Full Research

StageFR
Project No.14200107
Project NameThe Sanitation Value Chain: Designing Sanitation Systems as Eco-Community-Value System
Abbreviated TitleSanitation
Project LeaderYAMAUCHI Taro
Research AxisProgram 3: Designing Lifeworlds of Sustainability and Wellbeing
URLhttp://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/
Key Wordsresources oriented sanitation; value chain

 

○Research Subject and Objectives

a) Problem, background, and objectives

Global environmental problem discussed in the project: 

The word “sanitation” refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal and resource recovery of human urine, feces, and wastewater. Sanitation is essential for promoting health, preventing environmental pollution, conserving ecosystems, and recovering and recycling resources. Therefore, it can be said that sanitation is closely related to such current global issues as poverty, urban slums, conservation of ecosystems, and resource management. In the developing world, the population is growing rapidly, especially in urban slums, and there is high child mortality and poverty issues (see Supplementary Fig. 0-1). It has been reported that as of 2015, 2.4 billion people were still using unimproved sanitation facilities, including 946 million people who were still practicing open defecation (UN, 2015). On the other hand, depopulation and aging are progressing, especially in the rural parts of the developed world (see Supplementary Fig. 0-2), and the financial capabilities of municipalities, who manage sanitation systems, are becoming weaker and weaker.

Key question of the project:  

The questions “How can we handle the waste from 10 billion people in the future?” and “How can we achieve the water and sanitation targets in the sustainable development goals (SDGs)?” are global environmental problems that need to be solved.

Working hypothesis of the research: 

Hypothesis-1: Current sanitation issues are caused by the dissociation between the value that they provide and the values of individual people and/or communities.

Hypothesis-2: Sanitation technologies cannot work well without a support system. The mismatch between the prerequisites of technologies and local characteristics makes sanitation issues more complicated.

Key concept - Sanitation value chain:  

The project proposes a sanitation value chain, which entails the following basic policies: 1) Put the values of people and communities at the center of the discussion, and prepare a sanitation system to drive this value chain; 2) design the sanitation system by focusing on direct incentives for individual users and communities; 3) recognize that a sanitation system is an integrated system with social and technical units; and 4) design the sanitation system by making a good match between social characteristics and the prerequisites of technologies. 

Why a value chain?:

We strongly believe that 1) the planning and installation of infrastructures such as sanitation systems is nothing, but planning and installing a value chain, as shown in Supplemental Fig. 0-3, is more valuable; and 2) because of the weakening of municipalities, the prerequisites of the current management model for water and sanitation systems will be no longer be met in the future.

 

b) Methodology

Four research steps to achieve the goal:

In Topic 1 (Life), field and literature surveys are performed to 1) analyze the values and happiness of people; 2) understand norms relating to human excreta in the current situation, as well as historical changes; 3) re-evaluate the value of sanitation systems; 4) analyze the mismatch between the prerequisites of sanitation technologies and the region-specific characteristics of humans and communities by gathering failed cases; 5) understand historical changes in the sanitation systems of target areas; and 6) match the values of people and communities to the value provided by sanitation systems. In Topic 2 (Technology), four research activities are planned: 1) Summarizing the prerequisites of sanitation technologies; 2) re-evaluating the value of sanitation systems; 3) analyzing the mismatch between the prerequisites of sanitation technologies and the region-specific characteristics of humans and communities by gathering failed cases; and 4) developing required technologies. In Topic 3 (Co-creation), the following three steps will be adapted: 1) identifying stakeholders and understanding the structure of the values of people and communities using a field survey; 2) analyzing the hierarchy and structure of stakeholders’ value chain and evaluating their mutual affinity; and 3) developing the co-creation process. In Topic 4 (Visualization), the main activity is developing visualization methods for our concept and research results using various media and techniques. We strongly recognize the importance of visual images in the trans-disciplinary (TD) approach.

Field study: 

The project will involve field studies in 1) the rural area of Ishikari River Basin, 2) rural and urban areas in Burkina Faso, 3) an urban slum in Indonesia, and 4) an urban slum in Zambia.

 

c) Goals and Expected results

The goals of this research project are 1) to propose that a sanitation value chain is relevant to both developing and developed countries; 2) to design several pilot studies demonstrating the significance of societal, academic, and professional involvement in the co-creation of this value chain; and 3) to contribute to the establishment of a new interdisciplinary academic foundation regarding sanitation. Examples of the sanitation value chain will be demonstrated and co-created at the pilot study sites.

 

d) Project organization and membership

For project management, a coordination group has been organized. Four research teams have also been organized.

 

e) Current status of research on resource oriented sanitation

Research groups in Switzerland, Germany, Sweden, Norway, and Finland are studying resource recovery-type sanitation. The specialist groups of the International Water Association (IWA) jointly held an international conference (S2SMALL) in October 2017. Also, the topics of the 6th Dry Toilet conference (DT2018) held in August 2018 were as follows: research on the safe use of excreta and/or urine; social and cultural aspects of sustainable sanitation; sanitation and nutrient recycling in business; cross-organizational cooperation and co-creation; hi- and low-tech solutions in urban/rural environments; “ecosan” meets the water-food-energy nexus; promoting sustainable sanitation and nutrient recycling among different stakeholders; and community engagement. Seven members of the project including the leader, sub-leader, and core members contributed to DT2018. The four research topics included in the project can make a big contribution to global research on sanitation.

 

Program 3 Goal                         

Our “lifeworlds” are composed of the physical spaces and socio-cultural spheres of our everyday lives. They are continually reproduced, reimagined, and evolved through an interactive and reflexive relationship with society, culture, and nature. Program 3 proposes research aimed at illuminating the reciprocal linkages between diverse rural and urban lifeworlds and contributing to solving sustainability problems by working with various societal partners such as governments, companies, and citizen groups. Special emphasis is placed on envisioning sustainable futures that improve wellbeing and gauging their feasibility.

 

Contribution to Program 3                       

In the mission statement of Program 3, there is the following message: “Through the reconstruction of the lifeworld concept and by highlighting the reciprocal linkages between rural and urban spaces, Program 3 designs lifeworlds of sustainability and wellbeing and co-creates concrete pathways for their realization.” We think that sanitation is an essential system for lifeworlds. Sanitation contributes to human public health, material/resource recycling by society, and environmental pollution/ecosystem management. In our project, sanitation value chains for not only rural areas but also for urban areas are discussed. When it comes to the sanitation value chain for urban areas, we design material and value flows between rural and urban spaces.  

Our Program 3 mission statement also says that “Pre-existing, yet latent, diverse socio-cultural elements, such as livelihood styles, lay knowledge, conflict resolution strategies, and the vitality of the people themselves can be called upon to address problems and help to chart a course toward possible future societies. Program 3 builds upon these experiences and knowledge of human-nature interaction to propose concrete changes needed to achieve a sustainable society.” We could not succeed in installing a practical scale sanitation system in Burkina Faso as part of the SATREPS project, and we think that the reason for this was the lack of analysis of the human and social aspects. In our project, we carefully examine the values of people and communities, as well as norms related to human excreta at our field sites. 

The mission statement includes the following message: “Program 3 will not investigate top-down approaches to system change, but will work with local residents, government officials, companies, citizen groups and other various stakeholders to propose sustainable alternatives and gauge their feasibility.” The co-creation of a “sanitation value chain” is one of the important points in our sanitation project. 

We will contribute to the mission by aiming to design lifeworlds; showing solutions; proposing a social transition; realizing the co-creation of a sanitation value chain with diverse stakeholders; and establishing an academic foundation for sanitation. Our program director, Dr. Saijo, has proposed the concept of “future design,” and he stresses the importance of a “virtual future generation” in design. Our sanitation project has started the discussion on how to include the “virtual future generation” in the design process of a sanitation value chain.

○Progress and Results in 2017

Project Progress during the FR Period to Date

(1) Achievement – 1: The launch of an international journal on sanitation and publication of the second volume: 

The international online journal “Sanitation Value Chain” was launched in November 2017. The ISSN is 2432-5066 (online) and the journal web site is http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal.html. We established an international editorial board of sanitation specialist from seven countries. The second volume of the journal was successfully issued in November 2018.

 

(2) Achievement-2: Holding and co-hosting 22 international and domestic conferences and workshops: 

We organized 11 meetings each in 2017 and 2018 (Annex 2). Typical meetings include the Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition (ZAWAFE2017 and 2018), the International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains (GreenVC2017 and 2018), Workshops on Science Communication, and the Indonesia & Philippine & Japan Joint International Seminars on Water and Sanitation (Bandung, October 2017 and Manila, January 2019). 

 

(3) Achievement-3: Conclusion of research agreement: 

Implementation agreements (IAs) and research contracts (RCs) were concluded in accordance with the signing of MOUs between the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) and RIHN, University of Zambia (Zambia) and RIHN, and AJPEE (Burkina Faso) and RIHN.

 

(4) Achievement -4: Toilets that can concentrate urine:

In order to co-create a sanitation value chain for managing human urine in urban areas, transporting urine to rural farm land is essential. The technology required for transporting urine is volume reduction technology for cost reduction. As a technology to concentrate urine, we examined the forward osmosis (FO) process this year. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The area of the forward osmotic membrane required to concentrate 1 L of urine is 55.6 cm2. This area is small enough to install the urine concentration device in a toilet bowl. 2) It was shown that 78.6% of ammonia, 97.8% of potassium, and 99.6% of phosphate can be recovered.

 

(5) Achievement -5: Toilets that can produce phosphorus fertilizer:

It was confirmed that the phosphorus in urine can be recovered directly from urine as calcium phosphate (DCPD) using shell as a calcium source, and we clarified the reaction pathway and rate. Thus, by installing a simple shell-packed column in the urine collection pipe of a toilet, it has become possible to make a toilet that produces phosphorus fertilizer. We set up a compost toilet with a phosphorus recovery function at RIHN and started demonstration experiments from March 2018.

 

(6) Achievement-6: New method for analyzing exposure pathways of pathogens using molecular biology:

We developed a new method for analyzing the infection route from feces to people. In this method, pathogenic Escherichia coli was separated and quantified using the PCR method, and the pathway was identified from the pathogenic Escherichia coli type. As a result, it was found that the type of Escherichia coli in drinking water and in feces was different, as shown in Supplementary Fig. 2-1, suggesting the importance of other sources of contamination such as livestock. Also, three prioritized exposure pathways were identified: pond bathing, outdoor playing, and drinking,

 

(7) Achievement-7: Evaluation of inactivation mechanism of virus during urine concentration:

The real-time qPCR method was applied to six target genome regions for monitoring MS2 (an indicator of virus) infectivity during the urine concentration process, and we found that 1) uncharged ammonia is the predominant factor in MS2 inactivation, 2) genome damage is the main mechanism of MS2 infectivity loss, and 3) MS2 infectivity loss in urine can be predicted by ion composition and speciation.

 

(8) Achievement – 8: Agricultural technology for compost, urine, and reclaimed gray water reuse: 

Salinity management of soil is essential when compost, urine, and reclaimed gray water are reused on farm land. A mathematical simulation model was developed for describing the fate of salts in a soil system, and the leaching requirement for removing salts was evaluated using this model. The fate of pathogens in the soil system was evaluated, and the health risk to farm workers was estimated.

 

(9) Achievement-9: Acceptability of the sanitation system was evaluated from the technical side:

We conducted a survey on a new prototype model of a composting type toilet at the LIPI and a mosque in Sapporo. The results were as follows: 1) Half of the people answered that the bad smell was a point to be checked; 2) 70% of respondents worried about excreta sticking to the toilet bowl; 3) the new-type toilet was acceptable; and 4) 70% were unsatisfied with its size and 40% felt discomfort when sitting on the toilet seat, feeling like they might fall into the hole. We also conducted a survey on dewatered digested sludge for use as a soil conditioner in Iwamizawa, Japan.

 

(10) Achievement-10: Visualization of research:

1) The video “Samurai-kun Sanitation Value Chain” (Indonesian version) was produced and screened at Bandung in 2017. In 2018, the video was revised and screened at a junior high school and among flower farmers in Bandung. The Japanese version was screened at RIHN’s Open House event; 2) the playlist of SVC video archives has been opened up to the public on YouTube. Eight presentation videos have been distributed. 3) Original toilet paper was produced as a promotional item for the project using illustrations to make our research concept visible. 4) We participated in RIHN’s project on visualization of state-of-the-art research.

 

(11) Achivement-11: Intensive fieldwork at field sites: 

Indonesia site: 1) Health of infants and their fecal management by caretakers; 2) norms, consciousness, and values relating to human waste; 3) mental health and living conditions of urban slum dwellers; and 4) presentation of research results at an international conference (GreenVC2018).

Ishikari site: 1) Design of a water source management system coordinated with local high schools and local governments and its demonstration; 2) technology packages suitable for regional autonomous water supply (membrane treatment, sensor rings, data handling) installed locally, data collection; 3) interviewed the Furano city water supply and sewer division on the issue of septic tank management.

Burkina Faso site: 1) Conducted surveys on the private sector’s removal of sludge from households in the capital city and rural areas, revealing that the number of private companies was rapidly increasing in the capital city, whereas in rural areas, a few workers independently removed the sludge by developing manual techniques through their own efforts; 2) concluded an MOU, IA, and RC with a local non-governmental organization (NGO).

Zambia site: 1) Implemented a session and an exhibition booth at ZAWAFE2018; 2) conducted field surveys and held workshops; 3) based on MOU, concluded IA and RC with the Integrated Water Resource Management of the University of Zambia.

 

Progress since the last reporting

(1) Achievement 1: Overall achievements of the project:

1) Reviewed the concepts of the “sanitation value chain,” conventional “value chain analysis,” and “value flow analysis” to examine the methodology to co-create value chains with local stakeholders. Consequently, constructed a framework consisting of three values (health and well-being, materials, and socio-culture). 2) Published the second volume of the international journal Sanitation Value Chain. 3) Published an academic book (“Resources Oriented Agro-Sanitation Systems,” by Springer). 4) Held (including co-hosting) international and national conferences (11 in total). 5) Based on MOU with the University of Zambia, IA and RC were concluded. Also, concluded MOU, IA, and RC with an NGO in Burkina Faso.

 

(2) Achievement 2: Historical changes in sanitation problems in India:

A cultural anthropologist who had been studying Dalits (Untouchables), scavengers in India, joined our project. Her study, published in our journal, revealed the historical process of the development of low-cost flush toilets in contemporary India, as a part of the “liberation of manual scavengers,” led by Gandhi and his followers (Gandhians). While Gandhi attempted to focus on the dignified notion of scavenging work and exhorted people to improve the working environment of scavengers in order to eradicate untouchability, the Gandhians intended to change the structure of toilets so that one could not look at his own dirt. In that process, modern sanitation discourse spread to the public and it was related to discrimination.

 

(3) Achievement 3: Development of a urine concentration system using forward osmosis process:

The urine concentration process is important as it can increase the value of urine by reducing transportation and application costs. We developed a urine concentration system using the FO process; it showed a five-fold concentration of urine. In this year, we investigated 1) the diffusivity of ammonia in the solutions through the FO membrane and 2) the fouling of the membrane with repetitive concentrations of urine. As a result, we found the diffusivity depends on pH and the repetition of urine concentration caused fouling by scale generation and absorption of saccharides into the membrane.

 

(4) Achievement 4: Value chain co-creation scheme:      

In order to know how the co-creation of a sanitation value chain can be achieved, 1) in Ishikari river basin, we analyzed the current value chain of the community-based water management system, and conducted some trials with related local actors, including high school students, to co-create a new value chain for a community-based water management system. This process seems to be applicable to the co-creation of a sanitation value chain. 2) In Indonesia, we discussed with candidate actors a sanitation value chain trial in Bandung city, and we revealed their motivations, requirements, and concerns. The actors included garbage collectors, farmer, agri-business companies, religious educators, etc.

 

(5) Achievement 5: Visualization of the research:

1) The video “Samurai-kun Sanitation Value Chain” (Indonesian version) was revised and screened at Smp negeri 1 lembang (a junior high school in Lembang, Bandung) and flower farms in Lembang, Bandung; 2) The playlist of SVC video archives has been opened up to the public on YouTube. Eight presentation videos have been distributed; 3) we produced original toilet paper as a promotional item using illustrations to visualize our concept.

 

Most Notable Outputs to Date

Award

1.      Ito R, Funamizu N: The best paper award: The full authors are Guizani M, Yajima K, Kawaguchi T, Ito R, Funamizu N. The title of the paper is Morphological, chemical and Electro chemical carbon based and novel metal electrode characterization for use in water electrochemical disinfection, 1st Euro-Mediterranean Conference for Environmental Integration,  November 22-25, 2017, Sousse, Tunisia.

2.      Funamizu N: Environment Reconstruction and Recycling Bureau Director Award, Ministry of the Environment. October 10, 2017.

3.      Funamizu N: Hokkaido Social Contribution Award, Hokkaido Government. August 4, 2018.


External fund

4.      Ushijima K: Title: Transition to regional autonomous next-generation type water infrastructure management system.  Source: The Cabinet Office "Strategic Innovation Creation Program (SIP)" "Infrastructure Maintenance / Update / Management Technology" (JST Management, Period: from September, 2016 to March, 2019).


Journal publication

5.      The international scientific journals “Sanitation Value Chain” ISSN 2432-5058 (print), ISSN 2432-5066 (online). Editor in chief: Yamauchi T. Vol. 1 and Vol. 2. (http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal.html)


Videos/Photographic Works

6.      Sanitation Education Program (Free lecture series), SVC Video Archives on ‘YouTube’.  (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCcDLZXSBauZWQSGE29x7lYg). (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCP5lF0CgqTWUqv9nUKE_R8A/playlists)


Symposia/Conferences/Workshops (Organized or Co-organized) 

7.      The International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains. The first symposium:  3-5 October, 2016, the second symposium October 23-24, 2017, Jakarta, Indonesia.

8.      Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition (ZAWAFE) 2017, RIHN project session, 12 June 2017, RIHN project session and Dziko Langa booth, 12 June 2018, Lusaka, Zambia.

9.     International workshop for Sanitation Value Chain 2019 in Philippine “Social Acceptance of New Technology”. 26 January 2019, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines.

 

Book

10.      Funamizu N (ed.) (2018) Resource-Oriented Agro-sanitation Systems: Concept, Business Model, and Technology. Springer Japan, Tokyo, 314pp.

 

Academic Papers

11.      Ushijima K., Funamizu N, Nabeshima T, Hijikata N, Ito R, Sou M, Maiga AM, Sintawardani N (2015) The Postmodern Sanitation - Agro-sanitation Business Model as a New Policy -, Water Policy, 17(2); 283-298. DOI:10.2166/wp.2014.093

12.      Hijikata N, Tezuka R, Kazama S, Otaki M, Ushijima K, Ito R, Okabe S, Sano D, Funamizu N (2016) Bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost using calcium lime and ash, Journal of Environmental Management, Journal of Environmental Management, Vol.181, 721-727. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.08.026

13.      Ito R, Funamizu N (2016) Phosphate Recovery from synthetic Urine with shell of Mizuhopecten Yessoensis, Journal of Water and Environment Technology, 14(6), 437-446 .

14.      Ito R, Tanie M, Ushijima K, Nilawati D, Sintawardani N, Funamizu N (2017) Evaluation of acceptance of a composting toilet prototype for people in slum area in Indonesia, Desalination and Water Treatment. DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2017.20880

15.      Otsuka Y, Agestika L, Widyarani, Sintawardani N, Yamauchi T (2018) Risk factor for undernutrition and diarrhea prevalence in an urban slum in Indonesia: Focus on water, sanitation, and hygiene. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 100(3):727-732. DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.18-0063

○Project Members

YAMAUCHI Taro ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature/ Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University,Professor,Co-creation of Value Chain )

FUNAMIZU Naoyuki ( Muroran Institute of Technology,Director / Vice president,Sanitation Technology )

IKEMI Mayu ( Graduate School of Economics and Business Administration, Hokkaido University,Assistant professor,Sanitation & Life )

ITO Ryusei ( Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,Assistant professor,Sanitation Technology )

USHIJIMA Ken ( Hokkaido Research Organization,Research chief,Co-creation of Value Chain )

KATAOKA Yoshimi ( Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,Technical staff,Visualization )

SANO Daisuke ( School of Engineering, Tohoku University,Associate professor,Sanitation Technology )

NAKATANI Tomoaki ( Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University,Associate professor,Sanitation & Life )

NABESHIMA Takako ( Research Faculuty of Media and Communication, Hokkaido University,Associate professor,Sanitation & Life )

HARADA Hidenori ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Assistant professor,Sanitation Technology )

FUJIWARA Taku ( Research and Education Faculty, Natural Sciences Cluster, Agriculture Unit, Kochi University,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

HAYASHI Koji ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Researcher,Sanitation & Life )

NAKAO Seiji ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Researcher,Sanitation & Life )

INOUE Takashi ( Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University,Professor,Co-creation of Value Chain )

SEKIMOTO Koichi ( Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University,Grauduate student,Co-creation of Value Chain )

SHIMIZU Takao ( Center for the study of International Cooperation in Education, Hiroshima University,Researcher,Sanitation & Life )

HAKOYAMA Fumiko ( Fuji Women's University,Lecturer,Sanitation & Life )

FUKUI Junichi ( Hokkaido Research Organization,Research chief,Co-creation of Value Chain )

ISHII Akira ( Hokkaido Research Organization,Research chief,Co-creation of Value Chain )

OKOSHI Ango ( Hokkaido Research Organization,Research chief,Sanitation Technology )

KUSUDA Tetsuya ( Advanced Institute, Kyushu University,Senior Adviser,Sanitation Technology )

FUJII Shigeo ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

WATANABE Kazuo ( Enter for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University,Affiliated Associate Professor,Sanitation Technology )

NISHI Makoto ( Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University,Associate Professor,Sanitation & Life )

KAKUI Hironori ( Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,Technical staff,Visualization )

HASEGAWA Yoshiki ( Hokkaido Research Organization,Researcher,Co-Creation of Value Chain )

AKAO Satoshi ( Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University,Associate Professor,Sanitation Technology )

TOKUDA Kohei ( Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,Technical staff,Visualization )

SHIGEI Makoto ( Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University,Master Student,Sanitation Technology )

OTSUKA Yumiko ( Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University,Doctoral Student,Co-creation of Value Chain )

MASUKI Yui ( Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University,JSPS Research Fellow,Sanitation & Life )

MIFUNE Rin ( Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University,Grauduate student,Co-creation of Value Chain )

HONNA Saki ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Research associate,Visualization )

KIMURA Ayako ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Research associate,Visualization )

Sikopo P NYAMBE ( Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University,Doctoral Student,Co-creation of Value Chain )

Lina AGESTIKA ( Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University,Grauduate student,Co-creation of Value Chain )

Min Li CHUA ( Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University,Doctoral Student,Sanitation Technology )

GUIZANI Mokhtar ( Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,Assistant professor,Sanitation Technology )

Neni Sintawadani ( Research Unit for Clean Technology, LIPI, Indonesia,Senior Researcher,Sanitation Technology )

HAMIDAH Umi ( Research Unit for Clean Technology, LIPI, Indonesia,Researcher,Sanitation Technology )

Widyarani ( Research Unit for Clean Technology, LIPI, Indonesia,Researcher,Sanitation Technology )

Aswatini Manaf ( Research Unit for Clean Technology, LIPI, Indonesia,Professor,Sanitation & Life )

Carolina ( Research Unit for Clean Technology, LIPI, Indonesiav,Senior researcher,Sanitation Technology )

Syam Surya ( University of Surya,Lecturer,Sanitation & Life )

Rizkiana Restu Utami ( Polteknik Kesehatan Bandung,Research assistant,Sanitation & Life )

Imasiku Anayawa NYAMBE ( University of Zambia,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

Joseph Zulu ( University of Zambia,Lecturer,Sanitation Technology )

Amadou Hama MAIGA ( International Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

Lopez Zavala Miguel Angel ( Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

Aileen ORBECIDO ( DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY,Associate Professor,Sanitation Technology )

Marlon ERA ( DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY,Associate Professor,Sanitation & Life )

Jonathan Jared IGNACIO ( DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY,Graduate Student (Master)/Research Assistant,Sanitation Technology )

Diana Rahayuning WULAN ( Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI),Researcher,Sanitation Technology )

Nilawati DEWI ( Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI),Researcher,Sanitation Technology )

Joseph WETHE ( The University of Ouagadougou New Dawn,Professor,Sanitation Technology )

Benedicte NIKIEMA ( Sanitation Technology )

○Future Themes

(1) Four Research Topics to achieve the goals

The project is proposing a new concept, a sanitation value chain, which has the following basic policies: 1) Put the values of people and communities at the center of the discussion, and prepare a sanitation system to drive this value chain; 2) design the sanitation system by focusing on direct incentives for individual users and communities; 3) recognize that a sanitation system is an integrated system with social and technical units; 4) design the sanitation system by making a good match between the social characteristics and prerequisites of technologies. Accordingly, the goals of this research project are to 1) propose the concept of a sanitation value chain as relevant to both developing and developed countries; 2) design several pilot studies to demonstrate the significance of societal, academic, and professional involvement in the co-creation of this value chain; and 3) contribute to the establishment of a new interdisciplinary academic foundation regarding sanitation. In order to achieve the goals, we will adopt four points of view (Topics 1, 2, 3, and 4).

In Topic 1(Life), the following six research activities are planned: (1-1) Field survey for analyzing people’s values and happiness; (1-2) field and literature survey on norms related to human excreta in current contexts as well as historical changes; (1-3) field and literature survey to re-evaluate the value of sanitation systems; (1-4) field and literature survey to analyze the mismatch between the prerequisites of sanitation technologies and the region-specific characteristics of humans and communities by gathering failed cases; (1-5) field and literature survey on historical changes in sanitation systems of target areas; and (1-6) matching the values of people and communities to the value provided by sanitation systems.

In Topic 2 (Technology), the following four research activities are planned: (2-1) Literature survey on the prerequisites of sanitation technologies; (2-2) field and literature survey on the prerequisites of sanitation technologies by gathering success stories; (2-3) field and literature survey to re-evaluate the value of sanitation systems; and (2-4) field and literature survey to analyze the mismatch between the prerequisites of sanitation technologies and region-specific characteristics of humans and communities by gathering failed cases. 

In Topic 3 (Co-creation), the following four activities are planned: (3-1) Identifying stakeholders and understanding the structure of the values of people and communities; (3-2) analyzing the hierarchy and structure of stakeholders’ value chain and evaluating their affinity; (3-3) developing the co-creation process; and (3-4) demonstrating the co-creation of a sanitation value chain. 

In Topic 4 (Visualization), we will develop a transmission method using various media and methods related to our concept and research results. We strongly recognize the importance of visual images as one way to express the outcome. 

 

(2) Fields 

The project involves field studies in 1) a rural area in Ishikari River Basin, 2) a rural area in Burkina Faso, 3) an urban slum in Indonesia, and 4) an urban slum in Zambia.

 

(3) Activities in 2019     

Topic 1 Life group:

1) Fieldwork by cultural anthropologists in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and India; 2) analysis of questionnaire survey on norms related to human excreta in Japan, Indonesia, and Burkina Faso; and 3) a theoretical study on the notion of value for comparison.

 

Topic 2 Technology group: 

1) Analysis of prerequisites and material flow of sanitation technologies; 2) developing new methodology for identifying exposure pathways of pathogens; 3) analysis of Sanitation value chain of wastewater treatment and sludge reuse for agriculture in Ishikari; and 4) developing new sanitation technologies with different prerequisites (disinfection method for solids, nutrient recovery from urine).

 

Topic 3 Co-creation group:

1) Conducting trial of co-creation process with actors who may relate to the sanitation value chains in Indonesia and Hokkaido; 2) analyzing the findings from the co-creation experience from three value viewpoints; and 3) proposing several crude models of the approach and methodology for sanitation value chain co-creation.

 

Topic 4 Visualization group:

1) Prototyping a short concept video utilizing the characteristics of several image expressions; 2) archiving video of events for the sake of sharing information among researchers in remote areas; and 3) conducting a qualitative survey of science communication aiming for concept visualization in transdisciplinary research among researchers in different disciplines.

 

Indonesia team:

Based on the team’s aim of developing a mechanism for a sanitation value chain for the local residents in the slums and suburbs of Bandung city, we have conducted field surveys with potential participants who can be players in the demonstration of the sanitation value chain. In 2019, we will 1) select a specific target area and community as the pilot site for co-creating a sanitation value chain, 2) decide which sanitation technology should be introduced experimentally to the pilot site, and 3) make concrete plans for the following questions on co-creating a sanitation value chain: “How can the players utilize sanitation technology such as composting toilets?,” “How can they collect and transport human feces and urine?,” and “How are they able to gain economic and non-economic benefits by using compost fertilizer?”

 

Ishikariteam:

We have already co-created and proposed a local community-based water management system, and we have found that it may be difficult to apply it directly to the sanitation system, in terms of the differences between historical actors and so on. Therefore, we will 1) analyze our co-creation experience and propose a water management system in light of the structure of the problem, the process to reach a solution, and the arrangement of real activities to drive the system; 2) make a plan for the co-creation of a sanitation value chain on the basis of that analysis; and 3) conduct some trials on the co-creation.

 

Burkina Faso team:

1) Interviews with a president and workers at private company who remove fecal sludge in an urban area (Ouagadougou), especially regarding their areas of activity and their development; 2) interviews with workers engaged in the removal of fecal sludge in a rural area (Kongoussi), especially regarding the cultural aspects of their activities and their historical development; 3) preparation of workshop about sanitation and compost from human excreta for local NGOs and residents at the pilot farm, where the use of compost from human excreta has already been introduced with our project’s cooperation in a rural area (Kongoussi). Regarding these activities, we will study the cultural and social aspects of fecal sludge management in Burkina Faso.

 

Zambia team:

In the Peri urban area of Lusaka city, it has been necessary to both raise the awareness of residents and pursue sanitation improvement. In FY 2019, we plan to 1) begin preparation for building a business model through the co-creation process with local children and a youth group called ‘Dziko Langa (my community),’ who will be the main body and will continue the activities. 2) We will investigate the correlation between sanitation and health damage (e.g., cholera outbreaks in the rainy season) by aiming to identify the source and pathway of infection by investigating the sanitary environment.

Books

【Authored/Co-authored】

Mangané IK (in collaboration with Nakao S) 2018,12 La mémoire d‘El Hadj Beinké Souleymane Mangané. Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, kyoto, Japan, 152pp. (in French)

Nakao S, Magane IK 2016 A props des 50 ans qui vont de la fondation de la section voltaïque de l’Union Culturelle Musulmane à la Communauté Musulmane, Burkina Faso (Bobo-Dioulasso, 1962-2012). RIHN, Kyoto, 184pp. (in French) (in Japanese)

【Chapters/Sections】

Do K, Harada H, Saizen I 2018,08 Enhancement of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of disintegrated sludge: a techno-economic assessment for sludge management of wastewater treatment plants in Vietnam. Chan HY & Sopian K (ed.) Renewable energy in developing countries: local development and techno-economic aspects. Green Energy and Technology. Springer. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-89809-4

Kobayashi, H., Shimizu, T., Ito, M. and Nakao, S. 2017,08 Transforming Kasena houses and indigenous building technology in Burkina Faso.. Camilla Mileto・Fernando Vegas López-Manzanares・Lidia García-Soriano・ Valentina Cristini (ed.) (ed.) Vernacular and Earthen Architecture: Conservation and Sustainability. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp.147-152.

Hirohide KOBAYASHI, Takao SHIMIZU, Miku ITO, Seiji NAKAO 2017,08 Transforming the Kasena houses and indigenous building technology in Burkina Faso.. Camilla Mileto, Fernando Vegas López-Manzanares, Lidia García-Soriano, Valentina Cristini (ed.) (ed.) Vernacular and Earthen Architecture: Conservation and Sustainability. CRC Press,, Boca Raton, pp.147-152.

Takao SHIMIZU, Seiji NAKAO, Hirohide KOBAYASHI, Miku ITO 2017,08 Transformation in the Kasena’s large earthen compound houses in Burkina Faso.. C. Mileto, F. Vegas Lopez-Manzanares, L. Garcia-Soriano & V. Cristini (ed.) (ed.) Vernacular and Earthen Architecture: Conservation and Sustainability.. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp.343-348.

Editing

【Editing / Co-editing】

Yamauchi T et. al. (ed.) 2018,11 . Sanitation Value Chain, 2(1). Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, 54pp.  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/issues.html#Current_Issue

Funamizu N (ed.) 2018,07 Resource-Oriented Agro-sanitation Systems: Concept, Business Model, and Technology. Springer Japan, Tokyo, 314pp.  https://www.springer.com/us/book/9784431568339

Yamauchi T et. al. (ed.) 2017,11 . Sanitation Value Chain, 1(1). Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, 70pp.  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/issues.html#Current_Issue

Papers

【Original Articles】

Tsuyoshi Kato, Ayano Kobayashi, Wakana Oishi, Syun-suke Kadoya, Satoshi Okabe, Naoya Ohta, Mohan Amarasiri, Daisuke Sano 2019,03 Sign-constrained linear regression for prediction of microbe concentration based on water quality datasets. Journal of Water and Health. (reviewed). Accepted

Mokhtar Guizani, Megumi Saito, Ryusei Ito, Naoyuki Funamizu 2019,03 Combined FO and RO system for the recovery of energy from wastewater and the desalination of seawater. Desalination and Water Treatment. (reviewed). Accepted

Mokhtar Guizani, Takeru Maeda, Ryusei Ito, Naoyuki Funamizu 2019,03 Engineering of size-controlled magnetic nanoparticles for use as draw solution in forward osmosis process. Desalination and Water Treatment. (reviewed). Accepted

Yumiko Otsuka, Lina Agestika, Widyarani, Neni Sintawardani, Taro Yamauchi 2019,01 Risk factor for undernutrition and diarrhea prevalence in an urban slum in Indonesia: Focus on water, sanitation, and hygiene. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 100(3):727-732. DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.18-0063 (reviewed).

Syun-suke Kadoya, Daisuke Sano 2019,01 Assays for specific growth rate and cell-binding ability of rotavirus. Journal of Visualized Experiments 143:E58821. DOI:10.3791/58821 (reviewed). accepted

Wutyi NAING, Hidenori HARADA, Shigeo FUJII, Chaw Su Su HMWE 2018,12 Nitrogen and phosphorus flow analysis with focus on anthoropogenic organic wastes: a case study in Mandalay, Myanmar. Doboku Gakkai Ronbun-shu G (Environment) 74(7):III_367-III_374. (reviewed).

Yui MASUKI 2018,11 Historical Development of Low-Cost Flush Toilets in India: Gandhi, Gandhians, and “Liberation of Scavengers”. Sanitation Value Chain 2(1):3-26. DOI:10.20568/00002638 (reviewed).

Hasegawa J, Suzuki H, Yamauchi T 2018,11 Impact of season on the association between muscle strength/volume and physical activity among community-dwelling elderly people living in snowy-cold regions. Journal of Physiological Anthropology 37:25. DOI:10.1186/s40101-018-0186-6 (reviewed).

Yumiko OTSUKA, Ken USHIJIMA, Mayu IKEMI, Dewi NILAWATI, Neni SINTAWARDANI, Taro YAMAUCHI 2018,11 Mapping of water, sanitation, hygiene and child health in an urban slum of Indonesia. Sanitation Value Chain 2(1):27-37. DOI:10.20568/00002639 (reviewed).

Sikopo NYAMBE, Koji HAYASHI, Joseph ZULU, Taro YAMAUCHI 2018,11 Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, Health and Civic Participation of Children and Youth in Peri-Urban Communities: An Overview of Lusaka, Zambia. Sanitation Value Chain 2(1):39-54. DOI:10.20568/00002640 (reviewed).

Zorica Srdjevic, Naoyuki Funamizu, Bojan Srdjevic and Ratko Bajčetić 2018,10 Public Participation in Water Management of Krivaja River, Serbia: Understanding the Problem through Grounded Theory Methodology. Water Resources Management:1-12. DOI:10.1007/s11269-018-2132-0 (reviewed).

Mai Tanaka, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Min Li Chua, Nguyen Duy Hung, Nguyen Pham Hong Lien, Nghiem Trung Dung, Ryota Gomi 2018,09 Fecal contamination and the proportion of human-associated E.coli along Nhue river, Viet Nam. Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology 56(2C):23-29. (reviewed).

Nagahori C, Kinjo Y, Vodounon AJ, Alao MJ, Padounou Batossi G, Hounkpatin B, Amoule Houenassi E, Yamauchi T 2018,09 Possible effect of maternal safe food preparation behavior on child malnutrition in Benin, Africa. Pediatrics International 2018(60):875-881. DOI:10.1111/ped.13656 (reviewed).

Taisuke Takayama, Atsushi Horibe and Tomoaki Nakatani 2018,09 Women and farmland preservation: The impact of women’s participation in farmland management governance in Japan. Land Use Policy(77):116-125.

Timothy R. Julian, Hasitha S.K. Vithanage, Min Li Chua, Matasaka Kuroda, Ana K. Pitol, Pham Hong Lien Nguyen, Robert A. Canales, Shigeo Fujii, Hidenori Harada 2018,09 High time-resolution simulation of E. coli on hands reveals large variation in microbial exposures amongst Vietnamese farmers using human excreta for agriculture. Science of The Total Environment(635):120-131. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.100 (reviewed).

Taisuke Takayama, Hirotaka Matsuda and Tomoaki Nakatani 2018,07 The determinants of collective action in irrigation management systems: Evidence from rural communities in Japan. Agricultural Water Management(206):113-123.

M. Tanaka, H. Harada, S. Fujii, M. Chua, H. Nguyen, L. Nguyen, D. Nghiem, R. Gomi 2018,07 Source identification of Escherichia coli by using a Human-associated genetic marker: A case study in Nhue River, Vietnam. Proceedings of the 27th Joint KAIST-KU-NTU-NUS Symposium on Environmental Engineering(27):118. DOI:124

Min Li Chua, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Akira Sakai, Michiya Kodera, Shotaro Goto, Shohagi Rani Saha 2018,07 Multi-pathway fecal exposure assessment on total and human specific E. coli in a Bangladeshi slum. Proceedings of the 27th Joint KAIST-KU-NTU-NUS Symposium on Environmental Engineering(27):110-117.

Hidenori Harada, Yuji Fujimori, Ryota Gomi, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Shigeo Fujii, Akira Sakai, Tomonari Matsuda 2018,06 Pathotyping of Escherichia coli isolated from community toilet wastewater and stored drinking water in a slum in Bangladesh. Letters in Applied Microbiology. DOI:10.1111/lam.12878 (reviewed).

Eisuke Ito, Takaaki Sato, Daisuke Sano, Etsuko Utagawa, Tsuyoshi Kato 2018,06 Virus particle detection by convolutional neural network in transmission electron microscopy images. Food and Environmental Virology 10(2):201-208. DOI:10.1007/s12560-018-9335-7 (reviewed).

M. Ikemi, K. Ushijima, Y. Otsuka, T. Yamauchi, D. Nilawati, D. R. Wulan, and N. Sintawardani 2018,06 Economic situation of value chain actors in urban slums of Bandung: A case of Kiaracondong. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 160(012019). (reviewed).  http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/160/1/012019/pdf

Eiji Haramoto, Masaaki Kitajima, Akihiko Hata, Jason R. Torrey, Yoshifumi Masago, Daisuke Sano, Hiroyuki Katayama 2018,05 A review on recent progress in the detection methods and prevalence of human enteric viruses in water. Water Research(135):168-186. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2018.02.004 (reviewed).

Mamoru Oshiki, Takayuki Miura, Shinobu Kazama, Takahiro Segawa, Satoshi Ishii, Masashi Hatamoto, Takashi Yamaguchi, Kengo Kubota, Akinori Iguchi, Tadashi Tagawa, Tsutomu Okubo, Shigeki Uemura, Hideki Harada, Naohiro Kobayashi, Nobuo Araki, Daisuke Sano 2018,04 Microfluidic PCR amplification and MiSeq amplicon sequencing techniques for high-throughput detection and genotyping of human pathogenic RNA viruses in human feces, sewage, and oysters. Frontiers in Microbiology(9):830. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2018.00830 (reviewed).

Andri Taruna Rachmadi, Masaaki Kitajima, Kozo Watanabe, Sakiko Yaegashi, Joeselle Serrana, Arata Nakamura, Toyoko Nakagomi, Osamu Nakagomi, Kazuhiko Katayama, Satoshi Okabe, Daisuke Sano 2018 Free chlorine disinfection as a selection pressure on norovirus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. DOI:10.1128/AEM.00244-18 (reviewed). (accepted)

Wang P, Hao M, Han W, Yamauchi T 2018 Factors associated with nutritional status and motor development among young children in suburban Northeast China. Nursing & Health Sciences. (reviewed). in press

Yamauchi Taro and Funamizu Naoyuki 2017,12 Assessing the Impact of Improved Sanitation on the Health and Happiness of a West African Local Population: Concepts and Research Methodology. Sanitation Value Chain 1(1):63-70. (reviewed).  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/img/001/07.pdf

Funamizu Naoyuki 2017,11 Interdisciplinary Water and Sanitation Project in Burkina Faso. Sanitation Value Chain 1(1):3-13. (reviewed).  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/img/001/01.pdf

Hakoyama Fumiko 2017,11 Land Utilization System in Burkina Faso: A Case Study in Ziniaré. Sanitation Value Chain 1(1):45-50. (reviewed).  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/img/001/05.pdf

Ikemi Mayu 2017,11 Sanitation Project in Rural Africa Examined Based on Local Economy, Education and Community Participation: A Case Study of Burkina Faso. Sanitation Value Chain 1(1):35-44. (reviewed).  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/img/001/04.pdf

Nabeshima Takako 2017,11 Political Participation by African Peasants as Development Actors of Integrated Water Resource management. Sanitation Value Chain 1(1):27-34. (reviewed).  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/img/001/04.pdf

Hijikata, N., Sou/Dakoure, M., Sossou, S.K., Brou, A.L., Maiga, A.H. and Funamizu, N. 2017,11 Microbial Risk Assessment for Agricultural Production Cycle of On-site Resource Oriented Sanitation Systems: A Case of Burkina Faso. Sanitation Value Chain 1(1):15-25. (reviewed).  http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/sanitation_value_chain/journal/img/001/02.pdf

Gold, M., Harada, H., Therrien, J.-D., Nishida, T., Cunningham, M., Semiyaga, S., Fujii, S., Dorea, C., Nguyen, V.A., Strande, L. 2017,09 Cross-country analysis of faecal sludge dewatering. Environmental Technology:1-11. DOI:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09593330.2017.1374472 (reviewed).

Hasegawa J, Ito MY, Yamauchi T 2017,07 Development of screening tool to predict malnutrition among children under two years old in Zambia. Global Health Action 10(1):1339981. DOI:doi: 10.1080/16549716.2017.1339981.

Nagahori C, Kinjo Y, Tchuani JP, Yamauchi T 2017,06 Malnutrition among vaccinated children aged 0-5 years in Batouri, Republic of Cameroon: Convenience samples from five health centers and two villages in the health district of Batouri. Journal of General and Family Medicine 00:1-7. DOI:DOI: 10.1002/jgf2.104 (reviewed).

Furusawa T, Naka I, Yamauchi T, Natsuhara K, Eddie R, Kimura R, et al. 2017,03 Polymorphisms associated with a tropical climate and root crop diet induce susceptibility to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in Solomon Islands. PLoS ONE 12(3):1-16. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0172676 (reviewed).

Drissa Sangare , Boukary Sawadogo, Mariam Sou/Dakoure, Danielle M. Ouedraogo,Nowaki Hijikata, Hamma Yacouba, Lacina Coulibaly, and Naoyuki Funamizu 2017 Short Term Effects of Treated Greywater by High Rate Algal Ponds Process on Vegetable Yield and Soil Properties under Sudano-Sahelian Climate Conditions. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. DOI:10.1002/ep.12658 (reviewed).

Min Li Chua, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Akira Sakai, Michiya Kodera, Shotaro Goto, Shohagi Rani Saha 2017 Fecal exposure assessment on daily living activities among a Bangladeshi urban slum community. Proceedings of the 26rd Joint KAIST-KU-NTU-NUS Symposium on Environmental Engineering:1-7.

Naka, I., Furusawa, T., Kimur,a R., Natsuhara, K., Yamauch,i T., Nakazawa, M., Ataka, Y., Ishida, .T, Inaoka, T., Matsumura, Y., Ohtsuka, R., Ohashi, J. 2017 A missense variant, rs373863828-A (p.Arg457Gln), of CREBRF and body mass index in Oceanic populations. Journal of Human Genetics. in press

Issiki M, Naka I, Kimura R, Furusawa T, Natsuhara K, Yamauchi T, Nakazawa M, Ishida T, Ohtsuka R, Ohashi J 2017 Mitochondrial DNA variations in Austronesian-speaking populations living in the New Georgia Islands, the Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Journal of Human Genetics. in press

Ikemi Mayu 2017 Challenges of externally funded project and life situation of the poorest: A case study of rural Burkina Faso. Study on Socio-Culture 20. in press

Doris Mchwampaka, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Satoyo Ono, Katsuhiko Ono 2017 Health and Agricultural Concern and Ecological Sanitation Acceptance in a Kenyan Rural Village. 環境衛生工学研究 31(3):42-45.

Min Li Chua, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Michiya Kodera, Shotaro Goto, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Shohagi Rani Saha, Akira Sakai 2017 Comparison in Fecal Exposure Assessment of Three Transmission Pathways in a Bangladeshi Urban Slum Community. 環境衛生工学研究 31(3):145-148.

Nikiema, B.C.W., Ito, R., Guizani Mokhtar and Funamizu, N. 2017 Estimation of water flux and solute movement during the concentration process of hydrolysed urine by forward osmosis.. Journal of Water and Environment Technology 15(5):163-173. (reviewed).

Ryusei Ito, Mei Tanie, Ken Ushijima, Dewi Nilawati, Neni Sintawardani,Naoyuki Funamizu 2017 Evaluation of acceptance of a composting toilet prototype for people in slum area in Indonesia, Desalination and Water Treatment. Desalination and Water Treatment. DOI:doi: 10.5004/dwt.2017.20880 (reviewed).

Min Li Chua, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Michiya Kodera, Shotaro Goto, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Shohagi Rani Saha, Akira Sakai 2017 Comparison in Decal Exposure Assessment of Three Transmission Pathways in a Bangladeshi Urban Slum Community . 環境衛生工学研究 31(3):145-148. (reviewed).

Mayu Ikemi 2017 Sanitation and Income Improvement by Local Community as Sustainable Participatory Development.. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science Vol.60(No. 012034).

Mokhtar Guizani, Takahisa Fujii, Nowaki Hijikata and Naoyuki Funamizu 2016,11 Salt removal from soil during rainy season of semi-arid climate following an assumed salt accumulation from previous cultivations fertilized with urine. Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s41207-016-0010-9

Sossou SK, Sou/Dakoure M, Hijikata N, Maiga AM, Funamizu N 2016 Inactivation kinetics of indicator microorganisms during urea treatment for sanitizing compost from composting toilet. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 76(13):3838-3850. DOI:10.2166/washdev.2016.090 (reviewed).

Kabore S, Ito R, Funamizu N 2016 Reaction kinetics for the production of methylene urea from synthetic human urine. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 4(2):2510-2517. DOI:10.1016/j.jece.2016.04.028 (reviewed).

Kabore S, Ito R, Funamizu N 2016 Effect of Formaldehyde/Urea ratio on production rate of Methylene Urea from Human urine. Journal of Water and Environment Technology 14(2):47-56. DOI:10.2965/jwet.15-016 (reviewed).

Sossou SK, Sou/Dakoure M, Hijikata N, Maiga AM, Funamizu N 2016 Inactivation kinetics of indicator microorganisms during solar heat treatment for sanitizing compost from composting toilet. Journal of Water and Environment Technology 14(2):37-46. DOI:10.2965/jwet.14-066 (reviewed).

Bradai, M , Han, J, El Omri, A,Funamizu N, Sayadi, S ,Isoda, H 2016 Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on human intestinal Caco-2 cells at non cytotoxic concentrations. Cytotechnology 68(4):1267-1275. DOI:10.1007/s10616-015-9887-4 (reviewed).

Hijikata N, Tezuka R, Kazama S, Otaki M, Ushijima K, Ito R, Okabe S, Sano D, Funamizu N 2016 Bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost using calcium lime and ash. Journal of Environmental Management 181:721-727. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.08.026 (reviewed).

Oishi W, Sano D,Decrey L, Kadoya S, Kohn T, Funamizu N 2017,04 Identification of the inactivating factors and mechanisms exerted on MS2 coliphage in concentrated synthetic urine. Science of the total environemnt 598:213-219. (reviewed).  doi:org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.088

Funamizu N, Harada T, Watabe Y, Wachi E, Yoshida T 2016,09 Activity report of the Ishikari River basin area water and sanitation system Part 3. Suido Koron(9):46-51. (in Japanese)

Teyogi K, Shimizu T 2016 The mystery surrounding food and landscape of Senegal. Monthly geography 61:82-88. (in Japanese)

Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Masataka Kuroda, Ryo Sakaguchi, Nugyen Pham Hong Lien, Huynh Trung Hai 2016 Probabilistic microbial exposure analysis in an excreta-using community of rural Hanoi. Proceedings of International Conference Environmental Engineering and management for Sustainable Development:111-116.

Shimizu T, Nakao S, Ito M, Kobayashi H, Kamei T 2016 House of Savannah: Burkina Faso, Cassena's tradition and transformation. Journal of African Studies 90:97-107. (in Japanese)

Ushijima K., Funamizu N, Nabeshima T, Hijikata N, Ito R, Sou M, Maiga AM, Sintawardani N 2015 The Postmodern Sanitation - Agro-sanitation Business Model as a New Policy -. Water Policy 17(2):283-298. DOI:10.2166/wp.2014.093 (reviewed).

Charchalac Ochoa SI, Ushijima K, Hijikata N, Funamizu N 2015 Treatment of domestic greywater by geotextile filter and intermittent sand filtration bioreactor.. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination 5(1):39-49. DOI:10.2166/wrd.2014.042 (reviewed).

Hijikata N, Yamauchi N, Ishiguro M, Ushijima K, Funamizu N 2015 Suitability of biochar as a matrix for improving the performance of composting toilets. Waste Management & Research 33(4):313-321. DOI:10.1177/0734242X15572179 (reviewed).

Ushijima K. Hijikata N. Tanaka E. Ito R. Suzuki Y. Funamizu N 2015 Grey Water Treatment by Slanted Soil System with Unsorted Soil Media. Environmental Technology 36(20):2603-2609. DOI:10.1080/09593330.2015.1040078 (reviewed).

Darimani HS, Ito R, Sossou SK, Funamizu N, Maiga AH 2015 Effect of Post-treatment Conditions on the Inactivation Rate of Pathogenic Bacteria after the Composting Process. Compost Science & Utilization 23:164-173. DOI:10.1080/1065657X.2015.1015082 (reviewed).

Fukahori S, Fujiwara T, Ito R, Funamizu N 2015 Sulfonamide antibiotic removal and nitrogen recovery synthesis process from synthetic urine by the combination of rotating advanced oxidation contactor and methylene urea. Water Science and Technology 72(2):238-244. DOI:10.2166/wst.2015.182 (reviewed).

Sangare D, Sou/Dakourea M, Hijikata N, Lahmar R, Yacouba H, Coulibaly L, Funamizu N 2015 Toilet compost and human urine used in agriculture: fertilizer value assessment and effect on cultivated soil properties. Environmental Technology 36(10):1291-1298. DOI:10.1080/09593330.2014.984774 (reviewed).

Mokhtar Guizani, Kento Yajima, Toshikazu Kawaguchi, Ryusei Ito, and Naoyuki Funamizu Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles as a candidate draw solution for Forward osmosis process.. Journal of Water and Environment Technology in press. (reviewed). in press

Ito R, Funamizu N 2016 Phosphate Recovery from synthetic Urine with shell of Mizuhopecten Yessoensis. Journal of Water and Environment Technology 14(6):437-446. (reviewed).

Ito R, Fujioka M, Funamizu N 2016 Phosphorous recovery from urine based wastewater of cowshed. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. G (Environmental Research), 72. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Giang, P.H., Harada, H., Fujii, S., Lien, N.H.P., Hai, H.T., Anh, P.N 2016 Transition of human and livestock waste management in rural Hanoi: a material flow analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus during 1980-2010. Journal of Material Cycle and Waste Management:1-13. (reviewed).

Funamizu N 2016 Compost toilet for developing countries. Research on plumbing equipment 33(3):17-20. (in Japanese)

Miguel Ángel López Zavala, Blanca Nelly Flores Arriaga, Naoyuki Funamizu 2016 Simultaneous Determination of Four Estrogens in Compost Based on Ultrasonic Solvent Extraction, Solid-Phase Extraction Clean-Up and Analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 7:434-445. (reviewed).

Sossou SK, Gbedenudk, Konate Y, Sawadogo B, Ameyapih Y, Maiga AH, Funamizu N 2016 Damage mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water during chlorine and solar disinfection. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 10(2):519-532. (reviewed).

Shimizu T 2016 NGO which reproduces "Street Children" - the case of NGO-Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou. Cultural Anthropology 81(2):312-321. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Nakao S. 2016 The recognition of Islam and its application in French Colonial administration: about the hotel attack in French West Africa at the period of Vichy, its criminal investigation and reaction. Journal of African Studies(90):1-14. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Fuzawa, M., Ku K.-M., Palma-Salgado, S., Nagasaka, K., Feng, H., Juvik, J., Sano, D., Shisler, J., Nguyen, T 2016 Effect of leaf surface chemical properties on the efficacy of sanitizer for rotavirus inactivation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82(20):6214-6222. (reviewed).

Ushijima K, Funamizu N, Hijikata N, Ito R, Sintawardani N, Sou M and Maïga AH 2015 Agricultural Demand Driven Design of Resource Oriented Sanitation System – Cases of Burkina Faso and Indonesia,. Caledonian Journal of Engineering 11(1):21-25. (reviewed).

Ushijima K, Deguchi Y, Sintawardani N, Umi H and Funamizu N 2015 Marketability Evaluation of Human Excreta in Resource Oriented Sanitation System - Case of Urban Slum and Surrounded Farmland in Indonesia -. J. Japan Society of Water Policy and Integrated River Basin Management 3(1):15-22. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Darimani HS, Ito R, Maiga Y, Sou M, Funamizu N, Maiga AH 2015 Effect of Post-treatment Conditions on the Inactivation of Helminth eggs (Ascaris suum)after the Composting Process. Environmental Technology. DOI:10.1080/09593330.2015.1092587 (reviewed).

Darimani HS, Ito R, Sou/Dakoure M, Funamizu N, Yacouba H, Maiga AH 2015 Design of Post-Treatment Unit for Compost from a Composting Toilet with Microbial Risk Assessment. Journal of Residual Science and Technology 12(2):43-51. (reviewed).

Sawadogo B, Sangare D, Sou M, Hijikata N, Kabore YA, Maiga AH, Funamizu N 2015 Anaerobic effluent under the Sahelian climate. Caledonian Journal of Engineering 11(1):26-31. (reviewed).

Tsutsui, Fujiwara, Inoue, Matsukawa, Ito, Funamizu 2015 Relationship between respiratory quotient, nitrification, and nitrous oxide emissions in a forced aerated composting process. Waste Management 42:10-16. (reviewed).

【Review Articles】

Toshihiro Ito, Masaaki Kitajima, Tsuyoshi Kato, Satoshi Ishii, Takahiro Segawa, Satoshi Okabe, Daisuke Sano 2017,11 Target virus log10 reduction values determined for two reclaimed wastewater irrigation scenarios in Japan based on tolerable annual disease burden. Water Research 125:438-448. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.08.057 (reviewed).

Mohan Amarasiri, Masaaki Kitajima, Thanh Huong Nguyen, Satoshi Okabe and Daisuke Sano 2017,09 Bacteriophage removal efficiency as a validation and operational monitoring tool for virus reduction in wastewater reclamation: Review.. Water Research 121:258-269. DOI:doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.05.035. (reviewed).

Research Presentations

【Oral Presentation】

Taro Yamauchi Designing Sanitation Systems as Eco-Community-Value System. , 2019.03.21-2019.03.22, University of Oxford, UK.

Sikopo Nyambe Dziko Langa: Action Research study in peri-urban Lusaka, Zambia. Seminar on JAAS Hokkaido Branch, 2019.02.08, Hokkaido University, Sapporo.

Hermes Dinala, Atupelye Komba, Sikopo Nyambe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Urban South, East Africa. Seminar on JAAS Hokkaido Branch, 2019.02.08, Hokkaido University, Sapporo.

Ikuo Kato, Mohan Amarasiri, Daisuke Sano Model development of natural decay of waterborne viruses in water environments. Tohoku University Environmental Studies Seminar 2018 in Institut Teknologi Bandung, 2018.12.19, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia.

Ken Ushijima Value flow analysis approach for local water management system. 3rd International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2018, 2018.11.01-2018.11.02, Tangerang, Indonesia.

Mayu Ikemi The Effect of Government Projects on Water Supply Improvement and Local Residents’Efforts : A Case Study of Rural Senegal. 3rd International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2018, 2018.11.01-2018.11.02, Tangerang, Indonesia.

Taro Yamauchi Influence of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) on child health in an urban slum of Indonesia. 3rd International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2018, 2018.11.01-2018.11.02, Tangerang, Indonesia.

Khac-Uan Do, Hidenori Harada, Izuru Saizen Application of sludge disintegration to improve biogas production from sludge wasted from wastewater treatment plants in Vietnam. The 3rd International Symposium on Conservation and Management of Tropical Lakes, 2018.09.27-2018.09.28, Phnom Penh.

Ken Ushijima, Naoyuki Funamizu, Taro Yamauchi Water and Sanitation System For A Shrinking Society. World Social Science Forum 2018, 2018.09.25-2018.09.28, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Syun-suke Kadoya, Syun-ichi Urayama, Takuro Nunoura, Masaaki Kitajima, Satoshi Okabe, Toyoko Nakagomi, Osamu Nakagomi, Daisuke Sano Neutral evolution rate of rhesus rotavirus. 13th International dsRNA Virus Symposium, 2018.09.24-2018.09.28, Houffalize, Belgium.

Daisuke Sano Wastewater reclamation/reuse and antimicrobial resistance. Workshop for the Global Water Pathogen Project and WHO: The Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance and Water Environment, IWA World Water Congress & Exhibition 2018, 2018.09.16-2018.09.20, Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo, Japan.

Mohan Amarasiri, Masaaki Kitajima, Satoshi Okabe, Daisuke Sano Contribution of specific interactions between human enteric viruses and wastewater solids on virus removal. Technical Session for Water Reclamation for Non-potable Reuse, IWA World Water Congress & Exhibition 2018, 2018.09.16-2018.09.20, Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo, Japan.

Tim Julian, Hasitha S. K. Vithanage, Min Li Chua, Masataka Kuroda, Ana K. Pitol, Pham Hong Lien Nguyen, Robert Canales, Shigeo Fujii, Harada Hidenori High time-resolution simulation of E. coli on Vietnamese farmers' hands based on videography and environmental microbial sampling. Annual congress of the Swiss Society for Microbiology 2018, 2018.08.28, Lausanne.

Nyambe S, Hayashi K, Zulu J, Yamauchi T The image of peri-urban sanitation and health through the eyes of the young: Understanding community sanitation and health in Lusaka, Zambia. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Guizani Mokhtar, Hassan Hamidah, Nikiema Benedicte Carolle, Ito Ryusei, Funamizu Naoyuki Ammonia Diffusion through a semipermeable membrane during Forward osmosis process. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Haruna Onodera, Ryusei Ito, Naoyuki Funamizu, Koichi Yamaki, Takayoshi Konishi Inactivation of SAP in disposable diapers by acid solutions. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Takato Matsuda, Ryusei Ito, Guizani Mokhtar, Naoyuki Funamizu Foulant analysis of FO membrane used for urine concentration. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Ken Ushijima, Dewi Nilawati, Diana Rahayuning Wulan, Jovita Tri Astuti, Neni Sintawardani, Mayu Ikemi, Naoyuki Funamizu Comprehensive approach for improvement of living environment in urban slum of Indonesia – Analysis on urban metabolism and its harmonization with people’s value system. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Hidenori Harada, Doris A. Mchwampaka, Shigeo Fujii Long-term acceptability of urinediversion toilets in rural Malawi. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Ryusei Ito, Minami Fujioka, Naoyuki Funamizu Production of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers from liquid waste of cattle barns. Dry Toilet Conference 2018, 2018.08.22-2018.08.24, Hiedanranta, Tampere, Finland.

Koji HAYASHI, Seiji NAKAO and Taro YAMAUCHI Defecation without toilets - Toward the study of sanitation activities in the hunter-gatherers. The Twelfth International Conference on Hunting and Gathering Societies (CHAGS 12), 2018.07.23-2018.07.27, The School of Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

Taro Yamauchi Co-Creating the Sanitation Value Chain: Designing Sanitation Systems as Eco-Community-Value Systems.. International Conference Society for Human Ecology, 2018.07.07-2018.07.10, Lisbon, Portgal.

Takao SHIMIZU The Process for Co-Created Technology for Combat Desertification: Collaboration of African Farmers and Japanese Scientists. 30th annual Meeting, Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics, 2018.06.22-2018.06.24, Doshisha University, Kyoto.

Taro Yamauchi Co-creating the Sanitation Value Chain in Lusaka, Zambia by Designing Sanitation Systems as Eco-Community-Value Systems. Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition (ZAWAFE) 2018, 2018.06.11-2018.06.13, Government Complex, Lusaka, Zambia.

Nyambe S, Hayashi K, Zulu J, Yamauchi T Dziko Langa Kilo! A health living, I see you!: Incorporating children and youth in peri-urban sanitation and health in Lusaka. Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition (ZAWAFE) 2018, 2018.06.11-2018.06.13, Government Complex, Lusaka, Zambia.

Sikopo Nyambe, Koji Hayashi, Joseph Zulu,Taro Yamauchi Dziko Langa Kilo! A health living, I see you!: Incorporating children and youth in peri-urban sanitation and health in Lusaka.. Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition (ZAWAFE) 2018, 2018.06.11-2018.06.13, Government Complex, Lusaka, Zambia.

Yamauchi T Trends in childhood obesity and decreased physical fitness among Japanese children: intergenerational changes and mitigative-preventive measures. The 14th International Congress of Auxology, Centro de Docencia y Capacitacion, 2017.11.01-2017.11.03, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Hayashi K, Nakao S and Yamauchi T Sanitation activities among the Baka hunter-gatherers in Cameroon: From Individual Observations at the Forest Camp and the Settlement. International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2017, 2017.10.23-2017.10.24, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Otsuka Y, Agestika L, Harada H, Widyarani, Sintawardani N, Yamauchi T Assessing child health, nutritional status and hand hygiene in an urban slum of West Java, Indonesia. International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2017, 2017.10.23-2017.10.24, Jakarta, Indonesia.

(29) Mayu Ikemi, Ken Ushijima, Yumiko Otsuka, Taro Yamauchi, Dewi Nilawati, Diana Rahayuning Wulan and Neni Sintawardani Economic Situation of Value Chain Actors in Urban Slums of Bandung: A Case of Kiaracondong. International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2017, 2017.10.23-2017.10.24, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Hayashi Koji,Nakao Seiji, Yamauchi Taro Sanitation activities among the baka hunter-gatherers in Cameroon: from individual observations at the forest camp. The 2nd International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains, 2017.10.23-2017.10.24, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Hidenori Harada, Chua Min Li, Yuji Fujimori, Shigeo Fujii, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Akira Sakai Fecal exposure analysis and E. coli pathotyping: a case study of a Bangladeshi slum. International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2017, 2017.10.23-2017.10.24, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Nakao Seiji Norms and preferences on the sanitation activities: Literature review of public attitude for wastewater reuse. Kick – Off Meeting: Sanitation and Value Chains: A Collaboration Research between LPTB – LIPI and RIHN Japan, 2017.10.22, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Nabeshima Takako Comparative study of peasants’ organization between Indonesia and African countries: learning from Clifford Geertz’s theory, Agriculture Involution. Kick-off meeting of Sanitation and Value Chains, 2017.10.22, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Yamauchi T Children living in the era of obesity and low physical fitness: intergenerational changes in Japanese children. Special Lecture at School of Public Health, China Medical University, 2017.09.25, Shenyang, China.

Hayashi K Sanitation activities among the Baka hunter-gatherers in Cameroon. International Workshop on Thinking across Boundaries: The Fluidity of Asia, Africa and Beyond, 2017.09.19, London, Great Britain.

Hao M, Han W, Yamauchi T Short - and Long-Term Beneficial Effects of Exercise Intervention and Nutrition Education among Overweight School Children in Northeast China. 2017 Symposium of the Society for the Study of Human Biology & International Association of Physiological Anthropology, 2017.09.12-2017.09.15, Loughborough, UK.

Min Li Chua, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Akira Sakai, Michiya Kodera, Shotaro Goto, Shohagi Rani Saha Comparing fecal exposure pathways in living environmetn of a slum in Khulna city, Bangladesh. 7th IWA-ASPIRE Conference 2017, 2017.09.11-2017.09.14, Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre, Malaysia.

Yamauchi T, Nyambe S, Agestika L, Otsuka Y Sanitation Innovation Created and Promoted by Children and Local Communities. Indonesia & Philippine & Japan Joint International Seminar on Water and Sanitation, 2017.09.08, RIHN, Kyoto.

Agestika L, Yamauchi T Challenge in Implementing Nutrition Education and Sanitation Programs in Elementary School. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Yabugishi S, Hao M, Wang P, Otsuka Y, Yamauchi T Factors Contributing to Anxiety Status in Femail Nursing Students. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Nyambe S, Hayashi K, Zulu J, Yamauchi T: Preliminary Findings of a Basic Sanitation and Health Assessment in Peri-Urban Lusaka, Zambia.. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Miki T, Yamauchi T Using Questionnaire to Evaluate Biopsychological Factors of Low Back Pain in Physical Therapy. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Wang P, Hao M, Han W, Yamauchi T Physical Growth and Development and Affecting Factors of Children in Suburban Area of Northeastern China. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Hao M, Han W, Yamauchi T Effect of Short and Long-term Nutrition Education and Exercise Intervention among Overweight Primary School Children in Northeast china. he third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Hasegawa J, Ito MY, Yamauchi T Development of a screening to predict malnutrition among children under two years old in Zambia. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Otsuka Y, Ushijima K, Ikemi M, Neni S, Yamauchi T Mapping of Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Child Health in Urban Slums of Indonesia. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Peipei Wang, Ming Hao, Wei Han, Taro Yamauchi Physical Growth and Development and Affecting Factors of Children in Suburban Area of Northeastern China. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Nyambe S, Hayashi K, Zulu J, Yamauchi T Preliminary Findings of a Basic Sanitation and Health Assessment in Peri-Urban Lusaka, Zambia.. The third FHS International Conference, 2017.07.07, Sapporo.

Yamauchi T Visualization of values of local residents and emergence of value chains. SIP Kick-off meeting, 2016.12.16, Sapporo. (in Japanese)

Shimizu T, Nakao S, Ito M, Kobayashi H BARTHOUX, Samuel Past and Present in Japanese African Studies: A case of chronical transformation of Kassena's mud houses and families. Séminaire CRAA-ETRE, 2016.12.08, Centre Inde Salle.

Hayashi K Landscape of the African rainforest for the Baka hunter-gatherers in the eastern Cameroon. France- Japan Joint Symposium “Landscape in the Anthropocene” Fondation France-Japon de l'EHESS, 2016.12.07, Paris.

Hayashi K. Indigenous knowledge and conflict over elephant hunting among the Baka hunter-gatherers in Cameroon. France- Japan Joint Symposium “Landscape in the Anthropocene” Fondation France-Japon de l'EHESS, 2016.12.07, Paris.

Hayashi K, Ishii R, Nakamura Y, Terashima H, Nishiaki Y. Technical transmission of hunting tool manufacture: A case of spear hunting among modern hunter-gatherers in southeast Cameroon.. France- Japan Joint Symposium “Landscape in the Anthropocene” Fondation France-Japon de l'EHESS, 2016.12.07, Paris.

Yamauchi T, Hayashi K, Kawamura K, Sato H Nutritional Adaptation of Modern Hunter-gatherers in African Rainforests. Landscapes in the anthropocene, France-Japan joint symposium, EHESS, 2016.12.05-2016.12.08, Paris.

Nyambe S, Hayashi K, Zulu J, Yamauchi T Sanitation, health and children and youth civic participation in peri - urban Lusaka, Zambia: Assessing social values and quality of life. 31st Japan International Health Society, 2016.12.03-2016.12.04, Kurume.

Otsuka Y, Ushijima K, Ikemi M, Sintawardani N, Yamauchi T The relationship between child health, nutritional status and mother’s awareness on hygiene in urban Indonesia. The 31st Japan Association for International Health Congress, 2016.12.03-2016.12.04, Kurume. (in Japanese)

Shimizu T Management of Islamic Educational Institutions in West Africa: Changes in the Environment and New Developments. Nanzan University Anthropological Research Institute Open Symposium, December 2016, Nagoya. (in Japanese)

Ikemi, M. Local social development practiced through international cooperation for Africa: a case of Hokkaido province in Japan. The 19th academic conference of Association for the Socio-Culture, December 2016, Nihon Fukushi University. (in Japanese)

Yamauchi T Children living in the era of obesity and low physical fitness. The 81th Conference of Japanese Society for Health and Human Ecology, 2016.11.26-2016.11.27, Tokyo. (in Japanese)

H Aizaki, T Nakatani, K Sato Developing R Packages for Stated Preference Methods. the 2016 Annual R Users’ Meeting, 2016.11.26, Tachikawa. (in Japanese)

Sakai A. Goto S, Qazi Azad-uz-zaman, Harada H Residents' Consciousness and Behavior Change by Well-Known Outcome of Diarrheal Risk Analysis Results in City Slum of Bangladesh. The 27th annual meeting of Society of International Development, 2016.11.26. (in Japanese)

Hidenori Harada, Yuji Fujimori, Ryota Gomi, Md. Nazuml Ahsan, Shigeo Fujii, Akira Sakai, Tomonari Matsuda Pathotyping of Escherichia coli isolated from community toilet excreta and stored drinking water in a slum in Bangladesh. International Symposium on Global Environmental Studies Education and Research in Asia, 2016.11.14, Salaya.

Ikemi, M. Sanitation and income improvement by local community as sustainable participatory development. International symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2016, 2016.10.04, Banten, Indonesia.

Yamauchi T, Ushijima K, Sintawardani N, Funamizu N Future Sanitation Based on the Insight and Participation of Children: A Collaboration between Schoolchildren in Indonesia and Japan. The 1st International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chain 2016, 2016.10.03-2016.10.05, BSD, Indonesia.

Nabeshima T Decision Making of Green Policy in African State and Rural Community. Green VC 2016, 2016.10.03-2016.10.05, BSD, Indonesia.

Taku Fujiwara Cascading Material-cycle system simultaneously realizing water pollution control and value-added production in agricultural areas. 1st International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2016, 2016.10.03-2016.10.05, Banten, Indonesia.

K Ushijima, H Kobayashi, D Nilawati, J T Astuti, N Sitawardani, N Funamizu Visualization of Urban Metabolism for Designing Value Chain Improving Living Conditions in Urban Slum of Bandung City. 1st International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2016 , 2016.10.03-2016.10.05, Banten, Indonesia.

Shimizu T: Sharing desertification issues with people living in a heterogeneous half-dried area West Africa. Chiba University CEREs and RIHN Joint workshop on Interdisciplinary Research on the Field of Environmental Problems, October 2016, Kyoto. (in Japanese)

R. Ito, M. Tanie, K. Ushijima, D. Nilawati, J. Triastuti, N. Sintawardani N. Funamizu Evaluation of a composting toilet prototype for people in slum area in Indonesia. he 13th IWA Specialized Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems (SWWS) & the 5th IWA Specialized Conference on Resources-Oriented Sanitation (ROS), 2016.09.14-2016.09.16, Athene, Greece.

B.C.W. Nikiema, R. Ito, G. Mokhtar, N. Funamizu Hydrolysed urine concentration by forward osmosis: numerical modelling of water flux and nutrient concentration. the 13th IWA Specialized Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems (SWWS) & the 5th IWA Specialized Conference on Resources-Oriented Sanitation (ROS), 2016.09.14-2016.09.16, Athene, Greece.

T. Maeda, B. Nikiema, C. Wind-Yam, G. Mokhtar, R. Ito, N. Funamizu Urine concentration by forward osmosis process. the 13th IWA Specialized Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems (SWWS) & the 5th IWA Specialized Conference on Resources-Oriented Sanitation (ROS), 2016.09.14-2016.09.16, Athene, Greece.

H Aizaki, T Nakatani, K Sato Developing a Research and Educational Platform for Stated Preference Methods using R. the 44th annual meeting of the Behaviormetric Society of Japan, 2016.08.30-2016.09.02, Sapporo. (in Japanese)

Ushijima K Discussion on interface design of composting toilet for people in Burkina Faso, west Africa. Annual Symposium of Architectural Institute of Japan, 2016.08.24-2016.08.26, Fukuoka. (in Japanese)

Yamauchi T Children living in the era of obesity and low physical fitness: intergenerational changes in Japanese children. Joint conference by the Japan Society for Physiological Anthropology and the Human Biology Association, MHAPR 201, 2016.08.19-2016.08.20, Hilo, Hawaii.

Ikemi, M The relationship between Hokkaido and Africa built through their economic and educational efforts . Hokkaido Economic Association 2016, July 2016, Sapporo. (in Japanese)

Nyambe S, Serpell R, Yamauchi T Equity in Health and Health Promotion: An adolescent Deaf-hearing substance abuse peer education project in Lusaka, Zambia. International Society of Environmental Epidemiology and International Society of Exposure Science- Asia Chapter Conference 2016, 2016.06.26-2016.06.29, Sapporo.

R Ito, S. Kaneko, N Funamizu Recovery of phosphate from human urine by shell particles of Mizuhopecten yessoensis. the 13th IWA Leading Edge Conference on water and wastewater technologies, 2016.06.13-2016.06.16, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain.

B.C.W. Nikiema, R. Ito, G. Mokhtar, N. Funamizu Prediction of water recovery during urine concentration by Forward Osmosis. the 13th IWA Leading Edge Conference on water and wastewater technologies, 2016.06.13-2016.06.16.

Guizani M, Funamizu N Use of Electro-adsorptive membranes to remove LPS endotoxin from reclaimed wastewater. 13th IWA leading edge conference on water and wastewater technologies, 2016.06.13-2016.06.16, Jerez de la Frontera.

Kabore Wendkouni John Steve, Ito R, Funamizu N Reaction Kinetics for the Production of Methylene-Urea from Human Urine. 13th IWA leading edge conference on water and wastewater technologies, 2016.06.13-2016.06.16, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain.

Nabeshima T Dual Decision Making between State Administration and Rural Community: Political History of Conflict and Integration over Water and Sanitation. 53th Conference of Japan Association for African Studies., 2016.06.04. (in Japanese)

Nakao S Unequal Transformation of Large Compound House (songo): Chronological Change of the Chief’s House at Langouelou. The 53rd Annual Meeting of the Japan Association for African Studies, 2016.06.04, Fujisawa. (in Japanese)

Shimizu T Local Knowledge of Water Measures in Semi-Arid Region and Proper Technology: Cases from West Africa. Global Environmental Studies • JSPS Nairobi Research Contact Center "And the Asia-Africa collaboration to deal with desertification and regional development approach", June 2016, Kenya, Nairobi. (in Japanese)

Shimizu T Society's living in Burkina Faso, Cassena tradition and transformation. The 51st Academic Society of Japan African Studies, June 2016, Fujisawa. (in Japanese)

Tanaka U, Shimizu T Idea box to improve desertification and lifestyle improvement in West African semi arid region. System Agriculture Society, June 2016, Fukuoka. (in Japanese)

Shimizu T Surprise, Learning and Encouraging: From the Relationship between Researchers and Survey Targets in Desertification Studies in the Sahel Region. Earth and Planetary Science Association, May 2016, Makuhari. (in Japanese)

Shimizu T Islamic Education System - From the Case of Burkina Faso. The 17th Africa Educational Research Forum, April 2016, Nagoya. (in Japanese)

Oishi, W, Decrey L, Tezuka R, Sano D, Kohn T, Funamizu N Inactivation and damage to bacteriophage MS2 by ammonia in human excreta. 11th IWA Specialist Group Conference in Wastewater Pond Technologies, 2016.03.21-2016.03.23, Leeds University Business School, UK.

Ushijima K, Kobayashi H, Nilawati D, Putri A M H, Suminar M, Astuti J T, Sintawardani N, Funamizu N Local Value-Chain-Based Design of Sanitation System for Urban Slum in Bandung, Indonesia. Workshop on Roles of Value Chains of Biomass and Quality of Life in Sustainable Sanitation, 2016.03.21, Bandung, Indonesia.

Guizani M, Fujii T, Funamizu N Soil salinity control following urine use as a fertilizer in semi-arid land: case of Burkina Faso. Tunisian Japanese symposium on society, science and Technology TJASSST, 2016.02.23-2016.02.25, Tsukuba, Japan.

Guizani M, Kato H, Funamizu N Removal of LPS Endotoxin from reclaimed wastewater through adsorption using soil. 5th Maghreb conference on desalination and water treatment, 2015.12.21-2015.12.24, Hammamet, Tunisia.

Guizani M, Kato H, Funamizu N Long-term operation (2 years) of soil aquifer treatment system for LPS endotoxin removal. The 2015 International Workshop on Occurrence and Control of Tastes, Odours, and Algal Toxins in Waters, 2015.10.29-2015.11.01, Xiamen, China.

Kaneko S. Ito R. Funamizu N Phosphorous recovery from source-separated urine by using fixed bed column reactor with scallop shell; effect of HRT on recovery ration. 5th International Dry Toilet Conference, 2015.08.19-2015.08.22, Tampere, Finland.

Kabore S. Ito R. Funamizu N Effect of formaldehyde / urea ratio on thermal properties of methylene urea from human urine. 5th International Dry Toilet Conference, 2015.08.19-2015.08.22, Tampere, Finland.

Ito R. Funamizu N Design of composting toilet for middle and low income countries –Survey in Indonesia and Zambia-. 5th International Dry Toilet Conference, 2015.08.19-2015.08.22, Tampere, Finland.

【Poster Presentation】

Min Li Chua, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Md. Nazmul Ahsan, Akira Sakai, Michiya Kodera, Shotaro Goto, Shohagi Rani Saha Comparison of fecal exposure assessment in living environment between boy, girl and male adult in a slum in Khulna city, Bangladesh. IWA World Water Congress & Exhibition, 2018.09.20, Tokyo.

Hakoyama Fumiko Community led total sanitation - farmers' reactions in the central-east region in Burkina Faso. Kick – Off Meeting : Sanitation and Value Chains, A Collaboration Research between LPTB – LIPI and RIHN Japan, 2017.10.22, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Ushijima Ken Community-based water management system in Japan. Kick – Off Meeting : Sanitation and Value Chains, A Collaboration Research between LPTB – LIPI and RIHN Japan, 2017.10.22, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Ushijima K, Ishii A, Yamauchi T, Funamizu N, Fujiwara T, Fukui J, Matsumura H Design of water infrastructure for the future, Lessons and learned from depopulating area in Hokkaido, Japan. 14th IWA specialist conference on watershed and river basin management, 2017.10.09-2017.10.10, Skukuza camp, Kruger National Park, South Africa.

Ikemi Mayu Water infrastructure management and rural development in Africa. The 3rd Academic Workshop 2017, Center for Regional Economic and Business Networks, Faculty of Economics and Business, Hokkaido University, 2017.07.19, Sapporo.

Nyambe S, Hayashi K, Zulu J, Yamauchi T A Glimpse into Peri-Urban Lusaka: Findings of a 2016 preliminary assessment on the sanitation of peri-urban Lusaka, Zambia. Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition (ZAWAFE) 2017, 2017.06.12-2017.06.13, Lusaka, Zambia.

Yamauchi T, Funamizu N: The Sanitation Value Chain: Designing Sanitation Systems as Eco-Community-Value Systems. Zambia Water Forum and Exhibition (ZAWAFE) 2017, 2017.06.12-2017.06.13, Lusaka, Zambia.

Nyambe S., Zulu J., Hayashi K., Yamauchi T. Gauging the sanitation and health challenge for children and youth in the urban slums of Lusaka, Zambia. 54th Annual Conference for Japan Association of African Studies, 2017.05.20-2017.05.21, Shinshu University, Nagano.

【Invited Lecture / Honorary Lecture / Panelist】

Daisuke Sano Water Infrastructure & Virus Evolution. Seminar on Water Infrastructure & Virus Evolution, 2019.02.25, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore.

Daisuke Sano Inactivation and removal of viruses: is this a matter of virus evolution?. 6th International Society for Food and Environmental Virology (ISFEV) Conference, 2018.10.07-2018.10.10, Arizona State University, Phoenix, USA.

Tetsuya Kusuda Choice Methodology of Optimum Solution for Efficient Water Use. The Special Seminar in Ege University, 2018.09.26, Izmir, Turkey.

Hidenori Harada Lessons learnt from long-term NSS and FSM experiences in Japan, Developments in Faecal Sludge Management and Non-sewered sanitation. IWA World Water Congress & Exhibition, 2018.09.18, Tokyo.

Funamizu N Sanitation Value Chain. 5th Annual research symposium, JSPS Alumni Association in Philippine, 2017.07.12, Manila.

Hidenori Harada Fecal exposure and pathogenic Escherichia coli in developing contexts: cases from a Vietnamese village and a Bangladeshi slum. Life Science Talk, Life Science Discipline, 2017.01.08, Khulna University.

Hidenori Harada Pathotyping of Escherichia coli isolated from community toilet excreta and stored drinking water in a slum in Bangladesh. Sandec Seminar, 2016.10.18, .

Funamizu N The sanitation value chain: Its concept and new research collaboration project. International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 2016, 2016.10.04, Banten, Indonesia.

Funamizu N Improving Sustainable water and sanitation systems in Sahel Region in Africa. Global expansion of smart water treatment system for sustainable water management, Locally-fitted, compact and decentralized water treatment and management technologies for Asia and Africa, 2015.12.05, Lalitpur, Nepal.

Funamizu N Agro-Sanitation: Its element technologies and business model – Our Experiences in Burkina Faso. 5th International Dry Toilet Conference, 2015.08.19-2015.08.22, Tampere, Finland.

Funamizu N Sustainable Water and Wastewater Technologies. World Water Day, 2015.03.15, Amman, Saudi Arabia.