Full Research

StageFR
Project No.C-04
Project NameHuman Activities in Northeastern Asia and Their Impact on the Biological Productivity in North Pacific Ocean
Abbreviated TitleAmur-Okhotsk Project
Project LeaderSHIRAIWA, Takayuki
Research AxisCirculation
URLhttp://www.chikyu.ac.jp/AMORE/
Key Wordsfish-breeding forest, land-use, land surface disturbance, material circulation, dissolved iron, phytoplankton, Sea of Okhotsk, Amur river, Oyashio current, Asian dust

 

○Research Subject and Objectives

a)  The objective of the project is to elucidate the role of the Amur River in primary productivity in the Sea of Okhotsk and Oyashio region and then evaluate possible human impacts such as land surface disturbances in the Amur River basin on the marine ecosystem of the ocean. In this study, we attempt to answer 1) how dissolved iron is transported from the Amur River basin to the Sea of Okhotsk and Oyashio region, 2) to what extent the supply of dissolved iron regulates the primary production in these open waters, 3) how the land surface disturbances affect the material circulation in the Amur–Okhotsk system, 4) how human activity will impact the system in the future, and 5) how we can conserve this transboundary system. By answering these five questions, we will be able to propose a new global environmental concept, the “giant” fish-breeding forest (GFBF), in which there are physical and humanistic interactions between upstream and downstream, and determine a way of conserving the system in a cooperative effort among China, Russia, Mongolia and Japan.

  The Amur–Okhotsk Project attempts to create a new global environmental concept, referred to as the GFBF, by expanding the traditional Japanese idea of Uotsuki-Rin (fish-breeding forest). This idea relates the upstream forest with the coastal ecosystem both physically and conceptually. The GFBF and its impacted area encompass nearly 4 million km2. This includes parts of Mongolia, China and Russia as well as Russian and Japanese exclusive economic zones and international waters. The area has been the source of extreme political tension since the middle of the 19th century and there has been little transboundary cooperation. This situation has resulted in the Amur River becoming one of the most seriously polluted waters in Russia.

  The GFBF hypothesis presents new perspectives for global environmental issues: an ecological linkage between the continent and open sea, the relating of less-dependent stakeholders in the system, and finding environmental common ground across complex international boundaries. Multidisciplinary approaches are indispensable in studying and conserving the GFBF because stakeholders need to understand how to achieve a sustainable marine ecosystem in the Sea of Okhotsk and Oyashio region without limiting human activity on land.

  We believe the GFBF can be a test bed for global environmental problems in general. Connecting less-dependent stakeholders could be a first step in coping with complicated environmental issues. We attempt to visualize socio-economic relationships within the GFBF system to demonstrate how stakeholders are related to each other unconsciously. Establishment of the concept will help bring together societies that have been separated for many years by political tension.

 

b)  The physical structure of the GFBF was jointly studied by collaborators in the fields of biogeochemistry, geography, hydrology, climatology, glaciology and oceanography. The economic flow, land-use background, and conservation strategies of the system were studied by scientists in the fields of forest management, agronomy, economic geography, international law and politics.

  This project comprises 10 research groups headed by group leaders (GLs). The project leader and 10 group leaders constitute the board of the project. In addition to individual group meetings, at least one project meeting has been held each year to discuss cross-disciplinary issues. Daily communications and discussion have been carried out through an Internet mailing list. The themes/tasks of each research group are as follows. Group 1 (GL: Dr. Kay I Ohshima): physical oceanographic conditions of the Sea of Okhotsk and the northern North Pacific; Group 2 (GL: Dr. Takeshi Nakatsuka): geochemical and biological conditions of the Sea of Okhotsk and the northern North Pacific; Group 3 (GL: Dr. Seiya Nagao): transport of biogeochemical materials from the Amur River to the Sea of Okhotsk; Group 4 (GL: Dr. Hideaki Shibata): biogeochemical transportation from the terrestrial ecosystem to the Amur River; Group 5 (GL: Dr. Hiroaki Kakizawa): background of anthropogenic impacts in the Amur River basin; Group 6 (GL: Dr. Shigeko Haruyama): spatial and historical monitoring of land-use changes in the Amur River basin; Group 7 (GL: Dr. Sumito Matoba): estimation of the atmospheric transportation of terrestrial material; Group 8 (GL: Dr. Takeo Onishi): numerical modelling of basin-scale hydrology and iron transportation; Group 9 (GLs: Drs. Hiroyuki Matsuda and Fumio Mitsudera): numerical modelling of primary production in the Sea of Okhotsk and the northern North Pacific; Group 10 (GL: Mr. Yasunori Hanamatsu): conservation strategy for the GFBF.

 

c)    Three major achievements have been made in the Amur Okhotsk Project.

1. Iron-bound material and ecological linkages from the Amur River basin to the Oyashio region via the Sea of Okhotsk were finally quantified by 1) observations of the spatiotemporal distribution of dissolved iron in various parts of the Amur River basin, 2) monthly monitoring of dissolved iron concentrations and discharges at Khabarovsk and Bogorodskoe, 3) observations of the temporal distributions of dissolved iron in the lower reach, mouth, and estuarial area of the Amur River, 4) measurements of dissolved iron in the Sea of Okhotsk and Oyashio region, and 5) measurements of the atmospheric iron input to the Oyashio region. It was found that approximately 40% of the dissolved iron necessary to support phytoplankton production in the Oyashio region was transported through the GFBF system. The remaining 60% was microbially recycled iron originally provided by intermediate water and atmospheric input.

 

2. It was found that there are two current threats to the GFBF system: global warming and human impacts on land surfaces. The former is most clearly indicated by the decreasing trend of sea ice production in the Sea of Okhotsk in recent decades and its impact on the ocean and material circulation in the northern North Pacific. The latter is illustrated by the decreasing trend of iron discharge from the Amur River basin to the Sea of Okhotsk due mainly to the reclamation of wetland to form paddy fields and dry land.

 

3. The Amur Okhotsk Consortium was established in 2009 as a multinational academic network to discuss the conservation and sustainable use of the GFBF. Japanese, Chinese and Russian members will hold a joint meeting every two years and exchange ideas, information and data routinely via the Internet between meetings.

○Progress and Results in 2017

Major achievements of the Amur Okhotsk Project (2005–2009) are described by answering the five essential questions of the project.

 

1) How is dissolved iron transported from the Amur River basin to the Sea of Okhotsk and Oyashio region?

  Average annual fluxes of total and dissolved iron were estimated in various parts of the GFBF and they confirmed the continuity of iron transportation from the land surfaces of the Amur River basin to the surface water of the Oyashio region (Fig. 1). The natural wetlands with gentle slope located at middle and lower part of Amur basin was major source of dissolved iron from terrestrial zone to Amur river.

  In the upstream forested basin, dissolved iron in soil was mainly transported with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) rather than as Fe(II) and Fe(III). The riparian zone near the stream channel is an important source of iron owing to its wet and anaerobic condition increasing the DOC concentration and dissolving iron in soil and groundwater.

  In the natural wetlands, the dissolved Fe concentration is around 1 mg Fe L–1 in the surface water and much higher (sometimes more than 10 mg Fe L–1) in soil interstitial waters, having a seasonal variation with maxima in summer. The dissolved Fe concentration observed for a number of rivers and agricultural drainage waters of the Sanjiang plain when not frozen has an average of approximately 1 mg Fe L–1 and varies considerably according to the condition of the watershed. Dissolved Fe is dominantly present as complexed forms in soil water, river water and agricultural drainage water, in which humic substances play an important role in the transportation of iron as a complex ligand.

  As a result, 1.1 ± 0.7 x 1011 g/yr of dissolved iron is transported to the estuarial area from the Amur River annually. Approximately 95% of the dissolved iron coagulates at Amur–Liman (the estuarial area) and Sakhalin Bay. There are two pathways of iron transportation from the estuarial area to the Oyashio region: 1) surface transportation of total iron and 2) transportation with the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). The former supports primary production in the Sea of Okhotsk while the latter supports primary production in the Oyashio region. It is estimated that approximately 1.2–1.5 x 108 g/yr of total iron is provided by the atmosphere and NPIW in the Oyashio region.

 

2) To what extent does the supply of dissolved iron regulate primary production in the open waters?

  It was found that of the iron used by the spring bloom in the Oyashio region, 40% is provided through the GFBF system and 60% is recycled through microbial processes. We are not yet certain about the relative importance of atmospherically derived iron to primary production in the Oyashio region because of its temporal sporadicity, spatial unevenness and insoluble nature. In spite of this uncertainty, it is reasonably concluded that the iron controls phytoplankton growth in the Oyashio region because phytoplankton growth ceases under iron limitation at all high nitrate concentrations.

  It is yet uncertain to what extent the supply of dissolved iron regulates primary production in the open waters. This is due mainly to a lack of sufficient observational data on both annual changes in the dissolved iron flux and the biomass in the Oyashio region. To determine the role of the dissolved iron, we used a three-dimensional

coupled ecosystem physical model that includes the effect of iron on the Sea of Okhotsk. We hypothesized that four processes supply iron to sea water: atmospheric loading, input from the Amur River, dissolution from sediments and regeneration by zooplankton and bacteria. We simulated one year, from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2001. As a result, the model taking iron into account agreed well with the observation. However, we are not yet able to simulate the time series of the iron impact, since the model cannot simulate the NPIW, which we believe is the most important current in the transportation of riverine iron from the Amur River.

 

3) How do land surface disturbances affect material circulation in the Amur–Okhotsk system?

  The impact of land-use change on iron discharge was studied in experimental plots of upland fields and paddy fields on the Sanjiang plain, which were converted from natural wetlands several decades ago (Fig. 2). Soil in the upland fields was found to remain in an oxidized condition throughout the year, implying the absence of iron discharge. In paddy fields, surface water and soil water had dissolved Fe concentrations somewhat lower than those of natural wetlands, but importantly, the controlled water discharge due to agricultural management is considered to largely lower the iron discharge.

  Paddy fields on the Sanjiang plain are irrigated with ground water in most cases. The strikingly high concentration of dissolved iron (largely in the form of Fe2+) might indicate an additional iron source. However, elevated contents of amorphous iron oxides in the upper soil layer in paddy fields were found to adequately account for the calculated total amount of iron supplied by the irrigation of ground water since the rice paddy conversion on the Sanjiang plain, suggesting an almost complete retention of iron added by the ground water. Considering the irrigation and the controlled water discharge described above, it is concluded that iron discharge may be much less for paddy fields than for natural wetlands.

  Monitoring data indicate that the concentration of dissolved iron in the Naoli River, which runs across the Sanjiang plain, has been consistently decreasing in recent decades. The observation of a peat layer, except in hilly areas, suggests a predominance of wetlands on the Sanjiang plain in the pristine age. However, a survey of the ground water table demonstrated that the current ground water levels were greatly lowered in most regions owing to reclamation by water drainage. It is likely that the land previously dominated by wetlands has been becoming steadily drier on the Sanjiang plain, which has reduced the Fe discharge as mentioned above.

  Land-use and historical changes in the Amur River basin were visualized by various temporal and spatial mappings. We compiled land-use maps for both the 1930s and 2000 for the whole Amur River basin. Changes in the most recent 19 years were analyzed using Pathfinder AVHRR Land datasets and satellite remote-sensing techniques. The results show significant changes on the Sanjiang plain in which approximately 10,000 km2 of wetland was reclaimed as paddy fields from 1980 to 2000. Aerial changes of Russian forest were not significant but the quality of the forest is considered to be deteriorating mainly owing to frequent forest fires and poor management.

  Such land-use changes were caused by various factors. According to analyses of the underlying causes of the degradation of forest resources in Khabarovsk Krai and systems are identified as the major causes of forest degradation. The rapid increase in timber exports to China and poor forest policy are considered to accelerate forest degradation. On the Sanjiang plain, there was rapid development of paddy fields in accordance with governmental policy. Farm management has improved, but a lack of water has become a serious issue and the excessive pumping of ground water has caused the rapid lowering of the ground water table on the Sanjiang plain.

 

4) How will human activity impact the system in the future?

  We attempted to develop a numerical hydro-geochemical model with special emphasis on iron dynamics for the Amur River basin. The accuracy of the calculated discharge and dissolved iron concentration are sufficient at a time resolution of one month during the period from 1980 to 1990. Using the model, the effect of land cover change on dissolved iron productivity was evaluated. The results of numerical experiments suggest that 50% conversion of remaining wetlands to agricultural lands might decrease the dissolved iron flux by more than 10% (Fig. 3).

 

5) How can we conserve this transboundary system?

  The key problem in conservation is how to establish a multilateral cooperative framework for the GFBF system. There have already been some bilateral frameworks, including the formal joint-monitoring program between China and Russia after the Songhua River accident involving a petrochemical company in the Chinese province of Jiling in 2005, and the cooperative program on the research, conservation and sustainable use of the ecosystems in the Sea of Okhotsk signed by Russia and Japan in 2009. However, there has been no multilateral governmental framework concerning the GFBF system. At this stage, joint-monitoring, data exchange and mutual

communication at an academic level are necessary as a starting point for the protection of the GFBF system. For this purpose, we established the Amur Okhotsk Consortium as a multinational academic network to discuss the conservation and sustainable use of

the GFBF (Fig. 4). The network can be thought of as comprising “epistemic communities”; Peter Haas proposed that such networks of knowledge-based experts could help states identify their interests, frame issues for collective debate, propose specific policies, and identify salient points for negotiations. Our attempt is motivated by the history of the environmental protection of the Baltic Sea from marine pollution for over 30 years.

  On the other hand, we have analysed existing international and domestic laws and policies that seem to be applicable for the conservation of the GFBF system. A future conservation framework would incorporate them as useful components. The results

show that while environmental factors in GFBF have already been partially regulated by international and national laws and policies, these management regimes have been established and implemented independently, and they sometimes overlap or conflict; therefore, they are not appropriate for the conservation of the whole GFBF system. We conclude that it is important to coordinate and strengthen existing laws and policies in an integrated manner to manage this system consistently and effectively (Fig. 5).

○Project Members

Project leader

SHIRAIWA, Takayuki ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Associate Professor,Organization of the project )

Group 1: Physical oceanographic conditions

OHSHIMA, Kay I. ( Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido Univ.,Professor,Physical oceanographic analysis on the north pacific intermediate water )

WAKATSUCHI, Masaaki ( Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido Univ.,Professor emeritus,Physical oceanographic analysis on the north pacific intermediate water )

FUKAMACHI, Yasushi ( Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido Univ.,Assistant Professor,Physical oceanographic analysis on the north pacific intermediate water )

YASUDA, Ichiro ( Graduate School of Frontier Science, Univ. of Tokyo,Professor,Tidal mixing of water in the bussol strait )

Group 2: Geochemical and biological conditions.

NAKATSUKA, Takeshi ( Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University,Professor,Transport of materials by dense shelf water and north pacific intermediate water )

KUMA, Kenshi ( Graduate School of Fisheries Science, Hokkaido Uni.,Professor,Analysis of iron of open waters )

NISHIOKA, Jun ( Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido Univ.,Associate Professor,Transport of iron in the sea of Okhotsk and Oyashio region )

SUZUKI, Koji ( Graduate School of Environmental Earth Sciences, Hokkaido Univ.,Associate Professor,phytoplankton dynamics in the Sea of Okhotsk and Oyashio region )

SEKI, Satoshi ( Graduate School of Environmental Earth Sciences, Hokkaido Univ.,Research Fellowship,analysis on bottom sediment in the Sea of Okhotsk )

SOURIN, Rumi ( Faculty of Science, Shizuoka Univ.,Assistant Professor,microbial process in the open waters )

TUDA, Atsushi ( GraduateSchool of Frontier Science, Univ. of Tokyo,Associate Professor,zooplankton dynamics in the Sea of Okhotsk and Oyashio region )

MATSUNAGA, Katsuhiko ( Yokkaichi Univ.,Professor,fuluvic acids and iron complex in the sea water )

YOSHIMURA, Takeshi ( Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Central research Institute of Electric Power Industry,Chief Researcher,Transport of iron in the Sea of Okhotsk and Oyashio region )

SUGIE, Kouji ( Central Research Institute Of Electric Power Industry,Researcher,iron analysis in the sea water )

Group 3: Transport of biogeochemical materials.

NAGAO, Seiya ( GraduateSchool of Environmental Earth Sciences, HokkaidoUniv,Associate Professor,biogeochemical analyses on Amur- river water )

KODAMA, Hiroki ( Analytical Research Center for Experimental Sciences, Saga University,Associate Professor,analysis on organic matter in the river water )

TERASHIMA, Motoki ( Japan Atomic Energy Agency,Researcher,experimental study on dynamics of organic matter and iron )

Group 4: Biochemical transport from terrestrial ecosystem.

SHIBATA, Hideaki ( FieldScienceCenter for Northern Biosphere, HokkaidoUniv.,Associate Professor,biogeochemical characteristics of river waters from different land surfaces )

YOH Muneoki ( Environmental Conservation, Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture & Technology,Associate Professor,biogeochemical characteristics of river waters from different land surfaces )

KAWAHIGASHI, Masayuki ( Nihon University College of Bioresource Sciences,Instructor,analyses on organic-iron complex in the Amur river basin )

Group 5: Background of the anthropogenic impacts.

KAKIZAWA, Hiroaki ( Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido Univ.,Professor,background analysis on Russian forest management )

IWASHITA, Akihiro ( Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido Univ.,Professor,politics between russia and china )

PAKU, Kou ( Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido Univ.,Associate Professor,background analysis on Chinese agricultural sociology )

SAKASHITA, Akihiko ( Field Science Center For Northern Biosphere, Hokakido Univ.,Professor,background analysis on Chinese agricultural sociology )

YAMANE, Masanobu ( Kanagawa Prefectural Nature Conservation Center,Special Researcher,background analysis on timber trades among Russia, China and Japan )

Group 6: Spatial and historial monitoring of land-use changes.

HARUYAMA, Shigeko ( Graduate School/Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University,Professor,landform classification in the Amur river basin )

KONDO, Akihiko ( Chiba Univ. EnvironmentalRemoteSensingCenter,Professor,remote sensing on land cover changes in the Amur river basin )

MUROOKA, Mizue ( Hokkaido Abashiri Fisheries Experimental Station,Researcher,remote sensing on land use changes in the Amur river basin )

YAMAGATA Kotaro ( Joetsu University of Education,Associate Professor,geomorphological analysis on flood plain landforms in the Amur river basin )

HIMIYAMA, Yukio ( Hokkaido Univ. of Education,Professor,land-use changes and its background analysis )

Group 7: Estimate of atmospheric transports of terrestrial materials.

UEMATSU, Mitsuo ( Ocean Research Institute, Univ. of Tokyo,Professor,deposition of various materials from atmosphere )

MATOBA, Sumito ( Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido Univ.,Assistant Professor,historical changes of iron deposition by means of ice core analysis )

NARITA, Hideki ( Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido Univ.,Former Project leader (retired),real-time monitoring of atmospheric deposition of various materials )

NAKAWO, Masayoshi ( national Institutes for the humanities,the board of directors,ice core analysis )

MINAMI, Hideki ( School of Biological Science and Engineering, Tokai Univ.,Associate Professor,chemical analysis on aerosol and ocean sediments )

YASUNARI, Teppei J. ( Nasa Goddard Space Flight Center (Gest/Umbc),Researcher,Atmospheric Science )

SASAKI, Hirotaka ( GraduateSchool of Environmental Earth Sciences, HokkaidoUniv,Graduate,reconstruction of iron flux from atmosphere by means of ice core analysis )

Group 8: Natural variability of the hydro-metrological and hydro-chemical conditions.

ONISHI, Takeo ( River Basin Research Centre, Gifu Univ.,Assistant Professor,numerical modelling of hydrological as well as geochemical transports in the amur river basin )

TACHIBANA, Yoshihiro ( Graduate School/Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University,Professor,natural variability analyses )

KUBOTA, Jumpei ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Associate Professor,hydrological analyses )

TAKAHARA Hikaru ( Kyoto Prefectural Univ.,Professor,reconstruction of paleoenvironment in the amur river basin by pollen analysis )

Group 9: Modeling of biomass production.

MATSUDA, Hiroyuki ( Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National Univ.,Professor,theoretical consideration on management of “giant” fish-breeding forest )

KISHI, Michio ( GraduateSchool of Fisheries Science, Hokkaido Univ.,Professor,numerical modelling of phytoplankton production in the Sea of Okhotsk and Oyashio region )

MITSUDERA, Fumio ( Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido Univ.,Professor,numerical modelling of north pacific intermediate water )

ARAI, Nobuo ( Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido Univ.,Professor,assessment of sea product in the Sea of Okhotsk )

SAITO, Seiichi ( Graduate School of Fisheries Science, Hokkaido Univ.,Professor,satellite observation on primary production )

SUGIMOTO, Takashige ( School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai Univ.,Professor,assessment of terrestrial impact on estuary ecosystem )

Group 10: conservation strategy for the GFBF.

HANAMATSU, Yasunori ( Researhch Institute of human and nature,Researcher,International law )

HORIGUCHI, Takeo ( Hokkaido University Public Policy School,Associate Professor,International law )

ENDOU, Takahiro ( Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,Assistant Professor,regional and international water managements )

International Researchers

SERGIRNKO, Valentine. ( RussianAcademy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch,Chairman,organization of russian scientists )

SHCHEKA, Oleg ( International Cooperation and Tourism at Primorsky Territory Government,Director,analyses on foreign trades among the far eastern countries, cooperation and tourism department of Primorsky Territory Government )

VORONOV, Boris A. ( Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, FEBRAS,Director,conservation of amur river )

MAKHINOV, Alexey N. ( Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, FEBRAS,Deputy Director,hydrological analysis on Amur river )

KONDRATJEVA, Lubov M ( Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, FEBRAS,Laboratory Chief,pollution of amur river )

SHAMOV, Vladimir V. ( Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, FEBRAS,The scientific Coodinator,ground water monitoring in the Amur river basin )

SHESTERKIN, Vladimir P. ( Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, FEBRAS,Senior researcher,geochemical analysis on waters from Amur river )

KIM,Vladimir. ( Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, FEBRAS,Hydrologist,geochemical analysis on waters from Amur river )

BAKLANOV, Peter Ya. ( Pacific Institute of Geography, FEBRAS,Director,economic geographical analysis on Amur river basin )

GANZEI, Sergry S. ( Pacific Institute of Geography, FEBRAS,Deputy Director,land-use changes in the Amur river basin and its transboudary problems )

EMORSHIN, VICTOR V. ( Pacific Institute of Geography, FEBRAS,GIS-Center.Head,Geographical Information System )

MISHINA, Natalia. ( Pacific Institute of Geography, FEBRAS,Scientific Researcher,land-use changes and the analysis on material flows in the far east )

ISHONIN, Mikhail. ( ROSHYDROMET,Director,aerosol monitoring in Kamchatka )

GAVRILOV, Alexandr V. ( ROSHYDROMET,Head of administration,hydro-geochemical monitoring in the Amur river )

VOLKOV, Yuri N. ( Far Eastern Hydrometeorogical Research Institute,Director,oceanographic observations in the Sea of Okhotsk )

YAROSLAV, D. Muravyev. ( Institute of Volcanology Seismology,Directore of the Institute,ice core drilling in Kamchatka )

ZHANG, Bai  ( Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS,Deputy Director, Professor,land-use changes in Sanjiang plain )

YAN, Baixing ( Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS,Professor,geochemical analyses of waters in sanjiang plain )

WANG, DEXUAN ( Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS,Professor,geochemical analyses of waters in sanjiang plain )

WANG, Zongming ( Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS,Associate Professor,gis-based analysis on land-use changes in Helongjiang province )

CHEN, Xin ( Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Deputy Director, Professor,geochemical analysis of soils at Sanjiang plain )

CHEN, Lijun ( Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Professor,geochemical analysis of soils at Heilongjiang province )

GUANGYU, Chi ( Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Assistant Professor,geochemical analysis on Sanjiang plain )

CAI Tijiu ( Northeast Forest Univ.,Professor,hydrogeochemical anlysis on waters from Chinese forests )

GUO qingxi ( Northeast Forest Univ.,Professor,hydrogeochemical anlysis on waters from Chinese forests )

HU Haiqing ( Northeast Forest Univ.,Professor,reconstruction of forest fire in the northeast of China )

GU Jinfeng ( Northeast Forest Univ.,Researcher,reconstruction of forest fire in the northeast of China )

SHI, Fuchen ( Nankai Univ.,Professor,forest ecology in the northeast of China )

XU, Xiaoniu ( Anhui Agricultural University,Professor,geochemical analysis on waters from Chinese forest )

○Future Themes

Books

【Chapters/Sections】

Onishi T. 2008,03 Rich iron from wetlands. Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (ed.) Prescription of the Earth – toward deep understanding of environmental problems. showado, pp.188-191. (in Japanese)

Shiraiwa, T. 2008,03 the“giant” fish-breeding forest. Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (ed.) Prescription of the Earth – toward deep understanding of environmental problems. Showado, pp.192-196. (in Japanese)

Yamane, M. Turning point of timber trade for Northeast Asia, recent changes in Russia and China. Forests Culture Association (ed.) Forest Environment 2008 . , pp.138-146. (in Japanese)

Papers

【Original Articles】

Ooki, A., J. Nishioka, T. Ono, and S. Noriki 2009,02 Size dependence of iron solubility of Asian mineral dust particles. J. Geophys. Res. 114(D03202). DOI:10.1029/2008JD010804 (reviewed).

Saitoh, Y., K. Kuma, Y. Isoda, H. Kuroda, H. Matsuura, T. Wagawa, H. Takata, N. Kobayashi, S. Nagao and T. Nakatsuka 2008,12 Processes influencing iron distributions in the coastal waters of the Tsugaru Strait, Japan.. J. Oceanogr 64:815-830. DOI:10.1007/s10872-008-0068-3 (reviewed).

Nakatsuka, T., Nishioka, J. and Shiraiwa, T. 2008,11 Linkage between inland and open ocean ecosystems by material transport through river, shelf and intermediate water layer-Background of 2006/2007 research expedition in the Sea of Okhotsk-. Monthly “Kaiyo” Special, 50:68-76. (reviewed).

Kuma, K., Matsumura, Y., Chikira, M., and Saitoh, S. 2008,11 Iron and nutrient maintaing summer phytoplankton bloom in the southeastern Bering Sea shelf break. Monthly “Kaiyo” Special, 50:138-143. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Suzuki, K., Ishida, T., Liu, Hongbin., and Iida, T. 2008,11 Characteristics of primary production process in the Sea of Okhotsk and the vicinity of the Kuril Islands during summer. Monthly “Kaiyo” Special, 50:99-106. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Ohshima, Kay I., Ono, J., Ono, K., and Katsumata, K. 2008,11 Observations of tidal currents in the Sea of Okhotsk. Monthly “Kaiyo” Special, 50:28-33. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Nishioka, J., Nakatsuka, T., Ono, K. and others 2008,11 Biogeochemical importance of mixing process in Kuril straits –Impacts on iron/nutrient ratios in Western Subarctic Pacific-. Monthly “Kaiyo” Special, 50:107-114. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Tachibana, Y., Oshima, K. and Ogi, M. 2008,08 Seasonal and interannual variations of Amur River discharge and their relationships to large-scale atmospheric patterns and moisture fluxes. Journal of Geophysical Research 113(D16102). DOI:10.1029/2007JD009555 (reviewed).

Sugie, K. and Kuma, K. 2008,07 Resting spore formation in the marine diatom Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii under iron- and nitrogen-limited conditions. J. Plankton Res. 30:1245-1255. DOI:10.1093/plankt/fbn080 (reviewed).

Hayakawa,M., Suzuki,K., Saito,H., Takahashi,K., and Ito,S. 2008,05 Differences in cell viabilities of phytoplankton between spring and late summer in the northwest Pacific Ocean. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 360:63-70. DOI:10.1016/j.jembe.2008.03.008 (reviewed).

Ohshima, K. I., and Simizu, D 2008,02 Particle tracking experiments on a model of the Okhotsk Sea: toward oil spill simulation. Journal of Oceanography 64:103-114. DOI:10.1007/s10872-008-0008-2 (reviewed).

Onishi, T., Shibata, H., Yoh, M. And Nagao, S. 2008 Mechanism for the production of dissolved iron in the Amur River basin – a modeling study of the Naoli River of the Sanjiang Plain. M. Taniguchi, Y. Fukushima, W.C. Burnett, M. Haigh & Y. Umezawa (ed.) From Headwaters to the Ocean: Hydrological Change and Watershed Management. Taylor & Francis, pp.355-360. (reviewed).

Mizue Murooka, Shigeko Haruyama and Yoshitaka Masuda 2008 Land Cover Detected by Satellite Data in the Agricultural Development Area of the Sanjiang Plain, China.. Jounal of Rural Planning 26:197-202.

Minami H., T Okazaki, Y.Konishi, J. Nishioka, T. Nakatsuka, S. Nagao and Y. Kato 2008 Accumulation processes of metals in the Sea of Okhotsk. The 7th marine environment and coastal environment repair technique symposium proceedings 7:1-4.

Mitsudera, H 2008 Environmental problems in the Pan Pkhotsk Region. Slavic Eurasian Studies 19:137-166.

Takata, H., K. Kuma, Y. Isoda, S. Otosaka, T. Senjyu, and M. Minagawa 2008 Iron in the Japan Sea and its implications for the physical processes in deep water. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(L02606). DOI:10.1029/2007GL031794 (reviewed).

Kanamori, S., C. S. Benson, M. Truffer, S. Matoba, D. J. Solie, T. Shiraiwa 2008 Seasonality of snow accumulation at Mount Wrangell, Alaska, USA. J. Glaciology 54(185):273-278. DOI:10.3189/002214308784886081 (reviewed).

Uchimoto, K., T. Nakamura, J. Nishioka and H. Mitsudera 2008 Modeling the circulation of the intermediate layer in the Sea of Okhotsk. Proceedings of the 4th PICES workshop 2008.

Ohshima, Kay I., Nakanowatari, T. and Wakatsuchi, M. 2008 Weakening of overturning in the Sea of Okhotsk and the northern North Pacific by global warming. . Monthly “Chikyu” 30(3):127-133. (in Japanese) (reviewed).

Ono, J., K. I. Ohshima, G. Mizuta, Y. Fukamachi, and M. Wakatsuchi 2007,11 Diurnal coastal-trapped waves on the eastern shelf of Sakhalin in the Sea of Okhotsk and their modification by sea ice. Continental Shelf Research 28:697-709. DOI:10.1016/j.csr.2007.11.008 (reviewed).

Nishioka, J., T. Ono, H. Saito, T. Nakatsuka, S. Takeda, T. Yoshimura, K. Suzuki, K. Kuma, S. Nakabayashi, D. Tsumune, H. Mistudera, W. Keith Johnson and A. Tsuda 2007,10 Iron supply to the western subarctic Pacific: Implication of iron export from the Sea of Okhotsk. Jour. Geophys. Res. 112(C10012). DOI:10.1029/2006JC004055 (reviewed).

Yasunari, T., T. Shiraiwa, S. Kanamori, Y. Fujii, M. Igarashi, K. Yamazaki, C.S. Benson and T. Hondoh 2007,05 Intra-annual variations in atmospheric dust and tritium in the North Pacific region detected from an ice core from Mount Wrangell, Alaska. Jour. Geophys. Res. 112(D10208). DOI:10.1029/2006JD008121 (reviewed).

Okunishi, T., M. Kishi, Y. Ono and T. Yamashita 2007,05 A lower trophic ecosystem model including iron effects in the Sea of Okhotsk. Cont. Self 27(16):2080-2098. DOI:10.1016/j.csr.2007.05.007 (reviewed).

Ono, K., K. I. Ohshima, T. Kono, M. Itoh, K. Katsumata, Y. N. Volkov, and M. Wakatsuchi 2007,04 Water mass exchange and diapycnal mixing at Bussol' Strait revealed by water mass properties.. Journal of Oceanography 63:281-291. DOI:10.1007/s10872-007-0028-3 (reviewed).

Seki O, T. Nakatsuka, K. Kawamura,S. Saitoh, M. Wakatsuchi 2007,02 Time-series sediment trap record of alkenones from the western Sea of Okhotsk. Marine Chemistry 104:253-265. DOI:10.1016/j.marchem.2006.12.002 (reviewed).

Nakanowatari T., K. I. Ohshima, M. Wakatsuchi 2007,02 Warming and oxygen decrease of intermediate water in the northwestern North Pacific, originating from the Sea of Okhotsk, 1955-2004. Geophysical Research 34(L04602). DOI:10.1029/2006GL028243 (reviewed).

Kakizawa, H. 2007 Local attitude toward participatory management in the Russian Far East. Journal of Forest Economics 52(1). (reviewed).

Matoba, S., S. V. Ushakov, K. Shimbori, H. Sasaki, T. Yamasaki, A. A. Ovshannikov, A. G. Manevich, T. M. Zhideleeva, S. Kutuzov, Y. D. Muravyev, and T. Shiraiwa 2007 The glaciological expedition to Mount Ichinsky, Kamchatka, Russia. Bulletin of Glaciological Research 24:79-85. (reviewed).

SHIRAIWA, Takayuki 2007 The Amur-Okhotsk Project: How we protect the "Giant Fish-Breeding Forest" ?. Russia. pp.79-81. (in Russian)

M. Murooka, S.Haruyama,Y.Masuda 2007 Land Cover Change on the Sanjiang Plain ,China. KSRP-RPA International Sympojium-Country-wide rural plannnin and the Amenity in 21stCentry:110-111.

Pan Yue-Peng, Yan Bai-Xing, Lu Yong-Zheng, Yoh Muneoki and Zhang Feng-Ying 2007 Distribution of water-soluble iron in water environment of Sanjiang plain. Scientia Geographica Sinica 27:820-824. (reviewed).

Research Presentations

【Oral Presentation】

Kakizawa Hiroaki Towards collaborative forest governance in the Russian Far East. IUFRO Division VI Symposium Integrative science for integrative management, 2007.08.15, Saariselka, Finland.

YAMANE Masanobu Recent situation and development of Sino-Russo timber trade. . Workshop on Chinese wood market’s impact to forestry and wood industry in Japan, August 2007, Forestry and forest products research institute.

YAMANE Masanobu Current situation of Sino-Russo border timber trade. The 1st seminar for fairwood procurement held by Global environment forum, July 2007.

OUJI, Baku., and YOH, Muneoki Spatial distribution of dissolved iron in stream water and soil water in wetland and forested catchments in Russia. Japan Geoscience Union meeting 2009, 2007.05.19, Japan, Chiba. (in Japanese)

KAKU, Yougyoku., YOU, Muneoki., Yan Baixing and Wang Dexuan Impact of the land use changes on the concentration and chemical forms of dissolved iron in the Sanjiang plain China. Japan Geoscience Union meeting 2009, 2007.05.19, Chiba. (in Japanese)

Matoba, S. et al. Glaciological Expedition on Mt. Ichinsky, Kamchatka, Russia. Conference of Japanese Society of Snow and Ice, 2007, Toyama Univ..

Ono, T., J. Nishioka Variation of dissolved iron in the winter Oyashio region. The oceanographic Society of JapanInteranual , Fall Conference, 2007. (in Japanese)

Nishioka, J., D. Tsumune, T. Nakatsuka, F. Mitsudera, A. Tsuda Transportation by North Pacific Intermediate Water. The oceanographic Society of JapanIron, Spring Conference, 2007. (in Japanese)

Nishioka, J., T. Ono, A. Ooki The oceanographic Society of Japan, Spring Conference. Anual iron cycle in the Oyashio and Oyashio/Kuroshio transition zone, 2007. (in Japanese)

M. Murooka, S.Haruyama,Y.Masuda Land Cover Change on the Sanjiang Plain ,China. 007KSRP-RPA International Symposium, 2007, Soeul.

Okazaki T., H. Minami and M. Uematsu Long-term observation results of atmospheric aerosols in Sapporo. The Geochemical Society of Japan annual meeting in 2007, 2007, Okayama. (in Japanese)

Okazaki T., H. Minami, N. Fujitani, J. Nishioka, T. Nakatsuka and Y. Kato Accumulation processes and horizontal distribution of metals in sediments from the Sea of Okhotsk. The 2th geochemical ocean sedimentology workshop, 2007, Hokkaido, Sapporo. (in Japanese)

Minami H., T Okazaki, N. Fujitani, Y. Fukuda, J. Nishioka, T. Nakatsuka, S. Nagao and Y. Kato Geochemical behavior of metals at sediment-porwater interface in the Sea of Okhotsk. The Oceanographic Society of Japan Spring meeting in 2007, 2007, Tokyo. (in Japanese)

Nishioka,J., T. Ono, H. Saito Seasonal variability of iron concentration in the Oyashio region. PICES annual meeting, 2007, Victoria.

【Invited Lecture / Honorary Lecture / Panelist】

SHIRAIWA, Takayuki The Amur-Okhotsk Project: How we protect the "Giant Fish-Breeding Forest" ?. Second Far Eastern International Economic Forum, 2007.09.17-2007.09.17, Khabarovsk, Russia.