, Joeselle Serrana, Arata Nakamura, Toyoko Nakagomi, Osamu Nakagomi, Kazuhiko Katayama, Satoshi Okabe, Daisuke Sano 2018 Free chlorine disinfection as a selection pressure on norovirus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. DOI:10.1128/AEM.00244-18 (reviewed). (accepted)

Yamauchi Taro and Funamizu Naoyuki 2017,12 Assessing the Impact of Improved Sanitation on the Health and Happiness of a West African Local Population: Concepts and Research Methodology. Sanitation Value Chain 1(1):63-70. (reviewed).  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/img/001/07.pdf

Nabeshima Takako 2017,11 Political Participation by African Peasants as Development Actors of Integrated Water Resource management. Sanitation Value Chain 1(1):27-34. (reviewed).  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/img/001/04.pdf

Hakoyama Fumiko 2017,11 Land Utilization System in Burkina Faso: A Case Study in Ziniaré. Sanitation Value Chain 1(1):45-50. (reviewed).  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/img/001/05.pdf

Ikemi Mayu 2017,11 Sanitation Project in Rural Africa Examined Based on Local Economy, Education and Community Participation: A Case Study of Burkina Faso. Sanitation Value Chain 1(1):35-44. (reviewed).  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/img/001/04.pdf

Hijikata, N., Sou/Dakoure, M., Sossou, S.K., Brou, A.L., Maiga, A.H. and Funamizu, N. 2017,11 Microbial Risk Assessment for Agricultural Production Cycle of On-site Resource Oriented Sanitation Systems: A Case of Burkina Faso. Sanitation Value Chain 1(1):15-25. (reviewed).  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/img/001/02.pdf

Funamizu Naoyuki 2017,11 Interdisciplinary Water and Sanitation Project in Burkina Faso. Sanitation Value Chain 1(1):3-13. (reviewed).  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/img/001/01.pdf

Gold, M., Harada, H., Therrien, J.-D., Nishida, T., Cunningham, M., Semiyaga, S., Fujii, S., Dorea, C., Nguyen, V.A., Strande, L. 2017,09 Cross-country analysis of faecal sludge dewatering. Environmental Technology:1-11. DOI:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09593330.2017.1374472 (reviewed).

Hasegawa J, Ito MY, Yamauchi T 2017,07 Development of screening tool to predict malnutrition among children under two years old in Zambia. Global Health Action 10(1):1339981. DOI:doi: 10.1080/16549716.2017.1339981.

Nagahori C, Kinjo Y, Tchuani JP, Yamauchi T 2017,06 Malnutrition among vaccinated children aged 0-5 years in Batouri, Republic of Cameroon: Convenience samples from five health centers and two villages in the health district of Batouri. Journal of General and Family Medicine 00:1-7. DOI:DOI: 10.1002/jgf2.104 (reviewed).

Furusawa T, Naka I, Yamauchi T, Natsuhara K, Eddie R, Kimura R, et al. 2017,03 Polymorphisms associated with a tropical climate and root crop diet induce susceptibility to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in Solomon Islands. PLoS ONE 12(3):1-16. DOI:DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0172676 (reviewed).

Min Li Chua, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Michiya Kodera, Shotaro Goto, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Shohagi Rani Saha, Akira Sakai 2017 Comparison in Decal Exposure Assessment of Three Transmission Pathways in a Bangladeshi Urban Slum Community . 環境衛生工学研究 31(3):145-148. (reviewed).

Min Li Chua, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Akira Sakai, Michiya Kodera, Shotaro Goto, Shohagi Rani Saha 2017 Fecal exposure assessment on daily living activities among a Bangladeshi urban slum community. Proceedings of the 26rd Joint KAIST-KU-NTU-NUS Symposium on Environmental Engineering:1-7.

Naka, I., Furusawa, T., Kimur,a R., Natsuhara, K., Yamauch,i T., Nakazawa, M., Ataka, Y., Ishida, .T, Inaoka, T., Matsumura, Y., Ohtsuka, R., Ohashi, J. 2017 A missense variant, rs373863828-A (p.Arg457Gln), of CREBRF and body mass index in Oceanic populations. Journal of Human Genetics. in press

Issiki M, Naka I, Kimura R, Furusawa T, Natsuhara K, Yamauchi T, Nakazawa M, Ishida T, Ohtsuka R, Ohashi J 2017 Mitochondrial DNA variations in Austronesian-speaking populations living in the New Georgia Islands, the Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Journal of Human Genetics. in press

Ikemi Mayu 2017 Challenges of externally funded project and life situation of the poorest: A case study of rural Burkina Faso. Study on Socio-Culture 20. in press

Doris Mchwampaka, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Satoyo Ono, Katsuhiko Ono 2017 Health and Agricultural Concern and Ecological Sanitation Acceptance in a Kenyan Rural Village. 環境衛生工学研究 31(3):42-45.

Min Li Chua, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Michiya Kodera, Shotaro Goto, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Shohagi Rani Saha, Akira Sakai 2017 Comparison in Fecal Exposure Assessment of Three Transmission Pathways in a Bangladeshi Urban Slum Community. 環境衛生工学研究 31(3):145-148.

Nikiema, B.C.W., Ito, R., Guizani Mokhtar and Funamizu, N. 2017 Estimation of water flux and solute movement during the concentration process of hydrolysed urine by forward osmosis.. Journal of Water and Environment Technology 15(5):163-173. (reviewed).

Ryusei Ito, Mei Tanie, Ken Ushijima, Dewi Nilawati, Neni Sintawardani,Naoyuki Funamizu 2017 Evaluation of acceptance of a composting toilet prototype for people in slum area in Indonesia, Desalination and Water Treatment. Desalination and Water Treatment. DOI:doi: 10.5004/dwt.2017.20880 (reviewed).

Mayu Ikemi 2017 Sanitation and Income Improvement by Local Community as Sustainable Participatory Development.. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science Vol.60(No. 012034).

Drissa Sangare , Boukary Sawadogo, Mariam Sou/Dakoure, Danielle M. Ouedraogo,Nowaki Hijikata, Hamma Yacouba, Lacina Coulibaly, and Naoyuki Funamizu 2017 Short Term Effects of Treated Greywater by High Rate Algal Ponds Process on Vegetable Yield and Soil Properties under Sudano-Sahelian Climate Conditions. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. DOI:10.1002/ep.12658 (reviewed).

Mokhtar Guizani, Takahisa Fujii, Nowaki Hijikata and Naoyuki Funamizu 2016,11 Salt removal from soil during rainy season of semi-arid climate following an assumed salt accumulation from previous cultivations fertilized with urine. Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s41207-016-0010-9

Sossou SK, Sou/Dakoure M, Hijikata N, Maiga AM, Funamizu N 2016 Inactivation kinetics of indicator microorganisms during urea treatment for sanitizing compost from composting toilet. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 76(13):3838-3850. DOI:10.2166/washdev.2016.090 (reviewed).

Kabore S, Ito R, Funamizu N 2016 Reaction kinetics for the production of methylene urea from synthetic human urine. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 4(2):2510-2517. DOI:10.1016/j.jece.2016.04.028 (reviewed).

Kabore S, Ito R, Funamizu N 2016 Effect of Formaldehyde/Urea ratio on production rate of Methylene Urea from Human urine. Journal of Water and Environment Technology 14(2):47-56. DOI:10.2965/jwet.15-016 (reviewed).

Sossou SK, Sou/Dakoure M, Hijikata N, Maiga AM, Funamizu N 2016 Inactivation kinetics of indicator microorganisms during solar heat treatment for sanitizing compost from composting toilet. Journal of Water and Environment Technology 14(2):37-46. DOI:10.2965/jwet.14-066 (reviewed).

Bradai, M , Han, J, El Omri, A,Funamizu N, Sayadi, S ,Isoda, H 2016 Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on human intestinal Caco-2 cells at non cytotoxic concentrations. Cytotechnology 68(4):1267-1275. DOI:10.1007/s10616-015-9887-4 (reviewed).

Hijikata N, Tezuka R, Kazama S, Otaki M, Ushijima K, Ito R, Okabe S, Sano D, Funamizu N 2016 Bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost using calcium lime and ash. Journal of Environmental Management 181:721-727. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.08.026 (reviewed).

Oishi W, Sano D,Decrey L, Kadoya S, Kohn T, Funamizu N 2017,04 Identification of the inactivating factors and mechanisms exerted on MS2 coliphage in concentrated synthetic urine. Science of the total environemnt 598:213-219. (reviewed).  doi:org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.088

Funamizu N, Harada T, Watabe Y, Wachi E, Yoshida T 2016,09 Activity report of the Ishikari River basin area water and sanitation system Part 3. Suido Koron(9):46-51. (in Japanese)

Teyogi K, Shimizu T 2016 The mystery surrounding food and landscape of Senegal. Monthly geography 61:82-88. (in Japanese)

Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Masataka Kuroda, Ryo Sakaguchi, Nugyen Pham Hong Lien, Huynh Trung Hai 2016 Probabilistic microbial exposure analysis in an excreta-using community of rural Hanoi. Proceedings of International Conference Environmental Engineering and management for Sustainable Development:111-116.

Shimizu T, Nakao S, Ito M, Kobayashi H, Kamei T 2016 House of Savannah: Burkina Faso, Cassena's tradition and transformation. Journal of African Studies 90:97-107. (in Japanese)

Ushijima K., Funamizu N, Nabeshima T, Hijikata N, Ito R, Sou M, Maiga AM, Sintawardani N 2015 The Postmodern Sanitation - Agro-sanitation Business Model as a New Policy -. Water Policy 17(2):283-298. DOI:10.2166/wp.2014.093 (reviewed).

Charchalac Ochoa SI, Ushijima K, Hijikata N, Funamizu N 2015 Treatment of domestic greywater by geotextile filter and intermittent sand filtration bioreactor.. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination 5(1):39-49. DOI:10.2166/wrd.2014.042 (reviewed).

Sangare D, Sou/Dakourea M, Hijikata N, Lahmar R, Yacouba H, Coulibaly L, Funamizu N 2015 Toilet compost and human urine used in agriculture: fertilizer value assessment and effect on cultivated soil properties. Environmental Technology 36(10):1291-1298. DOI:10.1080/09593330.2014.984774 (reviewed).

Hijikata N, Yamauchi N, Ishiguro M, Ushijima K, Funamizu N 2015 Suitability of biochar as a matrix for improving the performance of composting toilets. Waste Management & Research 33(4):313-321. DOI:10.1177/0734242X15572179 (reviewed).

Fukahori S, Fujiwara T, Ito R, Funamizu N 2015 Sulfonamide antibiotic removal and nitrogen recovery synthesis process from synthetic urine by the combination of rotating advanced oxidation contactor and methylene urea. Water Science and Technology 72(2):238-244. DOI:10.2166/wst.2015.182 (reviewed).

Ushijima K. Hijikata N. Tanaka E. Ito R. Suzuki Y. Funamizu N 2015 Grey Water Treatment by Slanted Soil System with Unsorted Soil Media. Environmental Technology 36(20):2603-2609. DOI:10.1080/09593330.2015.1040078 (reviewed).

Darimani HS, Ito R, Sossou SK, Funamizu N, Maiga AH 2015 Effect of Post-treatment Conditions on the Inactivation Rate of Pathogenic Bacteria after the Composting Process. Compost Science & Utilization 23:164-173. DOI:10.1080/1065657X.2015.1015082 (reviewed).

Mokhtar Guizani, Kento Yajima, Toshikazu Kawaguchi, Ryusei Ito, and Naoyuki Funamizu Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles as a candidate draw solution for Forward osmosis process.. Journal of Water and Environment Technology in press. (reviewed). in press

Ito R, Funamizu N 2016 Phosphate Recovery from synthetic Urine with shell of Mizuhopecten Yessoensis. Journal of Water and Environment Technology 14(6):437-446. (reviewed).

Ito R, Fujioka M, Funamizu N 2016 Phosphorous recovery from urine based wastewater of cowshed. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. G (Environmental Research), 72. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Giang, P.H., Harada, H., Fujii, S., Lien, N.H.P., Hai, H.T., Anh, P.N 2016 Transition of human and livestock waste management in rural Hanoi: a material flow analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus during 1980-2010. Journal of Material Cycle and Waste Management:1-13. (reviewed).

Funamizu N 2016 Compost toilet for developing countries. Research on plumbing equipment 33(3):17-20. (in Japanese)

Miguel Ángel López Zavala, Blanca Nelly Flores Arriaga, Naoyuki Funamizu 2016 Simultaneous Determination of Four Estrogens in Compost Based on Ultrasonic Solvent Extraction, Solid-Phase Extraction Clean-Up and Analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 7:434-445. (reviewed).

Sossou SK, Gbedenudk, Konate Y, Sawadogo B, Ameyapih Y, Maiga AH, Funamizu N 2016 Damage mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water during chlorine and solar disinfection. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 10(2):519-532. (reviewed).

Shimizu T 2016 NGO which reproduces "Street Children" - the case of NGO-Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou. Cultural Anthropology 81(2):312-321. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Nakao S. 2016 The recognition of Islam and its application in French Colonial administration: about the hotel attack in French West Africa at the period of Vichy, its criminal investigation and reaction. Journal of African Studies(90):1-14. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Fuzawa, M., Ku K.-M., Palma-Salgado, S., Nagasaka, K., Feng, H., Juvik, J., Sano, D., Shisler, J., Nguyen, T 2016 Effect of leaf surface chemical properties on the efficacy of sanitizer for rotavirus inactivation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82(20):6214-6222. (reviewed).

Ushijima K, Funamizu N, Hijikata N, Ito R, Sintawardani N, Sou M and Maïga AH 2015 Agricultural Demand Driven Design of Resource Oriented Sanitation System – Cases of Burkina Faso and Indonesia,. Caledonian Journal of Engineering 11(1):21-25. (reviewed).

Ushijima K, Deguchi Y, Sintawardani N, Umi H and Funamizu N 2015 Marketability Evaluation of Human Excreta in Resource Oriented Sanitation System - Case of Urban Slum and Surrounded Farmland in Indonesia -. J. Japan Society of Water Policy and Integrated River Basin Management 3(1):15-22. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Darimani HS, Ito R, Maiga Y, Sou M, Funamizu N, Maiga AH 2015 Effect of Post-treatment Conditions on the Inactivation of Helminth eggs (Ascaris suum)after the Composting Process. Environmental Technology. DOI:10.1080/09593330.2015.1092587 (reviewed).

Darimani HS, Ito R, Sou/Dakoure M, Funamizu N, Yacouba H, Maiga AH 2015 Design of Post-Treatment Unit for Compost from a Composting Toilet with Microbial Risk Assessment. Journal of Residual Science and Technology 12(2):43-51. (reviewed).

Sawadogo B, Sangare D, Sou M, Hijikata N, Kabore YA, Maiga AH, Funamizu N 2015 Anaerobic effluent under the Sahelian climate. Caledonian Journal of Engineering 11(1):26-31. (reviewed).

Tsutsui, Fujiwara, Inoue, Matsukawa, Ito, Funamizu 2015 Relationship between respiratory quotient, nitrification, and nitrous oxide emissions in a forced aerated composting process. Waste Management 42:10-16. (reviewed).

【Review Articles】

Toshihiro Ito, Masaaki Kitajima, Tsuyoshi Kato, Satoshi Ishii, Takahiro Segawa, Satoshi Okabe, Daisuke Sano 2017,11 Target virus log10 reduction values determined for two reclaimed wastewater irrigation scenarios in Japan based on tolerable annual disease burden. Water Research 125:438-448. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.08.057 (reviewed).

Mohan Amarasiri, Masaaki Kitajima, Thanh Huong Nguyen, Satoshi Okabe and Daisuke Sano 2017,09 Bacteriophage removal efficiency as a validation and operational monitoring tool for virus reduction in wastewater reclamation: Review.. Water Research 121:258-269. DOI:doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.05.035. (reviewed).

Research Presentations

【Oral Presentation】

Ken Ushijima Value flow analysis approach for local water management system. 3rd International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2018, 2018.11.01-2018.11.02, Tangerang, Indonesia.

Mayu Ikemi The Effect of Government Projects on Water Supply Improvement and Local Residents’Efforts : A Case Study of Rural Senegal. 3rd International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2018, 2018.11.01-2018.11.02, Tangerang, Indonesia.

Taro Yamauchi Influence of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) on child health in an urban slum of Indonesia. 3rd International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2018, 2018.11.01-2018.11.02, Tangerang, Indonesia.

Ken Ushijima, Naoyuki Funamizu, Taro Yamauchi Water and Sanitation System For A Shrinking Society. World Social Science Forum 2018, 2018.09.25-2018.09.28, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Syun-suke Kadoya, Syun-ichi Urayama, Takuro Nunoura, Masaaki Kitajima, Satoshi Okabe, Toyoko Nakagomi, Osamu Nakagomi, Daisuke Sano Neutral evolution rate of rhesus rotavirus. 13th International dsRNA Virus Symposium, 2018.09.24-2018.09.28, Houffalize, Belgium.

Daisuke Sano Wastewater reclamation/reuse and antimicrobial resistance. Workshop for the Global Water Pathogen Project and WHO: The Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance and Water Environment, IWA World Water Congress & Exhibition 2018, 2018.09.16-2018.09.20, Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo, Japan.

Mohan Amarasiri, Masaaki Kitajima, Satoshi Okabe, Daisuke Sano Contribution of specific interactions between human enteric viruses and wastewater solids on virus removal. Technical Session for Water Reclamation for Non-potable Reuse, IWA World Water Congress & Exhibition 2018, 2018.09.16-2018.09.20, Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo, Japan.

Ryusei Ito, Minami Fujioka, Naoyuki Funamizu Production of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers from liquid waste of cattle barns. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Haruna Onodera, Ryusei Ito, Naoyuki Funamizu, Koichi Yamaki, Takayoshi Konishi Inactivation of SAP in disposable diapers by acid solutions. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Takato Matsuda, Ryusei Ito, Guizani Mokhtar, Naoyuki Funamizu Foulant analysis of FO membrane used for urine concentration. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Ken Ushijima, Dewi Nilawati, Diana Rahayuning Wulan, Jovita Tri Astuti, Neni Sintawardani, Mayu Ikemi, Naoyuki Funamizu Comprehensive approach for improvement of living environment in urban slum of Indonesia – Analysis on urban metabolism and its harmonization with people’s value system. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Hidenori Harada, Doris A. Mchwampaka, Shigeo Fujii Long-term acceptability of urinediversion toilets in rural Malawi. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Nyambe S, Hayashi K, Zulu J, Yamauchi T The image of peri-urban sanitation and health through the eyes of the young: Understanding community sanitation and health in Lusaka, Zambia. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Guizani Mokhtar, Hassan Hamidah, Nikiema Benedicte Carolle, Ito Ryusei, Funamizu Naoyuki Ammonia Diffusion through a semipermeable membrane during Forward osmosis process. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Koji HAYASHI, Seiji NAKAO and Taro YAMAUCHI Defecation without toilets - Toward the study of sanitation activities in the hunter-gatherers. The Twelfth International Conference on Hunting and Gathering Societies (CHAGS 12), 2018.07.23-2018.07.27, The School of Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

Taro Yamauchi Co-Creating the Sanitation Value Chain: Designing Sanitation Systems as Eco-Community-Value Systems.. International Conference Society for Human Ecology, 2018.07.07-2018.07.10, Lisbon, Portgal.

Takao SHIMIZU The Process for Co-Created Technology for Combat Desertification: Collaboration of African Farmers and Japanese Scientists. 30th annual Meeting, Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics, 2018.06.22-2018.06.24, Doshisha University, Kyoto.

Taro Yamauchi Co-creating the Sanitation Value Chain in Lusaka, Zambia by Designing Sanitation Systems as Eco-Community-Value Systems. Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition (ZAWAFE) 2018, 2018.06.11-2018.06.13, Government Complex, Lusaka, Zambia.

Nyambe S, Hayashi K, Zulu J, Yamauchi T Dziko Langa Kilo! A health living, I see you!: Incorporating children and youth in peri-urban sanitation and health in Lusaka. Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition (ZAWAFE) 2018, 2018.06.11-2018.06.13, Government Complex, Lusaka, Zambia.

Sikopo Nyambe, Koji Hayashi, Joseph Zulu,Taro Yamauchi Dziko Langa Kilo! A health living, I see you!: Incorporating children and youth in peri-urban sanitation and health in Lusaka.. Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition (ZAWAFE) 2018, 2018.06.11-2018.06.13, Government Complex, Lusaka, Zambia.

Yamauchi T Trends in childhood obesity and decreased physical fitness among Japanese children: intergenerational changes and mitigative-preventive measures. The 14th International Congress of Auxology, Centro de Docencia y Capacitacion, 2017.11.01-2017.11.03, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Otsuka Y, Agestika L, Harada H, Widyarani, Sintawardani N, Yamauchi T Assessing child health, nutritional status and hand hygiene in an urban slum of West Java, Indonesia. International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2017, 2017.10.23-2017.10.24, Jakarta, Indonesia.

(29) Mayu Ikemi, Ken Ushijima, Yumiko Otsuka, Taro Yamauchi, Dewi Nilawati, Diana Rahayuning Wulan and Neni Sintawardani Economic Situation of Value Chain Actors in Urban Slums of Bandung: A Case of Kiaracondong. International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2017, 2017.10.23-2017.10.24, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Hayashi Koji,Nakao Seiji, Yamauchi Taro Sanitation activities among the baka hunter-gatherers in Cameroon: from individual observations at the forest camp. The 2nd International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains, 2017.10.23-2017.10.24, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Hidenori Harada, Chua Min Li, Yuji Fujimori, Shigeo Fujii, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Akira Sakai Fecal exposure analysis and E. coli pathotyping: a case study of a Bangladeshi slum. International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2017, 2017.10.23-2017.10.24, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Hayashi K, Nakao S and Yamauchi T Sanitation activities among the Baka hunter-gatherers in Cameroon: From Individual Observations at the Forest Camp and the Settlement. International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2017, 2017.10.23-2017.10.24, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Nakao Seiji Norms and preferences on the sanitation activities: Literature review of public attitude for wastewater reuse. Kick – Off Meeting: Sanitation and Value Chains: A Collaboration Research between LPTB – LIPI and RIHN Japan, 2017.10.22, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Nabeshima Takako Comparative study of peasants’ organization between Indonesia and African countries: learning from Clifford Geertz’s theory, Agriculture Involution. Kick-off meeting of Sanitation and Value Chains, 2017.10.22, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Yamauchi T Children living in the era of obesity and low physical fitness: intergenerational changes in Japanese children. Special Lecture at School of Public Health, China Medical University, 2017.09.25, Shenyang, China.

Hayashi K Sanitation activities among the Baka hunter-gatherers in Cameroon. International Workshop on Thinking across Boundaries: The Fluidity of Asia, Africa and Beyond, 2017.09.19, London, Great Britain.

Hao M, Han W, Yamauchi T Short - and Long-Term Beneficial Effects of Exercise Intervention and Nutrition Education among Overweight School Children in Northeast China. 2017 Symposium of the Society for the Study of Human Biology & International Association of Physiological Anthropology, 2017.09.12-2017.09.15, Loughborough, UK.

Min Li Chua, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Akira Sakai, Michiya Kodera, Shotaro Goto, Shohagi Rani Saha Comparing fecal exposure pathways in living environmetn of a slum in Khulna city, Bangladesh. 7th IWA-ASPIRE Conference 2017, 2017.09.11-2017.09.14, Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre, Malaysia.

Yamauchi T, Nyambe S, Agestika L, Otsuka Y Sanitation Innovation Created and Promoted by Children and Local Communities. Indonesia & Philippine & Japan Joint International Seminar on Water and Sanitation, 2017.09.08, RIHN, Kyoto.

Nyambe S, Hayashi K, Zulu J, Yamauchi T: Preliminary Findings of a Basic Sanitation and Health Assessment in Peri-Urban Lusaka, Zambia.. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Yabugishi S, Hao M, Wang P, Otsuka Y, Yamauchi T Factors Contributing to Anxiety Status in Femail Nursing Students. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Miki T, Yamauchi T Using Questionnaire to Evaluate Biopsychological Factors of Low Back Pain in Physical Therapy. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Wang P, Hao M, Han W, Yamauchi T Physical Growth and Development and Affecting Factors of Children in Suburban Area of Northeastern China. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Hao M, Han W, Yamauchi T Effect of Short and Long-term Nutrition Education and Exercise Intervention among Overweight Primary School Children in Northeast china. he third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Hasegawa J, Ito MY, Yamauchi T Development of a screening to predict malnutrition among children under two years old in Zambia. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Otsuka Y, Ushijima K, Ikemi M, Neni S, Yamauchi T Mapping of Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Child Health in Urban Slums of Indonesia. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Peipei Wang, Ming Hao, Wei Han, Taro Yamauchi Physical Growth and Development and Affecting Factors of Children in Suburban Area of Northeastern China. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Nyambe S, Hayashi K, Zulu J, Yamauchi T Preliminary Findings of a Basic Sanitation and Health Assessment in Peri-Urban Lusaka, Zambia.. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, 札幌市.

Agestika L, Yamauchi T Challenge in Implementing Nutrition Education and Sanitation Programs in Elementary School. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Yamauchi T Visualization of values of local residents and emergence of value chains. SIP Kick-off meeting, 2016.12.16, Sapporo. (in Japanese)

Shimizu T, Nakao S, Ito M, Kobayashi H BARTHOUX, Samuel Past and Present in Japanese African Studies: A case of chronical transformation of Kassena's mud houses and families. Séminaire CRAA-ETRE, 2016.12.08, Centre Inde Salle.

Hayashi K. Indigenous knowledge and conflict over elephant hunting among the Baka hunter-gatherers in Cameroon. France- Japan Joint Symposium “Landscape in the Anthropocene” Fondation France-Japon de l'EHESS, 2016.12.07, Paris.

Hayashi K, Ishii R, Nakamura Y, Terashima H, Nishiaki Y. Technical transmission of hunting tool manufacture: A case of spear hunting among modern hunter-gatherers in southeast Cameroon.. France- Japan Joint Symposium “Landscape in the Anthropocene” Fondation France-Japon de l'EHESS, 2016.12.07, Paris.

Hayashi K Landscape of the African rainforest for the Baka hunter-gatherers in the eastern Cameroon. France- Japan Joint Symposium “Landscape in the Anthropocene” Fondation France-Japon de l'EHESS, 2016.12.07, Paris.

Yamauchi T, Hayashi K, Kawamura K, Sato H Nutritional Adaptation of Modern Hunter-gatherers in African Rainforests. Landscapes in the anthropocene, France-Japan joint symposium, EHESS, 2016.12.05-2016.12.08, Paris.

Otsuka Y, Ushijima K, Ikemi M, Sintawardani N, Yamauchi T The relationship between child health, nutritional status and mother’s awareness on hygiene in urban Indonesia. The 31st Japan Association for International Health Congress, 2016.12.03-2016.12.04, Kurume. (in Japanese)

Nyambe S, Hayashi K, Zulu J, Yamauchi T Sanitation, health and children and youth civic participation in peri - urban Lusaka, Zambia: Assessing social values and quality of life. 31st Japan International Health Society, 2016.12.03-2016.12.04, Kurume.

Shimizu T Management of Islamic Educational Institutions in West Africa: Changes in the Environment and New Developments. Nanzan University Anthropological Research Institute Open Symposium, December 2016, Nagoya. (in Japanese)

Ikemi, M. Local social development practiced through international cooperation for Africa: a case of Hokkaido province in Japan. The 19th academic conference of Association for the Socio-Culture, December 2016, Nihon Fukushi University. (in Japanese)

Sakai A. Goto S, Qazi Azad-uz-zaman, Harada H Residents' Consciousness and Behavior Change by Well-Known Outcome of Diarrheal Risk Analysis Results in City Slum of Bangladesh. The 27th annual meeting of Society of International Development, 2016.11.26. (in Japanese)

Yamauchi T Children living in the era of obesity and low physical fitness. The 81th Conference of Japanese Society for Health and Human Ecology, 2016.11.26-2016.11.27, Tokyo. (in Japanese)

H Aizaki, T Nakatani, K Sato Developing R Packages for Stated Preference Methods. the 2016 Annual R Users’ Meeting, 2016.11.26, Tachikawa. (in Japanese)

Hidenori Harada, Yuji Fujimori, Ryota Gomi, Md. Nazuml Ahsan, Shigeo Fujii, Akira Sakai, Tomonari Matsuda Pathotyping of Escherichia coli isolated from community toilet excreta and stored drinking water in a slum in Bangladesh. International Symposium on Global Environmental Studies Education and Research in Asia, 2016.11.14, Salaya.

Ikemi, M. Sanitation and income improvement by local community as sustainable participatory development. International symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2016, 2016.10.04, Banten, Indonesia.

Taku Fujiwara Cascading Material-cycle system simultaneously realizing water pollution control and value-added production in agricultural areas. 1st International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2016, 2016.10.03-2016.10.05, Banten, Indonesia.

Nabeshima T Decision Making of Green Policy in African State and Rural Community. Green VC 2016, 2016.10.03-2016.10.05, BSD, Indonesia.

K Ushijima, H Kobayashi, D Nilawati, J T Astuti, N Sitawardani, N Funamizu Visualization of Urban Metabolism for Designing Value Chain Improving Living Conditions in Urban Slum of Bandung City. 1st International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2016 , 2016.10.03-2016.10.05, Banten, Indonesia.

Yamauchi T, Ushijima K, Sintawardani N, Funamizu N Future Sanitation Based on the Insight and Participation of Children: A Collaboration between Schoolchildren in Indonesia and Japan. The 1st International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chain 2016, 2016.10.03-2016.10.05, BSD, Indonesia.

Shimizu T: Sharing desertification issues with people living in a heterogeneous half-dried area West Africa. Chiba University CEREs and RIHN Joint workshop on Interdisciplinary Research on the Field of Environmental Problems, October 2016, Kyoto. (in Japanese)

R. Ito, M. Tanie, K. Ushijima, D. Nilawati, J. Triastuti, N. Sintawardani N. Funamizu Evaluation of a composting toilet prototype for people in slum area in Indonesia. he 13th IWA Specialized Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems (SWWS) & the 5th IWA Specialized Conference on Resources-Oriented Sanitation (ROS), 2016.09.14-2016.09.16, Athene, Greece.

B.C.W. Nikiema, R. Ito, G. Mokhtar, N. Funamizu Hydrolysed urine concentration by forward osmosis: numerical modelling of water flux and nutrient concentration. the 13th IWA Specialized Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems (SWWS) & the 5th IWA Specialized Conference on Resources-Oriented Sanitation (ROS), 2016.09.14-2016.09.16, Athene, Greece.

T. Maeda, B. Nikiema, C. Wind-Yam, G. Mokhtar, R. Ito, N. Funamizu Urine concentration by forward osmosis process. the 13th IWA Specialized Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems (SWWS) & the 5th IWA Specialized Conference on Resources-Oriented Sanitation (ROS), 2016.09.14-2016.09.16, Athene, Greece.

H Aizaki, T Nakatani, K Sato Developing a Research and Educational Platform for Stated Preference Methods using R. the 44th annual meeting of the Behaviormetric Society of Japan, 2016.08.30-2016.09.02, Sapporo. (in Japanese)

Ushijima K Discussion on interface design of composting toilet for people in Burkina Faso, west Africa. Annual Symposium of Architectural Institute of Japan, 2016.08.24-2016.08.26, Fukuoka. (in Japanese)

Yamauchi T Children living in the era of obesity and low physical fitness: intergenerational changes in Japanese children. Joint conference by the Japan Society for Physiological Anthropology and the Human Biology Association, MHAPR 201, 2016.08.19-2016.08.20, Hilo, Hawaii.

Ikemi, M The relationship between Hokkaido and Africa built through their economic and educational efforts . Hokkaido Economic Association 2016, July 2016, Sapporo. (in Japanese)

Nyambe S, Serpell R, Yamauchi T Equity in Health and Health Promotion: An adolescent Deaf-hearing substance abuse peer education project in Lusaka, Zambia. International Society of Environmental Epidemiology and International Society of Exposure Science- Asia Chapter Conference 2016, 2016.06.26-2016.06.29, Sapporo.

R Ito, S. Kaneko, N Funamizu Recovery of phosphate from human urine by shell particles of Mizuhopecten yessoensis. the 13th IWA Leading Edge Conference on water and wastewater technologies, 2016.06.13-2016.06.16, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain.

B.C.W. Nikiema, R. Ito, G. Mokhtar, N. Funamizu Prediction of water recovery during urine concentration by Forward Osmosis. the 13th IWA Leading Edge Conference on water and wastewater technologies, 2016.06.13-2016.06.16.

Guizani M, Funamizu N Use of Electro-adsorptive membranes to remove LPS endotoxin from reclaimed wastewater. 13th IWA leading edge conference on water and wastewater technologies, 2016.06.13-2016.06.16, Jerez de la Frontera.

Kabore Wendkouni John Steve, Ito R, Funamizu N Reaction Kinetics for the Production of Methylene-Urea from Human Urine. 13th IWA leading edge conference on water and wastewater technologies, 2016.06.13-2016.06.16, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain.

Nabeshima T Dual Decision Making between State Administration and Rural Community: Political History of Conflict and Integration over Water and Sanitation. 53th Conference of Japan Association for African Studies., 2016.06.04. (in Japanese)

Nakao S Unequal Transformation of Large Compound House (songo): Chronological Change of the Chief’s House at Langouelou. The 53rd Annual Meeting of the Japan Association for African Studies, 2016.06.04, Fujisawa. (in Japanese)

Tanaka U, Shimizu T Idea box to improve desertification and lifestyle improvement in West African semi arid region. System Agriculture Society, June 2016, Fukuoka. (in Japanese)

Shimizu T Society's living in Burkina Faso, Cassena tradition and transformation. The 51st Academic Society of Japan African Studies, June 2016, Fujisawa. (in Japanese)

Shimizu T Local Knowledge of Water Measures in Semi-Arid Region and Proper Technology: Cases from West Africa. Global Environmental Studies • JSPS Nairobi Research Contact Center "And the Asia-Africa collaboration to deal with desertification and regional development approach", June 2016, Kenya, Nairobi. (in Japanese)

Shimizu T Surprise, Learning and Encouraging: From the Relationship between Researchers and Survey Targets in Desertification Studies in the Sahel Region. Earth and Planetary Science Association, May 2016, Makuhari. (in Japanese)

Shimizu T Islamic Education System - From the Case of Burkina Faso. The 17th Africa Educational Research Forum, April 2016, Nagoya. (in Japanese)

Ushijima K, Kobayashi H, Nilawati D, Putri A M H, Suminar M, Astuti J T, Sintawardani N, Funamizu N Local Value-Chain-Based Design of Sanitation System for Urban Slum in Bandung, Indonesia. Workshop on Roles of Value Chains of Biomass and Quality of Life in Sustainable Sanitation, 2016.03.21, Bandung, Indonesia.

Oishi, W, Decrey L, Tezuka R, Sano D, Kohn T, Funamizu N Inactivation and damage to bacteriophage MS2 by ammonia in human excreta. 11th IWA Specialist Group Conference in Wastewater Pond Technologies, 2016.03.21-2016.03.23, Leeds University Business School, UK.

Guizani M, Fujii T, Funamizu N Soil salinity control following urine use as a fertilizer in semi-arid land: case of Burkina Faso. Tunisian Japanese symposium on society, science and Technology TJASSST, 2016.02.23-2016.02.25, Tsukuba, Japan.

Guizani M, Kato H, Funamizu N Removal of LPS Endotoxin from reclaimed wastewater through adsorption using soil. 5th Maghreb conference on desalination and water treatment, 2015.12.21-2015.12.24, Hammamet, Tunisia.

Guizani M, Kato H, Funamizu N Long-term operation (2 years) of soil aquifer treatment system for LPS endotoxin removal. The 2015 International Workshop on Occurrence and Control of Tastes, Odours, and Algal Toxins in Waters, 2015.10.29-2015.11.01, Xiamen, China.

Kaneko S. Ito R. Funamizu N Phosphorous recovery from source-separated urine by using fixed bed column reactor with scallop shell; effect of HRT on recovery ration. 5th International Dry Toilet Conference, 2015.08.19-2015.08.22, Tampere, Finland.

Kabore S. Ito R. Funamizu N Effect of formaldehyde / urea ratio on thermal properties of methylene urea from human urine. 5th International Dry Toilet Conference, 2015.08.19-2015.08.22, Tampere, Finland.

Ito R. Funamizu N Design of composting toilet for middle and low income countries –Survey in Indonesia and Zambia-. 5th International Dry Toilet Conference, 2015.08.19-2015.08.22, Tampere, Finland.

【Poster Presentation】

Hakoyama Fumiko Community led total sanitation - farmers' reactions in the central-east region in Burkina Faso. Kick – Off Meeting : Sanitation and Value Chains, A Collaboration Research between LPTB – LIPI and RIHN Japan, 2017.10.22, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Ushijima Ken Community-based water management system in Japan. Kick – Off Meeting : Sanitation and Value Chains, A Collaboration Research between LPTB – LIPI and RIHN Japan, 2017.10.22, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Ushijima K, Ishii A, Yamauchi T, Funamizu N, Fujiwara T, Fukui J, Matsumura H Design of water infrastructure for the future, Lessons and learned from depopulating area in Hokkaido, Japan. 14th IWA specialist conference on watershed and river basin management, 2017.10.09-2017.10.10, Skukuza camp, Kruger National Park, South Africa.

Ikemi Mayu Water infrastructure management and rural development in Africa. The 3rd Academic Workshop 2017, Center for Regional Economic and Business Networks, Faculty of Economics and Business, Hokkaido University, 2017.07.19, Sapporo.

Nyambe S, Hayashi K, Zulu J, Yamauchi T A Glimpse into Peri-Urban Lusaka: Findings of a 2016 preliminary assessment on the sanitation of peri-urban Lusaka, Zambia. Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition (ZAWAFE) 2017, 2017.06.12-2017.06.13, Lusaka, Zambia.

Yamauchi T, Funamizu N: The Sanitation Value Chain: Designing Sanitation Systems as Eco-Community-Value Systems. Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition (ZAWAFE) 2017, 2017.06.12-2017.06.13, Lusaka, Zambia.

Nyambe S., Zulu J., Hayashi K., Yamauchi T. Gauging the sanitation and health challenge for children and youth in the urban slums of Lusaka, Zambia. 54th Annual Conference for Japan Association of African Studies, 2017.05.20-2017.05.21, Shinshu University, Nagano.

【Invited Lecture / Honorary Lecture / Panelist】

Daisuke Sano Inactivation and removal of viruses: is this a matter of virus evolution?. 6th International Society for Food and Environmental Virology (ISFEV) Conference, 2018.10.07-2018.10.10, Arizona State University, Phoenix, USA.

Funamizu N Sanitation Value Chain. 5th Annual research symposium, JSPS Alumni Association in Philippine, 2017.07.12, Manila.

Hidenori Harada Fecal exposure and pathogenic Escherichia coli in developing contexts: cases from a Vietnamese village and a Bangladeshi slum. Life Science Talk, Life Science Discipline, 2017.01.08, Khulna University.

Hidenori Harada Pathotyping of Escherichia coli isolated from community toilet excreta and stored drinking water in a slum in Bangladesh. Sandec Seminar, 2016.10.18, .

Funamizu N The sanitation value chain: Its concept and new research collaboration project. International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2016, 2016.10.04, Banten, Indonesia.

Funamizu N Improving Sustainable water and sanitation systems in Sahel Region in Africa. Global expansion of smart water treatment system for sustainable water management, Locally-fitted, compact and decentralized water treatment and management technologies for Asia and Africa, 2015.12.05, Lalitpur, Nepal.

Funamizu N Agro-Sanitation: Its element technologies and business model – Our Experiences in Burkina Faso. 5th International Dry Toilet Conference, 2015.08.19-2015.08.22, Tampere, Finland.

Funamizu N Sustainable Water and Wastewater Technologies. World Water Day, 2015.03.15, Amman, Saudi Arabia.