Full Research

Project No.E-05-Init
Project NameCreation and Sustainable Governance of New Commons through Formation of Integrated Local Environmental Knowledge
Abbreviated TitleILEK project
Project LeaderSATO Tetsu
Research AxisEcosophy program/OICOS initiative
Key Wordsknowledge production, adaptive governance, residential research, multi-scale translator,meta-analysis


○Research Subject and Objectives

Research purpose:

Diverse ecosystem services should be managed as commons by collaboration of various stakeholders with different values and interests. This project focuses on the formation and circulation of a novel concept of local knowledge (Integrated Local Environmental Knowledge, ILEK) blending scientific and local daily-life knowledge productions. Diverse ecosystem services should be managed as commons by collaboration of various stakeholders with different values and interests on the basis of collective knowledge base such as ILEK. We examine mechanisms to facilitate production and circulation of ILEK to understand ILEK-based adaptive governance mechanisms for creation and sustainable governance of such commons. This initiative-based project conducts meta-analysis and integrates a wide range of results of RIHN projects and locally accumulated knowledge through daily practices of stakeholders in various areas of the world, to understand formation mechanisms of ILEK and drivers of adaptive governance using ILEK as a knowledge base. Residential researchers living in local communities play important roles to produce ILEK essential for adaptive governance. Bilateral translators of knowledge promote circulation of ILEK among different stakeholders. The project invites these important actors in local communities to provide viewpoints of ‘knowledge users’ to elucidate production and circulation mechanisms of ILEK for sustainable adaptive governance of local commons. Analyses of circulation of knowledge across multiple scales by cross-level knowledge translators clarify cross-scale governance for solutions of global environment problems  


Background of research:

Bottom-up approaches driven by divers stakeholders of local communities are essential to solve diverse global environment problems including worldwide degradation of ecosystem services which comes up to the surface on the basis of locally specific problem structures. Scientific as well as various types of local knowledge systems are required for the stakeholders to effectively manage ecosystem services. Studies have been accumulated to describe characteristics and structures of these knowledge bases, but design-oriented analyses of production and circulation mechanisms of knowledge to contribute to adaptive governance of ecosystem services have not been conducted in detail. This research focuses on the roles and functions of residential researchers and bilateral knowledge translators as important actors to provide knowledge basis for decision makings and actions by local stakeholders, and production and circulation of the Integrated Local Environmental Knowledge (ILEK), a transdisciplinary blend of science and various types of local knowledge, to understand mechanisms to facilitate collaboration of diverse actors to achieve adaptive governance of local communities to design sustainable future.


Contribution to solutions of global environmental problems:

This research contributes to bottom-up solutions of diverse global environmental problems by clarifying adaptive governance systems of ecosystem services supported by production and circulation of the Integrated Local Environmental Knowledge (ILEK). It aims to clarify theory and approaches of solutions of global environmental problems from the viewpoints of knowledge users (stakeholders) to establish adaptive governance systems of diverse ecosystem services by effectively integrating scientific knowledge and various types of local knowledge deeply embedded in everyday life. These results will contribute to formation of future visions of “science in/with society” and “society making full use of science” to support bottom-up solutions of diverse global environmental problems.

○Progress and Results in 2013

Research plan:

This project effectively inherits research outcomes of cognitive sciences from previous RIHN projects and integrates them with various cases of solution-oriented design science approaches from the world, which involve collaborative interactions between scientists and stakeholders to produce and utilize ILEK for creation and sustainable management of local commons. The project aims to elucidate pathways to promote science in/with society as well as to design social systems to make full use of science for solutions of diverse global environmental problems. The project analyzes scientific processes and outcomes of various cases of solution-oriented knowledge productions by residential and other types of researches including RIHN projects from the viewpoints of knowledge users, based on the hypothesis that the multiple roles and functions of important actors to produce and circulate ILEK support the adaptive governance of local communities for sustainable futures. We have established the preliminary conceptual models of ILEK-based adaptive governance based on the framing of local stakeholders and potential responses of stakeholder networks. In 2013, we aimed to elaborate these theoretical frames from meta-analysis of case studies and modeling to produce verifiable hypothesis for designing social experiments. We also conducted analysis of roles and functions of bilateral knowledge translators in the contexts of cross-scale collaboration mediated by knowledge flow across multiple scale levels from local to global. Through the research in FR1 and 2, we recognized that local communities are almost always interacting with external actors and institutions including global and regional ones. Cross-scale translators are an important component of stakeholder networks in each local community. This observation led us to incorporate cross-scale analysis into each case study from FR3, and to avoid analyzing cross-scale governance independently in a separate research group. Social experiments starting from FR3 in selected case study sites will be designed to incorporate cross-scale elements as much as possible. With the approaches integrating empirical studies, social experiments and theoretical analysis, the project aims to elucidate the way forwards toward solution of global environmental problems.


Research methods:

This initiative based project employs a unique transdisciplinary approach incorporating feedback loops connecting local empirical analyses and abstract theoretical levels. At the local empirical level, we identified 61 case study sites based on the presence of dedicated residential researchers or translators among project members closely collaborating with diverse stakeholders. Eleven candidate sites of social experiments have been extracted among the case study sites. Organizations and people working as a bilateral translator connecting multiple scales from global to local levels are reviewed for their knowledge production and translation, and 11 cases of such cross-level knowledge translators are identified for cross-scale analysis. Project member scientists conduct co-design, co-production and co-delivery processes of transdisciplinary research through daily interactions with local leaders, decision makers, cross-level translators and other stakeholders. These localized research results are integrated by meta-analysis using semi-structured interviews, text analysis, GIS-based cluster analysis and conceptual as well as mathematical modeling to identify important drivers of adaptive governance. The scientists and stakeholders at the local level researches will be involved at the meta-level theoretical analysis through the deliberative stakeholder workshops planned in FR3 and 4. The workshop is designed to critically review and discuss the outcomes of theoretical meta-analysis to give feedback from the local perspectives to both theoreticians and empirical researches. These feedback at the workshop will be immediately brought back to local level research and actions by participating scientists and stakeholders deeply embedded to each case study sites. This two-tier structure of transdisciplinary approaches will enable the scientists and stakeholders to achieve close collaboration and mutual learning throughout the entire research processes to produce acceptable and applicable way forwards for designing sustainable societies at local as well as global scale levels.


Research organizations:

The research organization has been composed of Case Study, Social Experiment, Multi-scale Analysis, Theory and Modeling, and Managing groups together with thematic task forces (TFs) cross-cutting the research groups. The Case Study group with three working teams (East Asia: EU & North America: Developing Countries) conducts field research of diverse knowledge systems produced by RIHN projects and other researches in different localities of the world. We will design a series of social experiments in the case study sites, focusing on ILEK-based adaptive governance mechanisms to clarify drivers of adaptive societal changes. Case Study group will be re-organized into Social Experiment group at the start of social experiments in FR3. We also make a quest of mechanisms to facilitate scale-scale actions for global environment problems, by analyzing roles of bilateral translators across global, regional and local scales. Multi-scale Analysis group consisted of Top Down and Bottom Up teams. The group worked together with the Case Study group to elucidate dynamic translation and circulation of knowledge across different scale levels. Theory and Modeling group works together with other groups to conduct meta-analysis of the case studies to establish and elaborate parameters for modeling. The results are fed back to other groups to refine research strategies. In order to facilitate interactions among diverse project members with different academic background, the cross-cutting Task Forces (TFs) are organized at different levels of analyses, including Ethics of Design-oriented Science, ILEK Simulator, Environmental Governance, Transdisciplinarity, Residential Research, Sato-umi Fisheries Resource Management, Biosphare Reserves, and Resource Management Certification TFs. The Managing group coordinate diverse research activities of these groups and TFs, develop and improve basic concepts and strategies, and integrate research results for design of sustainable societies. General understanding of adaptive governance mechanisms of commons is expected to be achieved with this integrative research design.


Research outcomes of the year 2012:


a) ILEK Triangle model

While collaborative research and actions were continued in each case study sites, preliminary analysis were conducted regarding knowledge production, circulation and utilization for local decision making and actions in 11 cases of RIHN research project in FR1 to construct a conceptual model of ILEK-based local adaptive governance for meta-analysis and integration of case studies and cross-scale analysis. The model, named “ILEK Triangle”, is composed of interactive system of three important elements of ILEK-based adaptive governance (knowledge production, decision making and action at individual or small group level, and adaptive societal change), driven by knowledge producers, knowledge users and translators. In this ILEK Triangle, ILEK productions were hypothesized to lead to dynamic changes of social systems toward sustainability through two different pathways: first, through changes of individual decision makings and actions resulting in adaptive changes of social systems, and second, through direct effects upon formal and informal institutions and collective knowledge systems in the community. In order to identify important drivers to mobilize this system, detailed analyses of interview records of RIHN project leaders were conducted. A set of hypothetical drivers were identified by these analyses, which were classified into four categories (below).  


1. create and visualize values

Produced knowledge creates or visualizes new shareable values in local communities to mobilize collaborative actions.

2. collaboration with diverse actors (local and cross-scale)

Knowledge is produced and circulated to open new potential of collaboration among stakeholders in and outside the communities, including stakeholders at larger scale levels.

3. provide options and opportunities 

Produced knowledge expand options and opportunities for sustainable actions among stakeholders and mediates changes in environmental perception.

4. appropriate translation

Knowledge translators (individual or organizational) mediate changes in individual actions or formal and informal social systems by appropriate selection, modification and reconstruction of knowledge.


b) Preliminary results of discourse analysis

We developed detailed interview protocol based on ILEK Triangle in March 2013 to extract perceptions of scientists and stakeholders collaborating in ILEK productions and community actions in case study sites with regard to important drivers of ILEK-based adaptive governance. More concise and user friendly self-evaluation questionnaire was also developed in November 2013 by improving the interview protocol. Interview Specialists Group (ISG) was established in and has accumulated interview records of 37 individuals from 32 case study sites (28 from Japan and 4 from the world outside Japan), including 26 translators, 3 knowledge producers, and 8 knowledge users. Preliminary analyses of 20 interviews in Japan revealed a strong emphasis on drivers classified into “collaboration among diverse actors”. The interviewees commonly shared importance of opportunities to expand human networks by collaborative actions supported by ILEK, which were largely dependent on attributions of knowledge producers and translators, as well as knowledge itself. New values were recognized to be created and visualized through the collaborative interactions, and options and opportunities also expanded as a result of collaboration. Translators played significant roles in collaborative networking by bridging gaps in knowledge hierarchy and providing legitimacy for different stakeholders to collaborate. This hypothetical scenario should be verified by further accumulation and detailed analyses of discourses, both in interviews and naturally spoken records, and by theoretical modeling.


c) Progress in text analysis and theoretical modeling

Methods of computer-assisted text analysis based on the ILEK database launched in FR2 have been developed to conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses of discourses of scientists, translators and stakeholders accumulated in the project research. Trial of simple principal component analysis of frequencies of nouns from time series of discourses of individual bilateral translators revealed its potential to extract major messages that a particular translator had delivered, and the changes of message structures according to time axes. We aim to improve this technique to provide data sets for mathematical modeling of dynamic changes of knowledge circulation networks in the adaptive governance processes.

Approaches of mathematical modeling of ILEK-based adaptive governance have been improved in the process of intensive interactions between theoreticians, empirical scientists and stakeholders to participate together in field works at case study sites in FR1 and 2. Particularly promising approaches include communication dynamics models analogous to evolutionary dynamics of knowledge as a meme, complex network models including asymmetric simple exclusion processes (ASEP) focusing on functions of bilateral translators in knowledge circulation networks (≈social network), and game theoretic models of exclusion mechanisms of free-riders in adaptive governance processes. A new project researcher specialized in mathematical modeling was assigned to ILEK project in February 2014, and we are expecting a leap in modeling study of adaptive governance mechanisms toward the rest of the project period.

○Project Members

SATO, Tetsu ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Professor,Local Science for Environment and Sustainability Team leader of Developing country team:Case study group )

Management Group

KIKUCHI, Naoki ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Associate professor,Residential Research, Team leader of East Asia team of Case study group, and Residential Research TF )

KAKUMA, Shinichirou ( Extention Office for Fishery, Okinawa Prefectural Government,Chief Officer,Fisheries Resource Management, Team leader of Bottom up team of Multi-scale analysis group and Sato-umi TF )

SAKAI, Akiko ( Graduate School of Environment and Information Science, Yokohama National University Vice-chairperson and in charge of administration office, Japanese Coordinating Committee for MAB,Associate professor,Protected Area Management, Team leader of Top down team of Multi-scale analysis group )

SHIMIZU, Mayuko ( Faculty of Policy Science Ryukoku University,Lecturer,Environmental Sociology )

TAKEMURA, Shion ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Project Researchers,Landscape Ecology )

TOKITA, Kei ( Graduate School of Information Science Nagoya University,Professor,Statistical Physics, Team leader of Theory and modeling group )

NAKAGAWA, Chigusa ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Project Researchers,Environmental Sociology )

MAKINO, Mitsutaku ( National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency,Group Leader,Resource Management )

MATSUDA, Hiroyuki ( Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University,Professor,Resource Management, Team leader of Europe/North America team of Case study group )

MIYAUCHI, Tsisuke ( Hokkaido University Graduate School of Letters,Professor,Environmental Sociology, Team leader of Environmental governance TF )

YANAKA, Shigeru ( Faculty of Regional Sciences, Tottori University,Associate professor,Rural Sociology )

YAMAKOSHI, Gen ( Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University,Associate professor,African Studies )

YUMOTO, Takakazu ( Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University,Professor,Ecology )

ALEXANDRIDIS, Konstantinos ( Univ. of the Virgin Islands (US Virgin Islands),Associate professor,Network Theory )

ARICO, Salvatore ( UNESCO Biodiversity Initiative (France),Director,Biodiversity Policy )

CHABAY, Ilan ( Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam (Germany),Professor,Sustainability Science )

CROSBY, Michael P ( Mote Marine Laboratory (USA),President,Coastal Management )

GUTSCHER, Heinz ( University of Zurich (Switzerland),Professor,Social Psychology )

THAMAN, Randolph ( The University of the South Pacific (Fiji),Professor,Coastal Management )

Case Studies Group / East Asia Team

AKAISHI, Daisuke ( Suzu City Hall,Research Fellow for Society Co-existing with Nature,Satoyama Management )

IGARASHI, Tsubasa ( Social Innovation Course, Doshisha University Graduate School of Policy and Management,Masters Course Student,Satoyama Management )

KAMATANI, Kaoru ( Kobe Women's University,part-time lecturer,History )

KIMURA, Motoko ( One of Tsushima Rangers in charge of conservation of biological diversity,Research fellow,Residential Research )

KORIYAMA, Shiho ( Graduate School of Letters, Kobe Women's University,Research Worker,Modern Japanese History )

TAKAHASHI, Toshimori ( Satoyama Science Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University,Special-appointed Associate Professor,Satoyama Management )

TERABAYASHI, Akira ( Norinchukin Research Institute,Research fellow,Environmental Sociology )

NIITSUMA, Hiroaki ( Council of Energy In My Yard, Japan(EIMY), Tohoku University,Director,Renewable Energy )

HATTORI, Shiho ( Faculty of International Studies, Tenri University,Lecturer,Cultural Anthropology )

HOSHI(TOMITA),Sho ( Council of Energy in My Yard, Japan(EIMY) , EIMY Yumoto Regional Conference,Senior Researcher,Residential Research )

MASUDA, Yasushi ( Shiretoko Nature Foundation,Director general,Residential Research )

MITSUHASHI, Hiromune ( Institute of Natural and Environmental Science, University of Hyogo, Lecturer for the Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo,Lecturer,Residential Research )

Case Study Group / Europe-North America Team

ONISHI, Hideyuki   ( Department of Social System Studies, Faculty of Contemporary Social Studies, Doshisha Women’s College of Liberal Arts,Associate professor,Cultural Anthropology )

KUME, Takashi ( Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University,Associate professor,Soil Hydrology )

SAKURAI, Ryo ( Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University,Research fellow,Wildlife Management )

TSUCHIYA, Toshiyuki ( Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology,Professor,Nature Reserve Management )

FUKUNAGA, Mayumi ( Research Organization for the21st Century, Osaka Prefecture University,Associate professor,Environmental Ethics )

MIURA, Shizue ( The Japan-Turkey Society,Member,Local Knowledge Studies )

AKCA, Erhan ( Adiyaman University (Turkey),Professor,Agricultural Ecosystem )

BOZAKLI, Hikmet ( Agricultural Chamber of Karapinar (Turkey),President,Agricultural Ecosystem )

MACHO, Gonzalo ( University of Vigo (Spain),Research Fellow,Fisheries Resource Management )

RAGSTER, LaVerne E. ( Univ. of the Virgin Islands (US Virgin Islands),Professor emeritus,Coastal Management )

WEBB, William Alexander ( Univ. of the Virgin Islands (US Virgin Islands),Ddoctoral course,Network Theory )

Case Study Group / Developing Countries Team

ONUMA, Ayumi ( Faculty of Economics, Keio University,Professor,Environmental Economics )

KAMIMURA, Masahito ( Director of Committee for the Conservation of Shiraho Sea, WWF Coral Reef Conservation Research Center,Director,Nature Conservation Theory )

KOBAYASHI, Takahiro ( School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University,Lecturer,Environmental Sociology )

SATO, Takanori ( Palau International Coral Reef Center,Research Fellow,Coastal Management )

SHIMAGAMI, Motoko ( i-i-network, Research & Action for Community Governance,Vice Representative,Commons Theory )

TORII, Takashi ( Kagoshima University, Faculty of Fisheries,Associate professor,Fisheries Economics )

NISHINO, Hikaru ( Eelgrass Support (Amamo Supporters),Representative,Coastal Management )

NISHIMURA, Satoru ( Kagoshima University, Faculty of Law, Economics and Humanities,Professor,Agricultural Economics )

HOSOKAI, Mizuki ( One of Tsushima Rangers in charge of conservation of biological diversity,Research fellow,Resource management )

BRIGHOUSE, Genevieve ( National Marine Sanctuary (American Samoa),Director,Nature Reserve Management )

CASTILLA, Juan Carlos ( Pontificia Universidad Cat?lica de Chile (Chile),Professor,Fisheries Management )

KITOLELEI, Jokim ( Kagoshima University, Faculty of Fisheries,Ddoctoral course,Coastal Management )

KOHLER, Florent ( Universite de Sorbonne (France),Director,Anthropology )

LE TOURNEAU, Francois-Michel ( Universite de Sorbonne (France),Director,Geography )

Multi-scale Group / Top-down Team

ISHIHARA, Hiroe ( Cambridge University,Researcher,Environmental Sociology )

OIKAWA, Hiroki ( Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University,Associate professor,Environmental Law )

OHTANI, Ryu ( The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology,Research fellow,Science and Technology Studies )

OKANO, Takahiro ( Kagoshima University Education Center,Special-appointed Associate Professor,Nature Conservation Policy )

KAJI, Koichi ( The Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology,Professor,Wildlife Management )

TANAKA, Toshinori ( Graduate School of Frontier Science, The University of Tokyo,Special-appointed Assistant Professor,Nature Conservation Policy )

TOBAI, Sadayoshi ( WWF Japan Nature Conservation Office,Office chief,Nature Conservation Theory )

TOI, Akiko ( Faculty of Environmental Systems, Rakuno Gakuen University,Professor,Environmental Law )

MAKINO, Atsushi ( Department of Integrated Human Studies, Faculty of letters, Kumamoto University,Professor,Residential Research )

BOUAMRANE, Meriem ( UNESCO、Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences (France),Programme Specialist,Resource Management )

DEDEURWAERDERE, Tom ( Universit? Catholique de Louvain (Belgium),Professor,Political Science )

LAUSCHE, Barbara ( Mote Marine Laboratory (USA),Director, Marine Policy Institute,Marine Policy )

NILES, Daniel ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Assistant Professor,Knowledge Theory )

REED, Maureen G ( University of Saskatchewan (Canada),Professor,Environmental Governance )

Multi-scale Group / Bottom-up Team

AKAMINE, Jun ( School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nagoya City University,Associate professor,Resource Management )

ONO, Rintaro ( School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University,Lecturer,Fisheries Resource Management )

SUGA, Yutaka ( Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia, The Univrsity of Tokyo,Professor,Ethnology )

TAKEKAWA, Daisuke ( Faculty of Humanities, The University of Kitakyushu,Professor,Ecological Anthropology )

NAKAMURA, Koji ( Kanazawa University Center for Regional Collaboration,Special-appointed Professor,Satoyama Management )

FURUTA, Naoya ( IUCN Jpana Project Office,Senior Project Officer,Nature Conservation Theory )

YANAGI, Tetsuo ( Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University,Special-appointed Professor,Satoumi Studies )

YANAGIDA, Ippei ( INO,Board Member,Fisheries Resource Management )

CLAUS, Annie ( Yale University (USA),Ddoctoral course,Environmental NGO Analysis )

Theory and Modeling Group

AKIYAMA, Eizo ( Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering, Tsukuba University,Professor,Statistical Physics )

OURA, Takeshi ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,RA,Statistical Physics )

KANEKO, Kunihiko ( Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo,Professor,Complex System Science )

SATAKE, Akiko ( Hokkaido University Graduate School of Environmental Sciences,Associate professor,Theoretical Biology )

FUJIMOTO, Koichi ( Graduate School of Science, Osaka University,Associate professor,Mathematical Biology )

MARUYAMA, Yasushi ( Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University,Associate professor,Environmental Sociology )

MULLER, Erinn ( Mote Marine Laboratory (USA),Research fellow,Coastal Management )

Ethical Aspects of Design-oriented Science TF

KANZAKI, Nobutsugu ( Faculty of Education, Shiga University,Associate professor,Environmental Ethics, TF leader )

KIHIRA, Tomoki ( General Education Center, Hyogo University of Health Science,Associate professor,Environmental Ethics )

KURATA, Nobuo ( Hokkaido University Graduate Scholl of Letters,Professor,Environmental Ethics )

TERAMOTO, Tsuyoshi ( Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University,Assistant Professor,Environmental Ethics )

YOSHINAGA, Akihiro ( College of Sociology, Edogawa University,Lecturer,Environmental Ethics )

Environmental Governance TF

OHNUMA, Susumu ( Hokkaido University Graduate School of Letters,Associate professor,Environmental Governance )

OGATA, Seiichi ( Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University,Research fellow,Environmental Governance )

KAIDA, Naomi ( Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo,Ddoctoral course,Environmental Governance )

KADO, Kazunori ( Hokkaido University of Education Asahikawa Campus,Associate professor,Environmental Governance )

KITOH, Shuichi ( Graduate School of Frontier Science, The University of Tokyo,Professor,Environmental Governance )

KINJYOU, Tatsuya ( Hokkaido University Graduate School of Letters,Ddoctoral course,Environmental Governance )

KURODA, Satoru ( Department of Contemporary Culture and Society, Rikkyo University,Assistant Professor,Environmental Governance )

SUGIMOTO, Ayumi ( Akita International University,Lecturer,Environmental Governance )

SUZUKI, Katsuya ( Institute of Natural and Environmental Sciences, University of Hyogo,Lecturer,Environmental Governance )

SEKI, Reiko ( Department of Contemporary Culture and Society, Rikkyo University,Professor,Environmental Governance )

TAKASAKI, Yuko ( Hokkaido University Graduate School of Letters,Ddoctoral course,Environmental Governance )

TAKEUCHI, Kengo ( Aomori City Namioka Primary School,Teacher,Environmental Governance )

TASHIRO, Yushu ( Tokushima Prefecture Sanago Biodiversity Experience Center,Director,Environmental Governance )

TATSUZAWA, Shirow ( Hokkaido University Graduate School of Letters,Assistant Professor,Environmental Governance )

TOMITA, Ryoto ( Faculty of Agriculture,Shizuoka Universty,Assistant Professor,Environmental Governance )

NISHIKIDO, Makoto ( Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University,Associate professor,Environmental Governance )

NINOMIYA, Sakiko ( Kanto Gakuin University College of human and Environmental Studies,Lecturer,Environmental Governance )

HIRAKAWA, Zenki ( Hokkaido University of Research Faculty of Agriculture,Research Fellow,Environmental Governance )

HIRANO, Yu-ichiro ( Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute,Research Fellow,Environmental Governance )

MIKAMI, Naoyuki ( Hokkaido University of Institute for the Advancement of Higher Education,Associate professor,Environmental Governance )

MEGURO, Norio ( Graduate School of Frontier Science, The University of Tokyo,Research Fellow,Environmental Governance )

YASUDA, Akito ( Graduate School of Frontier Science, The University of Tokyo,Research Fellow,Environmental Governance )

YAMAMOTO, Shinji ( Field Science Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University,Associate professor,Environmental Governance )

KARIN, Ree ( Graduate School of Frontier Science, The University of Tokyo,Ddoctoral course,Environmental Governance )

○Future Themes

a) Meta-analysis and modeling

The improved version of self-evaluation questionnaire will be applied to case studies and social experiments to accumulate data to extract perceptions on ILEK-based adaptive governance among scientists and stakeholders collaborating in ILEK productions and community actions. A new project researcher in charge of social experiment will play a key role in accumulation of interview records in case study sites outside Japan as a base of designing coordinated social experiments spreading over the world. Text data of naturally spoken narratives and writings of important actors in case study and social experiment sites will also be accumulated to provide resources for discourse analysis.

In FR3, we will analyse these interview records and narrative data in detail using conventional and computer-assisted discourse analysis to elaborate hypotheses on important drivers and processes of ILEK-based adaptive governance. Computer-assisted analysis techniques including semantic network analysis and ontology will be improved in close collaboration among modelers, database specialists and empirical scientists. Outcomes of these analyses will be successively delivered to the Theory and Modeling group to test various modeling approaches, and to the Social Experiment group described below to improve design and hypothesis of the experiments in FR3 and 4. Research results are also applied to the design of ILEK Simulator scheduled to be launched toward the end of the project. 


b) Case studies and Social experiments

FR3 and 4 will be a critical stage of the project to implement social experiments at selected case study sites to verify focused hypotheses on drivers and processes of ILEK-based adaptive governance. Initial designs of social experiments on the bases of ILEK Triangle model has been completed at 11 candidate sites in FR2, and other experiment sites will be added in FR3 to address remaining questions. Each experiment is composed of attempted or ongoing actions delivered by knowledge producers or translators and expected societal changes observable within the project period. We will organize the Social Experiment Group with project members committed to each social experiment sites to improve the design and implementation of the experiments and to integrate results. In parallel with these intensive social experiments, all remaining case studies will be continued by relevant project members for FR3 and 4. They are requested to deliberately incorporate experimental procedures in their case studies, including design of actions and hypothetical changes of local communities to be verified. Societal changes resulted from experimental actions can be measured by dynamism of stakeholder networks, changes in perceptions among stakeholders and scientists, and emergence of collaborative actions. Methodologies of qualitative and quantitative evaluation of social dynamism will be established and improved in FR3.


c) Stakeholder workshop at meta-analysis level

Stakeholder workshops will be an important component of two-tier transdisciplinary approach in the project. We will complete appropriate design of workshops toward the first workshop scheduled in October 2014 (within Japan), followed by second international workshop in 2015. The WS will mainly invite scientists and stakeholders deeply embedded to each case study sites. The protocol will basically follow those utilized in World Wide Views on Biodiversity project. The output of the WS will be analysed collaboratively by scientists and stakeholders to provide feedback to both academic and stakeholder communities at local and cross-scale levels.


d) ILEK Simulator as a societal output of the project

In its initial design, we assumed that the final societal output of ILEK project would be societal changes in each case study site directly delivered by project members deeply embedded in each community. However, as we found collaboration among diverse actors within and outside the community could be an important driver of adaptive governance, a mechanism to promote mutual learning and interaction among diverse case study sites over the world was desperately needed. Based on the Web GIS system developed in FR2, we will design a web-based ILEK Simulator as the societal output of the project. ILEK Simulator provides plausible options and tips of ILEK-based adaptive governance fitted to particular local settings, together with real-life examples of local actions in other sites sharing common characteristics. ILEK Simulator will open a new pathway to connect local communities in the world for collaboration in adaptive governance processes.



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Kohler F., Le Tourneau F.M. 2012 Conservation de la biodiversité et savoirs indigènes: mise en œuvre difficile de la Convention pour la diversité biologique au Brésil. In C. Fleury et A.C. Prévot-Julliard (dirs) (ed.) L'exigence de la réconciliation - Biodiversité et société. Paris, Fayard – MNHN, Paris, pp.25-36. (in French)  

Kohler F., Le Tourneau F.M. 2012 Conservation de la biodiversité et savoirs indigènes: mise en œuvre difficile de la Convention pour la diversité biologique au Brésil. In C. Fleury et A.C. Prévot-Julliard (dirs) (ed.) L'exigence de la réconciliation - Biodiversité et société. Paris, Fayard – MNHN, Paris, pp.25-36. (in French)  

Kohler F., Le Tourneau F.M. 2012 Conservation de la biodiversité et savoirs indigènes: mise en œuvre difficile de la Convention pour la diversité biologique au Brésil. In C. Fleury et A.C. Prévot-Julliard (dirs) (ed.) L'exigence de la réconciliation - Biodiversité et société. Paris, Fayard – MNHN, Paris, pp.25-36. (in French)  

Brondizio, E. S. 2014,03 Forest Resources, City Services: Globalization, Household Networks, and Urbanization in the Amazon estuary.. K. Morrison, S. Hetch, C. Padoch (ed.) The Social Life of Forests.. University Of Chicago Press , Chicago, IL. USA, pp.348-361.  

Sato T. 2014,03 Integrated Local Environmental Knowledge Supporting Adaptive Governance of Local Communities.. Alvares, C. (ed.) Multicultural Knowledge and the University. Multiversity India, Mapusa, India, pp.268-273.  

Makino, M. 2013,12 Country case studies on policy, governance and institutional issues . Marine protected areas . FAO, Rome, pp.5-15.  

Thaman, R.R 2013,04 Islands on the frontline against the winds and waves of global change: Emerging environmental issues and actions to build resilience in Pacific small island developing states (PSIDS). In Tsai, H.-M. (ed,) (ed.) Proceedings of the IGU Commission on Islands International Conference on Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability. National Penghu University, Makong, Penghu Archipelago Taiwan, October 1 – 5, 2013.. , pp.3-H-1-1-10.  

Thaman, R.R 2013,04 Silent alien invasion of our islands and seas: A call for action against invasive alien species (IAS). In Tsai, H.-M. (ed,) (ed.) Proceedings of the IGU Commission on Islands International Conference on Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability. National Penghu University, Makong, Penghu Archipelago,Taiwan, October 1 – 5, 2013. , pp.2-D-3-1-6.  

Thaman, R.R. 2013,04 Ethno-biodiversity, taxonomy and bioinformatics for all ages: Engaging and educating the next generation of taxonomists as a foundation for sustainable living on Planet earth – Challenges and opportunities. In L.A. Brooks and S. Aricò (eds.) (ed.) Tracking key trends in biodiversity science and policy. , UNESCO, Paris, pp.23-25.  

Sakurai,R 2013,04 Facilitation skills for guiding participatory decision making. Japanese Coordination Committee for Man and the Biosphere. (ed) (ed.) Sustainable Development of Regional Society with Focus on Biodiversity : ProSPER. Net Joint Project. Japanese Coordination Committee for Man and the Biosphere, Yokohama, pp.93-100.  


【Editing / Co-editing】

Brondizio, E. S. and E. F. Moran (eds.) (ed.) 2012 Human-Environment Interactions: Current and Future Directions. Dordrecht, 17. Springer Scientific Publishers, The Netherlands, 434pp.  


【Original Articles】

Sakurai, R., Jacobson, S. K., & Ueda, G. 2014,03 Public perceptions of significant wildlife in Hyogo, Japan. . Human Dimensions of Wildlife (19) :88-95.(reviewed).  

Sasaoka, M., Laumonier, Y., Sugimura, 2014,01 Influence of Indigenous Sago-based agriculture on Local Forest Landscapes in Maluku,East Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 26(1) :75-83.(reviewed).  

Reed, M.G., and Massie, M. 2014,01 Embracing ecological learning and social learning: Biosphere reserves as exemplars of changing conservation and practices. Conservation and Society .(reviewed).  

Medeiros, H., Murrieta, RSS, Adams, C., Brondizio, ES. 2014,01 Local and scientific knowledge for assessing the use of fallows and mature forest by large mammals in SE Brazil: identifying singularities in folk ecology.. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 10 :7.(reviewed).  

Okano,T., Matsuda, H. 2013,12 Biocultural diversity of Yakushima Island: Mountain, beach, and sea. Journal of Marine and Island Cultures (2) :69-77. (in Japanese) (reviewed).  

Hetrick, S., Roy Chowdhury, R., E. S. Brondizio, and E. F. Moran 2013,12 Spatiotemporal patterns and socioeconomic determinants of vegetative cover in Altamira City, Brazil.. Land 2 :774-779. DOI: doi:10.3390/land20x000x.(reviewed).  http://dx.doi.org/ doi:10.3390/land20x000x

Sakurai, R., Jacobson, S. K., & Ueda, G 2013,12 Public perceptions of risk and government performance regarding bear management in Japan. Ursus (24) :70-82.(reviewed).  

Welch, J., E. S. Brondizio, C. Coimbra, S. Hetrick 2013,12 Neotropical Savanna Recovery amid Agribusiness Deforestation in Central Brazil. . PLOS ONE 8 :e81226.(reviewed).  

Duraiappah AK, S. T. Asah, E. S. Brondizio, N. Kosoy, P. O’Farrel, A-H Prieur-Richard, K. Takeuchi. 2013,11 The New Commons: Matching the Mis-Matches.. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 7 :94-100. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.11.031.(reviewed).  http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.11.031

Sakurai, R., Jacobson, S. K., & Carlton, J 2013,10 SMedia coverage of management of the black bear Ursus thibetanus in Japan. Oryx (47) :519-525.(reviewed).  

Brondizio, E. S. 2013,09 A microcosm of the Anthropocene: Socioecological complexity and social theory in the Amazon. . Journal de la Reseaux Francaise d’Institut d'études avancées 10 :10-13.(reviewed).  

Ballestero, E. and E. S. Brondizio. 2013,08 Building negotiated agreement: The emergence of community based tourism in Floreana (Galapagos Islands).. Human Organization 72 :323-335.(reviewed).  

Aricò, S. 2013,04 We should not miss this opportunity. Response to The Future We Want.. Environmental Development 7 :171-173. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2013.04.008.(reviewed).  http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2013.04.008

Sorgog K, Saito M, Hironaka Y, Higashiura Y, Matsuda H. 2013,03 Influence of agricultural activities on grassland arthropod in Inner Mongolia. Environment and Natural Resources Research 3 :33-41.(reviewed).  

Yumoto, T., Iwata, Y., Morimoto, Y. 2013,03 Evaluating cultural value of Satoyama using the preference method. Global Environment 17(2) :105-117.(reviewed).  

Tsujino, R.,Yumoto, T. 2013,03 Vascular plant species richness along environmental gradients in a cool temperate to sub-alpine mountainous zone in central Japan. Journal of Plant Research 126 :203-214.(reviewed).  

Ishihara, H., Pascual, U. 2013,03 Re-Politicizing Social Capital:Revisiting Social Capital and Collective Action in Common Pool Resource Management. UNU-IAS Working Paper Series 170.  http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/Working-Paper-170_Hiroe_Ishihara.pdf

Masaki, N., Fujimoto, K., (equally contributed), Honda-Kitahara, M., Hada, R., & Sawai. S. 2013,03 Robustness of self-organizing chemoattractant field arising from precise pulse-induction of its breakdown enzyme: a single cell level analysis of PDE expression in Dictyostelium. Biophysical Journal 104 :1192-1202.(reviewed).  

Akiyama, E, 2013,01 Evolutionary Leader Game and Social Hierarch. SICE Journal of Control, Measurement, and System Integration 6(2) :102-107.(reviewed).  

Matsuda H 2012,12 Biodiversity and fisheries resource management in the Satoumi. Global Environmental Research 16 :181-187.(reviewed).  

Makino, M. & Sakurai, Y. 2012,12 Adaptation to climate change effects on fisheries in the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage area, Japan. ICES Journal of Marine Science 69 :1134-1140.(reviewed).  

Hayashi N, Watanabe E, Matsuda H. 2012,10 Relationship between threatened vascular plants and human population in Japan. Journal of Ecology and Field Biology 35 :331-341.(reviewed).  

Reed, M.G., and Egunyu, F. 2012,09 Management effectiveness in UNESCO biosphere reserves: Learning from Canadian periodic reviews. Environmental Science & Policy 25 :107-117.(reviewed).  

Ohta U, Jusup M, Mano T, Tsuruga H, Matsuda H 2012,09 Adaptive management of the brown bear population in Hokkaido, Japan. Ecol Model 242 :20-27.(reviewed).  

Kaneko, M., Kline, J.J., Akiyama, E, 2012,07 "A Simulation Study of Learning a Structure Mike's Bike Commuting." In Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies . Technologies SIMULTECH 2012 :208-217.(reviewed).  

Akiba H, Miller CA, Matsuda H. 2012,05 Public attitudes and factors influencing preference for eradication project of raccoons in Kanagawa, Japan. Human Dimension of Wildlife 17 :1087-1209.(reviewed).  

Goto, R., Yamakoshi, G., & Matsuzawa, T. 2012,05 A novel brood-site pollination mutualism?: The root holoparasite Thonningia sanguinea (Balanophoraceae) and an inflorescence-feeding fly in the tropical rainforest of West Africa. Plant Species Biology 27 :164-169.(reviewed).  

Hori Y, Hayashi N, Matsuda H. 2012,05 The long-term trends of satoyama capital stocks and ecosystem services; case study on Mt. Hakusan Biosphere Reserve and its vicinity. Global Environmental Research 16 :189-196.(reviewed).  

Irie, H. & Tokita, K 2012,05 Species-area relationship for power-law species abundance distribution. International Journal of Biomathematics 5(1260024) :9.(reviewed).  

Makino, M., Sakurai, Y. 2014,03 Towards the integrated research in fisheries science. Fisheries Science (74) :printing.(reviewed).  

Kamitsuru, S., Akamatsu, Y., Kamiya, D. and Takemura, S. 2014,03 Factor Analysis for Forestation in First-class Rivers of Chugoku District.. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. B1 (Hydaulic Engineering) 70(4) :Ⅰ_1393-Ⅰ_1398. (in Japanese) (reviewed).  

Keita Honjo, Akiko Satake. 2014,02 N-player mosquito net game: Individual and social rationality in the misuse of insecticide-treated nets. Journal of Theoretical Biology (342) :39-46.(reviewed).  

Inui, R.; Takemura, S.; Koyama, A.; Onikura, N. & Kamada, M. 2014,01 Potential distribution of Tridentiger barbatus (Günther 1861) and Tridentiger nudicervicus (Tomiyama 1934) in the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan. Ichthyological Research 61 :83-89.(reviewed).  http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10228-013-0370-y

Hong S-K, Wehi P, Matsuda H 2013,12 Island biocultural diversity and traditional ecological knowledge. Journal of Marine and Island Cultures (2) :57-58.  

Matsuda H, Abrams PA 2013,11 Is feedback control effective for ecosystem-based fisheries management. J Theor Biol (339) :122-128.  

Oura, T. & Tokita, Kei 2013,09 GPGPU simulations of 2D lattice neutral models in ecology. Journal of Physcs: Conference Series (454) :1-7.(reviewed).Conference Series. 454:012038.  

Kitamura, K., Clapp, R. A. 2013,09 Common property protected areas: Community control in forest conservation. Land Use Policy 34 :204-212. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.03.008.(reviewed).  http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.03.008

Tsujino, R., Matsui, K., Yamamoto, K., Koda, R., Yumoto, T., Takada, K-I 2013,09 Degradation of Abies veitchii wave-regeneration on Mt. Misen in Ohmine ountains: effects of sika deer population. Journal of Plant Research (126) :625-634. DOI:10.1007/s10265-013-0551-9.(reviewed).  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10265-013-0551-9

Fujimoto, K., & Sawai. S. 2013,06 A Design Principle of Group-level Decision Making in Cell Populations. PLoS Computational Biology 9(6).(reviewed).e1003110.  

Miura G, Munakata A, Schreck CB, Noakes DLG, Matsuda H 2013,06 Effect of short-term decrease in water temperature on body temperature and involvement of testosterone in steelhead and rainbow trout,Oncorhynchus mykiss. . Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A (166) :112-118.(reviewed).  

Shibata Y, Matsuishi T, Murase H, Matsuoka K, Hakamada T,Kitakado T, Matsuda H 2013,05 Effects of stratification and misspecification of covariates on species distribution models for abundance estimation from virtual line transect survey data. Fisheries Science (79) :559-568.(reviewed).  

Research Presentations

【Oral Presentation】

Takekawa,Daisuke How Evolution of Therory of Mind modifies perception of nature: Role of anthropomorphism on social learning. International Workshop on “Social Learning and Innovation in Contemporary Hunter-Gatherers: Evolutionary and Ethnographic Perspectives” , 2014,03,29-2014,03,30, kobe, Hyougo.  

Jokim Kitolelei, Satoru Nishimura, Takashi Torii Understanding Fisheries Rules in Fiji. A Comparison of Three Case Studies, 2014,03,14-2014,03,16, Kanazawa.  

Eizo Akiyama Emergence of Social Hierarchy in Evolving Population of Interacting Agents. 11th RISS International Conference -Understanding Complex Societyfrom Agent-Based Simulation The Research Institute for Socionetwork Strategies, 2014,02,27, Osaka, Japan. .  

Akça, E Effect of Power Plants to Karapınar, Karaman Environment. Public Meeting, 2014,02,27, Karaman. (in Turkish)  http://www.karamandauyanis.com/guncel/temadan-termik-santral-toplantisi-h22334.html

Kanzaki, N Research(er) Ethics for Conservation. Applied Philosophy Workshop, 2014,02,19, Singapore.  

Akça, E Karapınar Agriculture Trade Chamber of Karapınar. Public Meeting, 2014,01,08, Karapınar. (in Turkish)  

Gen Yamakoshi Contexte des ateliers du symposium. Symposium International “Conservation des Population Isolee de Primates, 2013,11,16, Conakry, Guinea.  

Sasaoka, M and Laumonier, Y Potential conservation value of less-intensively managed human modified forests in and around National park: Focusing on interrelationships between local people and wild animal species formed through traditional arboricultural practices. The 1st Asia National Park Congress, 2013,11,14, Sendai.  

Windra Priawandiputra, Tetsuya Kasagi and Koji Nakamura Comparison of flowering plant-bee linkages between two types of satoyama habitats in Kanazawa, Japan. 61st Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America, 2013,11,10-2013,11,13, Austin, Texas, USA.  

Eizo Akiyama, Nobuyuki Hanaki, Ryuichiro Ishikawa Strategic uncertainty and individual bounded rationality in an experimental asset marke. Annual meeting of Association of Southern European Economic Theorists, 2013,11,07-2013,11,09, Bilbao.  

Miyauchi, T., What makes social-ecological systems robust?: A case study of natural resources management in the Kitakami area of northern Japan. International Symposium on Environmental Sociology in East Asia 2013, 2013,11,02, Nanjing, China.  

Makino, M., Criddle, K Why do we need Human Dimensions for the FUTURE Program?. PICES 2013 Annual Meeting, 2013,10,11-2013,10,20, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada.  

Sakurai, R., Ueda, G., & Jacobson, S. K Evaluation of the effectiveness of the community bear education seminar at Tajima region, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan- Change of participants' awareness and behaviors after the seminar-. . The Wildlife Society 20th Annual Conference, 2013,10,09, Wisconsin.  

Vaughan, D. "Old Coral, New Tricks for community based active restoration projects". Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary,,Advisory Council. Coral Restoration Working Group Presentation, 2013,09,25, Key West, Florida, USA .  

Reed, M.G. Partnering with Canadian Biosphere Reserves. ENVS 802.3 University of Saskatchewan, 2013,09,24, Saskatchewan.  

Kakuma, S MPA as a Tool for Fisheries Management. The 9th ICRI East Asia WS, 2013,09,09-2013,09,12, Singapore.  

Miyauchi, T. Common property systems and resilience following disasters: case study of tsunami-hit villages in Kitakami area of Miyagi, Japan. ESA (European Sociological Associateion) 2013 Torino, 2013,08,28-2013,08,31, Torino, Italy.  

Yasushi Maruyama, Makoto Nichikido External Benefit of Renewable Energy Project: Sociopolitical Changes and Problems after Fukushima in Japan. Europian Sociology Association 11th Conference, 2013,08,28-2013,08,31, Trino,Italia.  

Reed, M.G. Can indigenous perspectives and knowledge be included in UNESCO biosphere reserves in Canada? . Canadian Association of Geographers. “Biocultural Conservation Session” , 2013,08,13, St. John’s, NL.  

Eizo Akiyama, Nobuyuki Hanaki, Ryuichiro Ishikawa Strategic uncertainty and individual bounded rationality in an experimental asset marke. Asian Meeting of the Econometric Society, 2013,08,02-2013,08,04, Singapore.  

Kakuma, S Satoumi & Marine Protected Areas in Okinawa. Meeting with Vanuatsu Government, August 2013, Port Vila Vanuatu.  

Eizo Akiyama, Nobuyuki Hanaki, Ryuichiro Ishikawa Strategic uncertainty and individual bounded rationality in an experimental asset marke. Economic Science Association World Meeting 2013, 2013,07,11-2013,07,14, Zurich.  

Kume, T Rio+20, Future earth, and the ILEK project, RIHN - Co-design,. Ministry meeting (Ministry of environment and forestry, Government of Turkey), 2013,06,29, Ankara, Turkey.  

Eizo Akiyama, Nobuyuki Hanaki, Ryuichiro Ishikawa Strategic uncertainty and individual bounded rationality in an experimental asset marke. Annual meeting of Society of Experiental Finance, 2013,06,27-2013,06,29, Tilburg.  

Potvin, D., Mason, A., Godmaire, H., and Reed, M.G Biosphere Reserves as learning sites towards sustainability: Community-research partnerships and the case of Clayoquot Sound. .Canadian Network for Environmental Education and Communication, 2013,06,26-2013,06,30, Victoria, BC.  

Eizo Akiyama, Nobuyuki Hanaki, Ryuichiro Ishikawa Strategic uncertainty and individual bounded rationality in an experimental asset marke. Annual meeting of Association of French Experimental Economists 2013, 2013,06,20-2013,06,21, Lyon.  

Kume, T Climate change, biodiversity loss, and desertification. Drought,. Toprak ve Su, 2013,06,17, Karapinar, Konya, Turkey.  

Reed, M.G Community-engaged research at a national scale: Partnering with Canadian biosphere reserves. Community-Engaged Scholar Seminar Series at Station 20 West, 2013,06,17, Saskatoon, SK.  

Sasaoka, M and Laumonier, Y Conservation Value of Less-intensively Managed Human Modified Forests formed through arboricultural activities in Seram, east Indonesia: An Insight on Interrelationships between local people and a protected wild parrot. The 23rd Annual Meeting of the Japan Society of Tropical Ecology, 2013,06,16, Fukuoka.  

Reed, M.G., Godmaire, H., Abernethy, P., and Guertin, M.A Strengthening a community of practice for learning (and evaluation of best practices) in Canadian biosphere reserves. Environmental Studies Association of Canada., 2013,06,04, Victoria, BC.  

Makino, M. Comparison of stakesholders' roles: Case Studies of Marine Protected Areas in Japan. IASC2013, 2013,06,03-2013,06,07, Fujiyoshida, Yamanashi, Japan.  

Miyauchi, T. Common property systems and resilience following disasters: case study of tsunami-hit villages in Kitakami area of Miyagi, Japan. 14th Global Conference of the International Associations fro the Study of the Commons, 2013,06,03-2013,06,07, Kitafuji, Japan.  

Kakuma, S Coral Reef Conservation in Okinawa, Satoumi & Marine Protected Areas. Symposium: Coral Reef Conservation, June 2013, Onna-son, Okinawa.  

Smith, C.J. Conserving Riparian Habitat AND State Dollars with the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP).. Salmon Recovery Conference, 2013,05,14-2013,05,15, Vancouver, WA. USA.  

Sato, T. Residential Research and Integrated Local Environmental Knowledge concepts for Adaptive Governance. 10th Annual Meeting of the ITdNet, 2013,04,10-2013,04,11, Munich, Germany.  

Onishi, H. Collapse of the Soviet Union and Adaptation Strategies of the Indigenous People: land use and livelihood strategies in two Nanai villages. Russo-Japanese Collaborative SymposiumCultural Adaptation of the People in the Forest Areas in Northeast Asia Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Far East Peoples, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2013,03,07, Vladivostok, Russia.  

Claus, C. Anne. Re-visiting Coral Gardens and their Magic: Philosophies of Ecological Restoration in Okinawa. Society for Applied Anthropology Annual Meeting, March 2013, Denver CO.  

Fujimoto, K. Design principle of group-level decision making in cell populations. The 1st annual winter Q-bio conference, 2013,02,18-2013,02,21, Hawaii, USA.  

Yamakoshi, G. Toward humanizing nature conservation in Africa. First International CIAS Seminar on "Area Environments and Global Sustainability Challenges", 2013,02,05, Kyoto, Japan. .  

Yamakoshi, G., Ito, M. & Kobayashi, S. Diversity of agro-landscape management in the Forested Guinea, West Africa: Importance of oil palms and raphia palms. The International Workshop on “Incentive of Local community for REDD and semi-domestication of non-timber forest products (Global Environment Research Fund: E-1002, ”. Ministry of Environment: FY2010-2012), 2013,01,25-2013,01,26, Kyoto, Japan. , .  

Reed, M.G. Enhancing ecological and social learning in Biosphere Reserves: Experiences from Canadian Biosphere Reserves. Special lecture sponsored by the Japan Coordinating Committee for UNESCO-MAB, 2013,01,23, Yokohama, Japan.  

Reed, M.G. Gazing through the looking glass at both ends: Studying sustainability in Canadian biosphere reserves from the bottom up and the top down. Invited presentation to the International Workshop on Transdisciplinary Research on Global Environmental Issues, 2013,01,21, . .  

Akamine Jun, Whale meat foodways in the contemporary Japan: From fish sausages in the 1960s to whale tongue dishes in the 1990s. International Conference on Food and Heritage: A Perspective of Safeguarding the Intangible Cultural Heritage, 2013,01,03-2013,01,05, Hong Kong .  

Sato, T. Integrated Local Environmental Knowledge supporting adaptive co-management of SATO-UMI social-ecological systems. Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology, 2012,12,10-2012,12,14, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA.  http://blog.hawaii.edu/pacon/

Yanaka, S. Satoumi as a reconstruction of commons through coastal resource management by fishermen. Case study: Practices implemented by Onna Village Fisheries Cooperative Association in Okinawa Prefecture. Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology, 2012,12,10-2012,12,14, Kailua-Kona,Hawaii, USA. .  

Kamimura, M. International Stone Tidal Weir Summit in Shiraho, Japan for Creating SATOUMI 2010. Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology, 2012,12,10-2012,12,14, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA.  

Shimizu, M. Residential research bridging science and practice for adaptive governance of Sato-umi. Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology, 2012,12,10-2012,12,14, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA.  

Tobai, S. Interaction of Multi-Scale Partnerships for Marine Biodiversity Conservation: A Case in the Yellow Sea. Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology, 2012,12,10-2012,12,14, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA.  

Nakagawa, C. The local resource management in Japanese spiny lobster fishing. Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology, 2012,12,10-2012,12,14, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA.  

Fukunaga, M. Power of Storytelling: Building a Local Environmental Knowledge Platform for Sato-Umi Governance. Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology, 2012,12,10-2012,12,14, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA.  

Makino, M. & Matsuda, H. Co-management of the marine social-ecological systems in Shiretoko World Natural Heritage Site. Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology, 2012,12,10-2012,12,14, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii.  

Yanagi, T. Concept and Practices of Satoumi in Japan and Lessons Learned. Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology, 2012,12,10-2012,12,14, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA.  

Kakuma, S. Institutional Aspects of Satoumi in Coral Reefs - To Harmonize Conservation and Sustainable Fisheries -. Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology, 2012,12,10-2012,12,14, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA.  

Suga, Y. Into the Bullring: The Significance of "Empathy.". American Folklore Society 2012 Annual Meeting, 2012,10,24-2012,10,27, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.  

Reed, M.G. and Godmaire, H. Scaling up participatory and community-based research for policy and practical change: Reflecting on research with Canadian biosphere reserves. Annual Institute for the Society of Policy Scientists. Human Rights in World Public Order: Freedom, equality, and dignity. University of Saskatchewan, 2012,10,18-2012,10,20, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.  

Reed, M.G. and Massie, M. What’s left of wilderness in contemporary conservation practice?. Beyond the culture of nature: Rethinking Canadian and Environmental Studies Conference, 2012,09,28-2012,09,30, Vancouver BC.  

Makino, M. Contribution of Japanese Fishery Management System to Targets 6 & 11 of Aichi Biodiversity Targets. IUCN World Conservation Congress 2012, 2012,09,06-2012,09,15, Jeju.  

Akiyama, E. (with M. Kaneko, J. Kline, R. Ishikawa), A Simulation Study of Learning: Mike’s Bike Commuting. International Workshop on Game Theory, Epistemic Logic, & Related Topics, 2012,08,27-2012,08,30, Tsukuba, Japan.  

Fujimoto, K. Tuning collectivity in cell fate decision. The 13th International Conference of Systems Biology, 2012,08,19-2012,08,23, Tronto, Canada.  

Akiyama, E. Individual irrationality and lack of common knowledge of rationality in experimental asset markets. Summer Workshop on Economic Theory (SWET 2012), 2012,08,11, Kushiro, Japan.  

Kohler F. & Greissing A., Globalization in quilombola communities of the Amazon. 54th International Congress of Americanists, 2012,07,15-2012,07,20, Wien, Austria.  

Maruyama,Y & M. Nishikido, et.al., Social acceptance of Wind Energy and Social Experiment of Community Power in Japan. 11th World Wind Energy Conference 2012, 2012,07,03-2012,07,05, Bonn, Germany.  

Maruyama,Y Activities of Local Society toward Community Power. 11th World Wind Energy Conference 2012, 2012,07,03-2012,07,05, Bonn, Germany.  

Tokita, K. Adaptive species interactions promote species abundance. International Symposium,Advances in Theory of Species Interactions: Linking Individual Behavior, Population Processes and Community Dynamic, 2012,06,18-2012,06,19, Kyoto, Japan. .  

Reed, M.G. Embracing ecological and social learning: Biosphere reserves as exemplars of changing conservation practices. Canadian Association of Geographers at the Congress of the Social Sciences and Humanities, 2012,06,01, Waterloo, ON.  

Yamakoshi, G. Oil palms may stabilize the agricultural system of tropical West Africa. 13th Congress of the International Society of Ethnobiology, 2012,05,20-2012,05,25, Montpelier, France. .  

【Poster Presentation】

Arisu Tsuboi, Shizue Ohsawa, Tatsushi Igaki and Koichi Fujimoto Mechanical properties that regulate differential cell division rate during. Workshop on Mechanics and Growth of Tissues: From Development to Cancer, January 2014, Paris, France.  

Vogt, N. D., K. Fernandes; M. Pinedo-Vasquez; F. Rabelo; E.J.P. da Rocha; M. Rollnic; A.S. dos Santos; E. Brondízio; O. Almeida ; S. Rivero; P.J. Deadman; Y. Dou. Linking Ethnographic and Hydro-Climate Analyses to Identify Flood Regime Changes, Their Drivers and Socio-Cultural Responses Across the Amazon Estuary.. Annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union, 2013,12,10-2013,12,14, San Francisco, USA..  

Sakurai, R., & Jacobson, S. K Assessing the Impact of a Wildlife Education Program in Japan. 42nd North American Association for Environmental Education Conference, 2013,10,11, Maryland.  

Kinjo, T. and A. Terabayashi Role of Commons in the Combination of Subsistence: Focus on the Use of Japanese Sago Palms (Cycas revoluta Thumb.) in Tokunoshima Island, Japan. The 14th Global Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of the Commons, 2013,06,03-2013,06,07, Fujiyoshida, Yamanashi, Japan.  

【Invited Lecture / Honoronary Lecture / Panelist】

Aricò, S. the Biodiversity Science-Policy Interface: The Case of the CBD. University of Delaware, 2014,02,28, Newark, DE. USA.  

Brondizio, E. S. Institutions and conservation: fit, interplay and mismatches.. Workshop on Biodiversity and the new Sustainable Development Goals., 2013,12,17-2013,12,19, Washington D.C., USA.  

Sakai, A Country report: Activities of MAB Japan in the past two years. East Asian Biosphere Reserves Network 13th Meeting, 2013,10,21-2013,10,25, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.  

Reed, M.G., Godmaire, H., et. al. 16 biosphere reserves!, Canadian Commission for UNESCO 1 + 1 = 3: The Benefits of Partnership & Social Learning. EuroMAB , 2013,10,15-2013,10,19, Brockville, Ontario.  

Guertin, M.A. and Reed, M.G Implementing the periodic review in Canada: La mise en oeuvre des examens periodiques au Canada. Strengthening the Biosphere Reserve Network Management Framework. EuroMAB, 2013,10,15-2013,10,19, Brockville, Ontario.  

Sakurai, R. Perceptions and behavioral intentions of university students regarding citizen science activities in Japan. Challenges & Successes of citizen science in international collaboraion. 42nd North American Association for Environmental Education Conference, 2013,10,11, Maryland. .  

Koichi Fujimoto How Noisy Intercellular and Intracellular Signaling Dynamics Produce Group-Level Decision-Making --- a Lesson from Microbial Chemical Communication . 2013 International Symposium on Nonlinear Theory and its Applications (NOLTA2013), 2013,09,08-2013,09,11, Santa Fe, NM, USA.  

koji Nakamura Experiences and Lessons from the Japan Satoyama Satoumi Assessment (JSSA). Asia-Pacific Regional Workshop on Regional Interpretation of the IPBES Conceptual Framework and Knowledge, 2013,09,03, Seoul, Korea.  

Brondizio, E. S. A microcosm of the anthropocene: social theory and fieldwork in the Amazon.. Keynote series of the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP), United Nations University, 2013,06,21, Bonn, Germany.  

Brondizio, E. S. The land above, within, and below: the evolving complexity of land and common pool resources in the Amazon.. Annual Meeting of the European Society for Ecological Economics., 2013,06,19, Lille, France.  

Tokita, K. & Oura, T A neutral fitness model in ecology. Annual Meeting of Society of Mathematical Biology, 2013,06,10-2013,06,13, Tempe, Arizona, USA.  

Brondizio, E. S. Complexité institutionnel et ressource commune en Amazonie. Séance: La gestion des biens communs.. Academie d'agriculture de France, 2013,06,05, Paris, France. (in French)  

Brondizio, E. S. Managing forests of food. The International Conference on Forests for Food Security and Nutrition.. The International Conference on Forests for Food Security and Nutrition., 2013,05,13-2013,05,14, Rome, Italy.  

Sato, T. New types of scientists/knowledge producers supporting community actions to restore coastal environment. Public Forum on the Concept and Implementation of “Sato-Umi”: Integration of Science and Community in Restoration, Monitoring and Sustainable-use of Marine Resources, 2013,05,08, Sarasota, FL, USA.  

Brondizio, E. S. : Dimensions socioculturelles de la valorisation de la biodiversité et des services écosystémiques.. Séminaire International Propriété et Communs Les nouveaux enjeux de l’accès et de l’innovation partagés., 2013,04,25-2013,04,26, Paris, France. (in French)  

Tokita, K A neutral fitness model in ecology. 2013 NCTS April Workshop on Critical Phenomena and Complex Systems, 2013,04,15-2013,04,16, Taipei, Taiwan.  

Reed, M.G, Learning to Learn: Evolving Sustainability Practices in UNESCO Biosphere. The United Nations University-Institute of Advanced Studies Yokohama, 2013,01,24, Yokohama, kanagawa.  

Matsuda, H. Living harmony with nature: fisheries co-management in Shiretoko World Heritage. Pew Fellows in Marine Conservation Annual Meeting 2012, 2012,12,09, Panama.  

Brondizio, E. S. 3st. International workshop Building Resilience with Common Capital: Managing Shared Resources, Meeting the challenges of a rapidly transforming world under climate and ecosystem change. Asian Pacific Network of Global Change, 2012,12,03-2012,12,05, Kobe, Japan.  

Tokita, K., Oura, T. & Obuchi, T. Statistical mechanics of a biological community with complex interactions. Joint Symposium of Osaka University and Groningen University on Particle-Nuclear and Condensed Matter Physics: New Challenges and Opportunities, 2012,11,26-2012,11,27, Suita, Osaka.  

Matsuda, H. Innovation for sustainable use of the sea of fertility. Techno Ocean 2012, 2012,11,19, Kobe, Japan.  

Matsuda, H. Risk of radioactive contamination in fisheries resources. Exploring the impacts of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accidents on the Ocean, 2012,11,14, Tokyo, Japan.  

Sato, T. Integrated Local Environmental Knowledge supporting adaptive governance of local communities. AIU International Conference on “University Leadership for Integrating Knowledge Diversity for Sustainability, 2012,10,05-2012,10,07, Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia.  

Matsuda, H. Fisheries co-management in Shiretoko World Heritage. 2012 International Conference of Marine Environmental Governance, 2012,09,26, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.  

Matsuda, H. Integrated Local Environmental Knowledge and Involvement of Local Stakeholders in Shiretoko and Yakushima World Heritages. World Conservation Congress, 2012,09,10, Jeju, Korea.  

Tokita, K. Origin of neutrality: Why is it a good approximation?. 2012 1st China-Japan-Korea International Conference on Mathematical Biology (CJKICMB2012), 2012,05,22-2012,05,25, Busan, Korea. .